Magnetoresistive random-access memory
Magnetoresistive random-access memory is a type of non-volatile random-access memory which stores data in magnetic domains. Devoloped in the mid-1980s, proponents have argued that magnetoresistive RAM will surpass competing technologies to become a dominant or universal memory. Presently, other memory technologies such as flash RAM and DRAM have practical advantages that have so far kept MRAM in a niche role in the market, it is in production by Everspin Technologies, other companies, including GlobalFoundries and Samsung, have announced in 2016 product plans. A recent, comprehensive review article on magnetoresistance and magnetic random access memories is available as an open access paper in Materials Today. Unlike conventional RAM chip technologies, data in MRAM is not stored as electric charge or current flows, but by magnetic storage elements; the elements are formed from two ferromagnetic plates, each of which can hold a magnetization, separated by a thin insulating layer. One of the two plates is a permanent magnet set to a particular polarity.
This configuration is known as a magnetic tunnel junction and is the simplest structure for an MRAM bit. A memory device is built from a grid of such "cells"; the simplest method of reading is accomplished by measuring the electrical resistance of the cell. A particular cell is selected by powering an associated transistor that switches current from a supply line through the cell to ground. Due to the tunnel magnetoresistance, the electrical resistance of the cell changes due to the relative orientation of the magnetization in the two plates. By measuring the resulting current, the resistance inside any particular cell can be determined, from this the magnetization polarity of the writable plate. If the two plates have the same magnetization alignment this is considered to mean "1", while if the alignment is antiparallel the resistance will be higher and this means "0". Data is written to the cells using a variety of means. In the simplest "classic" design, each cell lies between a pair of write lines arranged at right angles to each other, parallel to the cell, one above and one below the cell.
When current is passed through them, an induced magnetic field is created at the junction, which the writable plate picks up. This pattern of operation is similar to magnetic-core memory, a system used in the 1960s; this approach requires a substantial current to generate the field, which makes it less interesting for low-power uses, one of MRAM's primary disadvantages. Additionally, as the device is scaled down in size, there comes a time when the induced field overlaps adjacent cells over a small area, leading to potential false writes; this problem, the half-select problem, appears to set a large minimal size for this type of cell. One experimental solution to this problem was to use circular domains written and read using the giant magnetoresistive effect, but it appears that this line of research is no longer active. A newer technique, spin-transfer torque or spin-transfer switching, uses spin-aligned electrons to directly torque the domains. If the electrons flowing into a layer have to change their spin, this will develop a torque that will be transferred to the nearby layer.
This lowers the amount of current needed to write the cells, making it about the same as the read process. There are concerns that the "classic" type of MRAM cell will have difficulty at high densities due to the amount of current needed during writes, a problem that STT avoids. For this reason, the STT proponents expect the technique to be used for devices of 65 nm and smaller; the downside is the need to maintain the spin coherence. Overall, the STT requires much less write current than conventional or toggle MRAM. Research in this field indicates that STT current can be reduced up to 50 times by using a new composite structure. However, higher-speed operation still requires higher current. Other potential arrangements include "thermal-assisted switching", which heats up the magnetic tunnel junctions during the write process and keeps the MTJs stable at a lower temperature the rest of the time. A review article provides the details of materials and challenges associated with MRAM in the perpendicular geometry.
The authors describe a new term called "Pentalemma", which represents a conflict in five different requirements such as write current, stability of the bits, read/write speed and the process integration with CMOS. The selection of materials and the design of MRAM to fulfill those requirements are discussed; the main determinant of a memory system's cost is the density of the components used to make it up. Smaller components, fewer of them, mean that more "cells" can be packed onto a single chip, which in turn means more can be produced at once from a single silicon wafer; this improves yield, directly related to cost. DRAM uses a small capacitor as a memory element, wires to carry current to and from it, a transistor to control it – referred to as a "1T1C" cell; this makes DRAM the highest-density RAM available, thus the least expensive, why it is used for the majority of RAM found in computers. MRAM is physically similar to DRAM in makeup, does require a transistor for the write operation; the scaling of transistor
Pizza Grandiosa refers to the most popular brand of frozen pizza in Norway. Grandiosa can refer to the series of different Grandiosa variants. Grandiosa is Italian for grand. Production of the original Grandiosa started on 11 February 1980 produced by Nora in Stranda in Sunnmøre. Grandiosa was one of the first frozen pizzas produced in Norway; the pizza became vastly popular and is still the most sold pizza brand in Norway, in defiance of increasing competition from other local and international brands. In 2002 Stabburet responded to increased competition in the frozen food segment by reviving the brand with creative marketing and several new versions of Grandiosa; the pizza is exported in smaller numbers to the neighbouring countries Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. The pizza is subject to a lot of humorous debate, is unquestionably a piece of modern culture and loved by Norwegians, it has been called the "modern national dish" by some, others claim it is "a piece of cardboard", "laziness in a box" and "refrigerated evil".
In 2005 Grandiosa got its own unofficial book: "GrandiosaLAND". The book contains stories about the man who had a broken jaw and had to put his Grandiosa in a blender to eat it, many other stories about Grandiosa, favourite Norwegian pastimes such as hyttetur and dugnad. Grandiosa benefited from being first to the market and early creating loyal customers. Stabburet has used creative marketing to promote Grandiosa. Examples are their successful SMS-vote marketing campaign for selecting new addition to the pizza in 2004. Another example is their hit mobile ring tone "Respekt for Grandiosa" which 300,000 downloaded within 1.5 months. A total of 260 million pizzas have been sold. Twenty-four million units of Grandiosa are produced each year for the 4.67 million citizens of Norway. The average person eats about 5 Grandiosa pizzas per year showing how popular "Grandis" is among young people; the reason for its popularity is that it is a Norwegian product, that it is easy to make, according to some, that it tastes nice.
It is prepared in a pre-heated oven for 12 minutes at 225 degrees Celsius. 100 grams of Grandiosa gives 220 kcal. The normal price for a Grandiosa is about 40 NOK, about 45 NOK for the Lørdagspizza. Stabburet has released two singles as part of a large scale marketing campaign for Grandiosa, "Respekt for Grandiosa" and "Full Pakke". Both reached the top spot in the Norwegian charts. In addition to the original Grandiosa, there exist different varieties. List of frozen food brands Grandiosa Norway Grandiosa Finland Grandiosa Sweden
Orobanche californica, known by the common name California broomrape, is a species of broomrape. It is a parasitic plant growing attached to the roots of other plants members of the Asteraceae. Orobanche californica is native to western North America from British Columbia and Idaho, through California and Nevada, to Baja California, it is found in many types of habitats. It has been noted to be associated with California sagebrush; this plant arises from a thick root and grows erect to a maximum height near 35 centimetres, with one stem or a cluster of several. As a parasite taking its nutrients from a host plant, it lacks leaves and chlorophyll, it is light to dark purple in color and coated with glandular hairs. The inflorescence is an branching array of several flowers; each flower is tubular, up to 5 centimeters long, pale pink, yellowish, or purple in color, sometimes with stark veining. The fruit is a capsule containing minute seeds. There are several subspecies, they include: Orobanche californica ssp. californica — native to coastal habitats, central California to B.
C. parasitizes Grindelia Orobanche californica subsp. Condensa — endemic to California, in the Southern California Coast Ranges and western Transverse Ranges. Orobanche californica ssp. feudgei — grows on chaparral plants, native to dry areas in Sierra Nevada and Transverse Ranges in California, Peninsular Ranges in southern California and northern Baja California. Orobanche californica ssp. grandis — uncommon subspecies endemic to California, found in coastal areas of San Luis Obispo County and northern Santa Barbara County, on Santa Rosa Island of the northern Channel Islands. Orobanche californica ssp. grayana — native to moist meadows/stream banks in the San Francisco Bay Area, northern Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau. The Paiute people of eastern California and the Great Basin used a decoction as a cold remedy and pulmonary aid. Calflora Database: Orobanche californica Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Orobanche californica USDA Plants Profile: Orobanche californica UC CalPhotos gallery − Orobanche californica
Dactylorhiza called marsh orchid or spotted orchid, is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family. Dactylorhiza were classified under Orchis which has two round tubers, they are hardy tuberous geophytes. In a thickened underground stem, they can store a large amount of water to survive arid conditions; the tuber is flattened and finger-like. The long leaves are lanceolate and, in most species speckled, they grow along a rather long stem. Leaves higher on the stem are shorter; the inflorescence, compared to the length of the plant, is rather short. It consists of a compact raceme with 25-50 flowers; these develop from axillary buds. The dominant colors all shades of pink to red, sprinkled with darker speckles; the name Dactylorhiza is derived from Greek words δάκτυλος "daktylos" and ρίζα "rhiza", referring to the palmately two- to five-lobed tubers of this genus. Many species in this genus hybridise so that species boundaries themselves are vague, with regular name changes and no clear answers.
A few species colonise well onto fresh industrial wastes such as pulverised fuel ash, where vast hybrid swarms can appear for a decade or more, before ecological succession replaces them. Dactylorhiza alpestris: Alpine Dactylorhiza. Dactylorhiza angustata. Dactylorhiza aristata: Keyflower. Dactylorhiza aristata var. aristata: Keyflower. Dactylorhiza aristata var. kodiakensis: Kodiak Keyflower. Dactylorhiza armeniaca - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. Armeniaca Kreutz Dactylorhiza atlantica Kreutz & Vlaciha Dactylorhiza baldshuanica. Dactylorhiza baltica Dactylorhiza baumanniana. Dactylorhiza baumanniana subsp. Smolikana H. Baumann & R. Lorenz Dactylorhiza bohemica. Dactylorhiza cordigera Soó. Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. Bosniaca. Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. Cordigera. Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca Presser) Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. Pindica H. Baumann & R. Lorenz. Dactylorhiza cordigera var. rhodopeia Presser Dactylorhiza cordigera subsp. Siculorum. Dactylorhiza ebudensis P. Delforge: Hebridean Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza elata Soó: Stately Dactylorhiza.
Dactylorhiza elata subsp. Ambigua Kreutz Dactylorhiza elata subsp. Brennensis. Dactylorhiza elata subsp. Elata. Dactylorhiza elata subsp. Mauritanica B. Baumann & H. Baumann Dactylorhiza elata subsp. Sesquipedalis. Dactylorhiza euxina Czerep. Dactylorhiza euxina subsp. Armeniaca Kreutz Dactylorhiza flavescens. Dactylorhiza foliosa: Richly leaved Dactylorhiza. Dactylorhiza fuchsii Soó: Common Spotted Orchid, Fuch's Dactylorhiza. Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. Carpatica Kreutz Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. Fuchsii. Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. Hebridensis. Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. Meyeri Kulikov & E. G. Philippov Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. Okellyi. Dactylorhiza fuchsii subsp. Psychrophila. Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sooana Kreutz Dactylorhiza fuchsii var. sudetica H. Baumann Dactylorhiza gervasiana. Dactylorhiza graeca - has become synonym of Dactylorhiza cordigera var. graeca Presser) Dactylorhiza graggeriana. Dactylorhiza hatagirea. Dactylorhiza iberica. Dactylorhiza ilgazica - now synonym of Dactylorhiza urvilleana subsp.
Ilgazica Kreutz Dactylorhiza incarnata Soó: Early Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza incarnata var. baumgartneriana P. Delforge Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Coccinea Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Cruenta. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Gemmana. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Incarnata. Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. Krylovii. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Lobelii. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Ochroleuca. Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Pulchella. Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. Versicolor Dactylorhiza insularis: Island Dactylorhiza. Dactylorhiza kafiriana. Dactylorhiza kalopissii E. Nelson. Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. Macedonica Kreutz Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp. Pythagorae Kreutz Dactylorhiza kulikalonica. Dactylorhiza lapponica Soó. Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. Angustata Kreutz Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. Rhaetica H. Baumann & R. Lorenz Dactylorhiza lapponica subsp. Russowii H. Baumann & R. Lorenz. Dactylorhiza libanotica Dactylorhiza longifolia. Dactylorhiza macedonica - now a synonym of Dactylorhiza kalopissii subsp.
Macedonica Kreutz Dactylorhiza maculata Soó: Heath Spotted Orchid, Moorland Spotted Orchid. Dactylorhiza maculata subsp. Battandieri (
Mottled wood owl
The mottled wood owl is a species of large owl found in India. They are farmland, they are detected by their distinctive tremulous eerie calls at dawn and dusk. The characteristic call is a duet of the male and female while other notes include a low hoot and a screech, their large size, lack of "ear" tufts and the concentric barring on the face make them easy to identify. This large owl is mottled and vermiculated in reddish brown and white; the face disc is marked with fine concentric white barring. The sexes are alike; the chin is white. The eyelid is orange and the iris is dark brown; the tail is barred narrowly in black. The concentric barring on the face and mottled crown separate it from the brown wood owl in southern India. There are three subspecies recognized and there are no sharp demarcations in their distributions. S. o. ocellata is found in southern India and is shorter winged in the males than grandis S. o. grisescens Koelz, 1950 is found in northern India south of the Himalayas, west to Pakistan and east to Bihar.
The markings are pale above and the males have a wing length of 338–346 mm S. o. grandis Koelz, 1950 from Gujarat is differentiated by the wing length of the males The species is found in the plains in gardens and wooded habitats. They roost in trees during the day choosing a branch with dense foliage. An old specimen from Lahore is noted but no records in recent times from Pakistan; the distribution extends east to West Bengal. These owls roost in the day in pairs; when disturbed they may fly in bright sunshine although they choose to shelter within a dense grove of trees. They produce an eerie chuhua-aa call with a quaver in the second note; this call is an antiphonal duet of the male and female. The male calls two times followed by the female's shorter and less tremulous version; the calling is more frequent in November. Most Nests are found from February to April, they produce a single note hoot and a screech not unlike that of the barn owl. The nest is a tree hollow in, they feed on palm squirrels and other small mammals.
The eerie call has been associated with ill omen in some parts of Kerala. The call is likened to a summons to the spirit world. Calls and video recordings
The Mitsubishi Grandis is a seven seat MPV built by Mitsubishi Motors to replace its Chariot/Space Wagon/Nimbus line. It was launched on 14 May 2003 and was sold in Japan, Europe, Mexico, Honduras and South America. Engines available were a 2.4 litre four-cylinder and a Volkswagen sourced 2.0 litre turbodiesel, badged DI-D rather than TDI as Volkswagen denotes it. The exterior styling was based loosely on designer Olivier Boulay's earlier Mitsubishi Space Liner, a monobox four seat concept vehicle with centre opening "suicide doors", first exhibited at the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2001, it was the first all new vehicle featuring the company's new common "face", comprising a curved lower grille edge and a sharp crease rising up the leading edge of the bonnet from the prominent corporate badge. It shared its platform with the Mitsubishi Airtrek, minus the increased ground clearance; the Grandis was the basis for the Mitsubishi FCV concept, powered by a fuel cell technology developed by controlling shareholder DaimlerChrysler.
DCX's "FC System" uses a fuel cell stack to replenish an array of NiMH batteries from 117 litres of compressed hydrogen storage. The Grandis was launched in Malaysia 28 July 2005 in conjunction with Mitsubishi's return to Malaysia; the Grandis was updated in Malaysia in September 2007, July 2009 and in August 2010. It won the Best MPV award at the Bangkok International Motor Show from 2005 to 2010. During March 2009, it saw the cancellation of this model in the Japanese market, marking the end of the Chariot name after twenty six years of production. For 2011, it was discontinued globally