Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Rie Kugimiya is a Japanese voice actress and singer affiliated with I'm Enterprise. Some of Kugimiya's most prominent roles include Alphonse Elric in the Fullmetal Alchemist series, Happy in Fairy Tail, Kagura in Gintama; because of her voicing of lead characters such as Nagi Sanzenin in Hayate the Combat Butler, Shana in Shakugan no Shana, Kanzaki H. Aria in Aria the Scarlet Ammo and Louise in The Familiar of Zero, additionally Taiga Aisaka in Toradora!, some of her fans have nicknamed her the "Queen of Tsundere."Within the Tamagotchi fandom she is known for her role in the Tamagotchi movies and anime as Mametchi. She has contributed her voice to various merchandise such as Mugen Puchipuchi Moe, a virtual keychain bubble-wrap popping game, she was nominated for Best Actress in Leading Role in the first Seiyu Awards for the role of Louise in The Familiar of Zero and for Best Actress in Supporting Role for the role of Kagura in Gintama, jointly won Best Actress in a Supporting Role with Mitsuki Saiga at the second Seiyu Awards.
Kugimiya won Best Actress in the third Seiyu Awards for the roles as Taiga Aisaka in Toradora! and her work in Nabari no Ou. Kokohadoko Track list: "How I feel" "Hane Uta Ai Hito" "Foret Noire" "Yume no Naka" "Wonder" "Orange" "Moete Koso Cosplay" "Kemeko Deluxe!" "Orange" "Netsuretsu Kangei Wonderland" "Kimi e to Tsunagu Kokoro" "Karakoi ~Dakara Shoujo wa Koi wo Suru~" "buddy-body" "LOVE × HEAVEN" Official blog Official agency profile Rie Kugimiya at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Mutsumi Tamura is a Japanese voice actress, born in Aomori and grew up in Tokyo. She is known for her roles as Kobayashi in Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid, young Kakashi in Naruto Shippuden, Aknori Arihoshi in Yo-kai Watch Shadowside and Lute on Monster Hunter Stories: Ride On, she is affiliated. 2007ef: a tale of memories – young Kyousuke2008Shigofumi: Letts from the Departed – Female Student Skip Beat! – Corn Tales of the Abyss – Pere Chiko, Heiress of the Phantom Thief – Ken Nodame Cantabile: Paris – Child Playing the Role of An Angel Battle Spirits: Shōnen Toppa Bashin – Toppa Bashin Blassreiter – Zaza 2009Samurai Harem – Masashi Anyamaru Tantei Kiruminzuu – Ken Inomata 11eyes – Takahisa Tajima Clannad After Story – Boy Taisho Baseball Girls – Tarō Basquash! – Child A White Album – Assistant A Modern Magic Made Simple – Sōshirō Anehara 2010Cat Planet Cuties – Kio Kakazu Uragiri wa Boku no Namae o Shitteiru – Boy A, Bully B Otome Yōkai Zakuro – Kiri, Omodaka Seitokai Yakuindomo – Sayaka Dejima, Schoolgirl And Yet the Town Moves – Takeru Arashiyama2011Anohana: The Flower We Saw That Day – Jintan Horizon in the Middle of Nowhere – Toussaint Neshinbara C for Control – Clerk Shakugan no Shana III – Pirsoyn Sekai Ichi Hatsukoi – Satō Tiger & Bunny – Kotetsu T. Kaburagi Naruto Shippūden – Kakashi Hatake Hourou Musuko – Takanori Oka, Yamanaka Mitsudomoe Zōryōchū!
– Koganei Beyblade: Metal Fury – King2012Horizon in the Middle of Nowhere II – Toussaint Neshinbara Kill Me Baby – Sonya Kuromajyo-san ga Tōru!! – Hayate Tsuchigama Psycho-Pass – Melancholia From the New World – K Smile Precure! – Takeru The Familiar of Zero F – Damian Tari Tari – Brat Leader Chō Soku Henkei Gyrozetter – Eraser 01/Souta Gunji Pretty Rhythm Dear My Future – Shiono Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic – Alibaba Future Diary – Moe Wakaba Medaka Box Abnormal – Sano Tsushima, Uno Tsushima Jormungand – Jonah Jormungand Perfect Order – Jonah Lagrange - The Flower of Rin-ne – Masato Kumogami2013Aikatsu! – Sakon Kitaōji Karneval – Yanari The Pet Girl of Sakurasou – Boy A Strike the Blood – Kojō Danchi Tomoo – Masato Yoshimoto A Lull in the Sea – Gyomensō Magi: The Kingdom of Magic – Alibaba Yozakura Quartet: Hana no Uta – Akina Hiizumi 2014Girl Friend BETA – Satoru Kimijima Seitokai Yakuindomo* – Sayaka Dejima Tokyo ESP – Kyōtarō Azuma Konna Watashi-tachi ga Nariyuki de Heroine ni Natta Kekka www'Narihero www' – Sokura Bon Nobunagun – Cyx Buddy Complex – Lasha Hakkarainen2015Venus Project: Climax – Kenta Overlord – Ninya The Asterisk War: The Academy City on the Water – Camilla Pareto Is It Wrong to Try to Pick Up Girls in a Dungeon?
– Finn Deimne Mobile Suit Gundam: Iron-Blooded Orphans – Ride Mass RIN-NE – Hiroshi Nekota Battle Spirits Burning Soul – Ranmaru Shikigami, Boy 2, Boy A, Spectator A, Spectator B, Spectator C Comet Lucifer – Patrick Yan2016Undefeated Bahamut Chronicle – Lux Arcadia Monster Hunter Stories: Ride On – Lute Gate: Jieitai Kano Chi nite, Kaku Tatakaeri - Beefeater E Caty2017Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid – Kobayashi Battle Girl High School – Asuha Kusunoki Land of the Lustrous - Morganite Made in Abyss - Nat2018How to Keep a Mummy - Sora Kashiwagi Saredo Tsumibito wa Ryū to Odoru: Dances with the Dragons – Yorkan Darling in the Franxx – Zorome Cells at Work! - Naive T Cell Merc Storia: Mukiryoku no Shōnen to Bin no Naka no Shōjo - Yū Yo-kai Watch Shadowside - Akinori Arihoshi Five Numbers! – Coupier Kill Me Baby Super – Sonya Mobile Suit Gundam Unicorn – Tikva Seitokai Yakuindomo – Sayaka Dejima Asobi ni iku yo! – Kio Kakazu Naruto Shippuden: The Lost Tower – Kakashi Hatake Tiger & Bunny: The Beginning – Kotetsu T. Kaburagi Cyborg 009 Vs. Devilman – Abel / Cyborg 0017 Digimon Adventure tri.
– Koshiro Izumi Yo-kai Watch Shadowside: Oni-ō no Fukkatsu – Akinori Arihoshi Granado Espada – Marchetti Under Night In-Birth: Exe Late – Byakuya Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance – George Horizon in the Middle of Nowhere Portable – Toussaint Neshinbara The Last of Us – Riley Abel Yatagarasu Attack on Cataclysm – Hinukan Kou Battle Girl High School - Asuha Kusunoki Dragon Ball Xenoverse - Time Patroller Dragon Quest Heroes II – Gabo Alcatraz – Dylan Callahan All Roads Lead to Rome – Summer Arrow – Shado Carrie – Chris Hargensen Cleveland Abduction – Michelle Knight The Dark Knight Rises – Jen Dracula Untold – Ingreas The Exorcist – Katherine Rance Far from the Madding Crowd – Fanny Robin Friends with Benefits – Kayla Fun Size – Wren DeSantis Get the Gringo – Kid Glee – Wade "Unique" Adams Gotham – Bruce Wayne The Green Hornet – Britt Reid Hawthorne – Camille Hawthorne Her – Surrogate Date Isabella It – Benjamin "Ben" Hanscom Let's Be Cops – Josie Mad Max: Fury Road – Toast the Knowing Mike and Dave Need Wedding Dates – Tatiana Mr. Robot – Angela Moss The New Daughter – Sam James Once Upon a Time – Nicholas Zimmer/Hansel The Originals – Hayley Marshall Percy Jackson: Sea of Monsters – Clarisse La Rue A Star Is Born – Ally Maine Ted – John Bennett Thor – Darcy Lewis Thor: The Dark World – Darcy Lewis To Kill a Mockingbird – Jeremy Atticus "Jem" Finch Tomb Raider – Sophie Official agen
GungHo Online Entertainment
GungHo Online Entertainment, Inc. is a Japanese video game developer. They are known for hosting the Japanese server of Ragnarok Online, as well as their development of Ragnarok DS for the Nintendo DS. More the company has reported huge financial success thanks to its mobile game Puzzle & Dragons, which, in 2013, was responsible for 91% of the company's $1.6 billion revenues for the year. Established as ONSale Co. Ltd. on July 1, 1998 to engage in the online interactive auction business. In 2000, the company moved its headquarters to Tokyo and changed its focus to providing auction systems, etc. using ASP. In 2002, the company once again changed this time to Online Game Services. Hosting the Japanese server of Ragnarok Online. In 2004 the company began joint development of online games with Game Arts Co. Ltd.. In March 2005, the company was listed on the Hercules Nippon New Market of the Osaka Securities Exchange. In August 2005, the company invested in G-Mode Co. Ltd. a game manufacturer for mobile phones.
In December 2005, the MMORPG developed by GungHo, Emil Chronicle Online, was released. In August 2006, they completed the contract to distribute Ragnarok Online II. In October 2007, GungHo Works, Inc. behind the development of Ragnarok DS, was established. In November 2007, the company acquired the video game assets of Interchannel from Index Corporation. In April 2008, Gravity Co. Ltd. was acquired as a subsidiary. In January 2013, GungHo acquired Grasshopper Manufacture, the studio behind titles such as No More Heroes and Lollipop Chainsaw. On June 3, 2016, Softbank agreed to sell most of its stake in GungHo for about $685 million, which would thus end Softbank's majority ownership of the company, resulting in Gungho no longer being an associate of Softbank; the offer was accepted by Gungho and completed by June 22, thus allowing Gungho to become an independent company. Grandia & Grandia II Remaster Ninjala Ragnarok Online Tantra Emil Chronicle Online Hiten Online ROSE Online Lucent Heart Blade Chronicle Ragnarok DS Eternal City 2 Divina Grand Fantasia ROSE Online Le Ciel Bleu Toy Wars Fishdom: Seasons under the Sea Puzzle & Dragons Summons Board Chrono Ma:Gia Survival Project A3 Saiyuki Reload Gunlock Squirrel Pot 2 eXtreme Soccer Mahjong Koi Koi Playing Cards Poker Millionaire Shanghai Chat Ragnarok Online II Pachinko Slot Hakenden Yogurting Tetris Online Shin Megami Tensei: Imagine Grandia Online Grandia II: Anniversary Edition Let It Die Nadepro!!: Kisama mo Seiyū Yattemiro!
Solfege: Sweet Harmony Mimana Iyar Chronicle Cho Aniki Zero P. W: Project Witch Lunar: Silver Star Harmony Ragnarok Tactics Ragnarok Odyssey Ace Ragnarok Odyssey Ragnarok Odyssey Ace Picotto Knights Dokuro Let It Die Otometeki Koi Kakumei Love Revo!! Nakamura Tooru Kanshuu: India Shiki Keisan Drill DS Aquazone DS Ragnarok DS Hero's Saga Laevatein Tactics Minna de Jibun no Setsumeisho: B-Gata, A-Gata, AB-Gata, O-Gata Ecolis: Aoi Umi to Ugoku Shima Ragnarok Online Casino Komodo Puzzles and Dragons Yo-kai Watch World GungHo Corporate website GungHo Games
Tokyo Game Show
Tokyo Game Show known as TGS, is a video game expo / convention held annually in September in the Makuhari Messe, in Chiba, Japan. It is presented by the Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association and Nikkei Business Publications, Inc; the main focus of the show is on Japanese games, but some international video game developers use it to showcase upcoming releases/related hardware. The duration of the event is four days; the first two days of Tokyo Game Show are open only to industry attendees and the general public can attend during the final two days. The first Tokyo Game Show was held in 1996. From 1996 to 2002, the show was held twice a year: once in Autumn. Since 2002, the show has been held once a year, it attracts more visitors every year. 2011’s show hosted over 200,000 attendees and the 2012 show bringing in 223,753. The busiest TGS was in 2016 with 271,224 people in 614 companies had exhibits; the event was never canceled. The 20th anniversary of TGS was celebrated in 2016; the TGS layout varies per year.
Such as in 2015, the Tokyo Game Show showcased 11 exhibition areas consisting of business, general public and other areas to buy merchandise. The General Exhibition Area is the heart of the show, taking up the largest amount of space, is held where digital gaming entertainment or any related products or services are showcased. Many well-known companies such as Namco Bandai, Sony Computer Entertainment and Square Enix have demo areas here, in addition to emerging companies; this area covers gaming devices such as headphones, controllers and other devices associated with home-use gaming consoles and portable gaming devices. An exhibition introduced at the 2012 Tokyo Game Show is geared towards introducing emerging game developers from Asia; this area is designated for merchandising of game-related goods. Vendors include Square-Enix; this area focuses on games for social games. Despite record numbers during TGS 2012, many large companies had a smaller presence. For example, which had one of the largest booths, was absent in 2012.
Social and mobile gaming surged. Microsoft returned to the show in 2013 with the release of the Xbox One; the PC area houses major Japanese computing companies, showcasing products such as Japanese desktop and notebook computers. This area showcases new games. Companies such as Taito and Sega are housed there; the Game School area showcases information on Japanese universities and colleges offering information about digital art, computer programming, other programs of study related to the video game industry. These booths display student work, it houses colleges such as Numazu Professional College of Information Technology and Tokyo Designer Gakuin College. This is the main area in the games convention where most of the sales and business transactions between companies and consumers are carried out. Companies housed there include Nikkei Business Publications; the Tokyo Game Show attracts many cosplayers. Cure, Japan's largest cosplay community website, hosted a "Moving Cosplay" stage show during the 2012 edition.
The show lasted 90 minutes and included a cosplay fashion show, dance numbers and a grand march of robot cosplayers. The event was attended by top cosplayers by local amateurs; this is not open to the public. The Cloud/Data Center is dedicated to improving infrastructure and environment of social and network games; the Tokyo Game Show has featured a Mad Catz-sponsored Street Fighter tournament since 2014. The competition is part of Capcom's official Pro Tour, making it a qualifying event for the Capcom Cup; the 2016 event was the first to not be sponsored by Mad Catz, as the company got in severe financial trouble during its 2016 fiscal year. Asia Game Show Brasil Game Show Gamescom Electronic Entertainment Expo Gamercom Game Developers Conference Official website
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word