George Brown House (Toronto)
George Brown House is a historic building in the Grange Park neighbourhood of Toronto, Canada. It was home to Father of Reform Party politician and publisher George Brown, its current address is 186 Beverley Street. Brown built the Second Empire-style home, which he named Lambton Lodge, between 1874 and 1876. In 1880, he died in the house after being shot in the leg by a disgruntled employee at The Globe newspaper which he founded. Between 1889 and 1916, Duncan Coulson, president of the Bank of Toronto, lived in the house with his wife Eliza and three children. Following Coulson's death, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind obtained the house in 1920 and used it for office space until 1956. A school for the blind was attached in 1920, replaced by a school for developmentally-challenged children, demolished in 1984. George Brown House was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1976, but was in a bad state of disrepair. Threatened by demolition, the Ontario Heritage Trust intervened.
The agency restored the house and re-opened it in 1989 as a conference centre with tenant offices on the upper floors. Archaeological excavations conducted in 1987 and 1988 revealed over 5,000 artifacts; these artifacts have provided insights into the construction of the house as well as the landscape surrounding it and include a collectible pint corker containing the letters "William Robertson", a silver ring and amber bead attributed to the Coulson period, a St. George penny token from the 1850s; the house has been featured on the HBO series Ghost Trackers. George Brown House was designed by William Irving and Edward Hutchings in the Second Empire style with Italianate detailing, it is a red brick house characterized by Second Empire features such as pavilion massing and a grey slate mansard roof with window dormers. The carved stone doorcase is pronounced in a way that might be more expected of an institution than a private dwelling; the 1987 and 1988 archeological excavations revealed a unique "shell wall" below ground—a double foundation.
An ornamental cast iron fence and gate outlines the property along Baldwin Streets. It rests on compliments the façade; the interior was organized on a Georgian centre hall plan, with the main floor containing public rooms, the upper two floors containing private rooms. Twelve of the original fifteen fireplaces remain, the drawing room's polished marble mantel has the initials of George and Anne Brown entwined on the cartouche; the Coulson family hired Toronto architect David Brass Dick to remodel the dining room in an Art Nouveau style in the 1890s, along with the ornate front hall fireplace. Along with the exterior, the Ontario Heritage Trust restored the interior; the federal government contributed the recreation of a Victorian library which now houses 2,000 of George Brown's personal books. By the summer of 2000, a Victorian-style garden was planted, a partnership was formed with the University of Toronto Faculty of Architecture and Design to maintain it. List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto Overview of George Brown Home George Brown House.
Canadian Register of Historic Places. Information on booking the conference space with interior photos
Parliament of Canada
The Parliament of Canada is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital. The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by the Governor General; each element has its own officers and organization. By constitutional convention, the House of Commons is dominant, with the Senate and monarch opposing its will; the Senate reviews legislation from a less partisan standpoint and the monarch or viceroy provides royal assent to make bills into law. The Governor General summons and appoints the 105 senators on the advice of the Prime Minister, while the 338 members of the House of Commons—called members of parliament —each represent an electoral district referred to as a riding, are directly elected by Canadian voters; the Governor General summons Parliament, while either the viceroy or monarch can prorogue or dissolve Parliament, the latter in order to call a general election. Either will read the Throne Speech; the most recent Parliament, summoned by Governor General David Johnston in 2015, is the 42nd since Confederation.
The Parliament of Canada is composed of three parts: the monarch, the Senate, the House of Commons. Each work in conjunction within the legislative process; this format was inherited from the United Kingdom and is a near-identical copy of the parliament at Westminster, the greatest differences stemming from situations unique to Canada, such as the impermanent nature of the monarch's residency in the country and the lack of a peerage to form the upper chamber. Only those who sit in the House of Commons are called members of parliament. Though legislatively less powerful, senators take higher positions in the national order of precedence. No individual may serve in more than one chamber at the same time; the sovereign's place in the legislature, formally called the Queen-in-Parliament, is defined by the Constitution Act, 1867, various conventions. Neither she nor her viceroy, participates in the legislative process, save for signifying the Queen's approval to a bill passed by both houses of parliament, known as the granting of Royal Assent, necessary for a bill to be enacted as law.
All federal bills thus begin with the phrase "Now, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows..." and, as such, the Crown is immune from acts of parliament unless expressed otherwise in the act itself. The governor general will perform the task of granting Royal Assent, though the monarch may do so, at the request of either the Cabinet or the viceroy, who may defer assent to the sovereign as per the constitution; as both the monarch and his or her representatives are traditionally barred from the House of Commons, any parliamentary ceremonies in which they are involved take place in the Senate chamber. The upper and lower houses do, each contain a mace, which indicates the authority of the Queen-in-Parliament and the privilege granted to that body by her, both bearing a crown at their apex; the original mace for the Senate was that used in the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada after 1849, while that of the House of Commons was inherited from the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, first used in 1845.
Following the burning of the Centre Block on 3 February 1916, the City of London, donated a replacement, still used today. The temporary mace, made of wood, used until the new one arrived from the United Kingdom in 1917, is still carried into the Senate each 3 February; the Senate's 1.6-metre-long mace comprises gold. The Senate may not sit. Members of the two houses of parliament must express their loyalty to the sovereign and defer to her authority, as the Oath of Allegiance must be sworn by all new parliamentarians before they may take their seats. Further, the official opposition is formally called Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, to signify that, though they may be opposed to the incumbent Cabinet's policies, they remain dedicated to the apolitical Crown; the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, the Senate, is a group of 105 individuals appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister. Senators served for life until 1965, when a constitutional amendment imposed a mandatory retirement age of 75.
Senators may, resign their seats prior to that mark, can lose their position should they fail to attend two consecutive sessions of parliament. The Senate is divided amongst four geographic regions: 24 for Ontario, 24 for Quebec, 24 for the Maritimes, 24 for the Western provinces. Newfoundland and Labrador, which became a Canadian province in 1949, is represented by six senators, is not part of a senatorial division. Further, Canada's three territories—the Northwest Territories and Nunavut—are allocated one senator each. An additio
Canadian National Exhibition
The Canadian National Exhibition known as The Exhibition or The Ex, is an annual event that takes place at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Canada, during the 18 days leading up to and including Canadian Labour Day, the first Monday in September. With 1.5 million visitors each year, the CNE is Canada's largest annual fair and the fifth largest in North America. The first Canadian National Exhibition took place in 1879 to promote agriculture and technology in Canada. Agriculturists and scientists exhibited their discoveries and inventions at the CNE to showcase the work and talent of the nation; as Canada has grown as a nation, the CNE has changed over time, reflecting the growth in diversity and innovation, though agriculture and technology remain a large part of the CNE today. To many people in the Greater Toronto Area and the surrounding communities, the CNE is an annual family tradition; the CNE is held at Exhibition Place, a 192 acres site located along Toronto's waterfront on the shores of Lake Ontario and just west of downtown Toronto.
The site features several buildings and structures, many of which have been named as significant under the Ontario Heritage Act. There are several outdoor live music venues on-site including the permanent CNE Bandshell. All of the roads are named after the Canadian territories; the site includes a football stadium, fountains, plazas, a rose garden and parking lots. The site was reserve lands for British and Canadian military and was the site of an 18th-century French fort; the area was cleared of forest in the early 19th century for use by the Toronto Garrison of Fort York. The Exhibition received permission to use part of the site in the 1870s and expanded to use the whole site by the 1920s. In the 1950s, the site was expanded south of Lake Shore Boulevard by landfill, reduced in size on its northern boundary by the construction of the Gardiner Expressway; the 18-day fair itself consists of a mix of shopping areas, live entertainment, agricultural displays, sports events, a large carnival midway with rides and food.
The Canadian International Air Show on Labour Day weekend has been a feature of the fair since 1949. Several buildings house exhibits and displays from vendors, government agencies and various industry associations; these include the International Pavilion of products from around the world, the Arts and Hobbies Building of crafts and unusual items. The Evercare Centre complex holds the international pavilion, a garden show, the SuperDogs performances and a sand-sculpting competition, it has exhibit space used for agricultural or industrial displays and a live stage. The Food Building houses a large number of vendors of food from many cultures, reflecting Toronto's multicultural population; the Better Living Centre building is used for a casino on one side, a farming display on the other. The CNE continues its tradition of agricultural produce competition and the winners are displayed in the Better Living Centre, along with a butter sculpting competition. Other exhibit areas are used differently in different years.
There are a large number of vendors outside along the streets of the fair offering discount and unusual products. Some exhibits are only held for a few days such as the cat show; the 1792 "Scadding Cabin" log cabin display dates back to the first year of the fair and is the only time the cabin is open for display. The carnival midway has a large children's area in the northwest corner of the park, with smaller rides suitable for children under 12; the main area is situated west of the EnerCare Centre and has several dozen rides, including thrill rides, roller coasters, swing rides and a log plume ride. Along several pathways of the midway area are games of "skill", games of chance and many carnival food vendors; the CNE operates a "sky ride", with chairs similar to ski-lift chairs, to carry riders from one end of the midway to the other. The Coliseum building is used for live shows; these have included high-wire acts, the RCMP Musical Ride in the past. Outdoors, the Bandshell is used for nightly headliners.
Additionally, areas are set up at various points around the fair for outdoor entertainment. These include such things as beer gardens, musical acts, acrobatic acts, parkour displays, circus acts, children's shows and educational displays. There are two major parades at the CNE, the Warrior's Day Parade of veterans and the Labour Day Parade of workers; every evening a "Mardi Gras" parade is held. The CNE is home to BMO Field, a large multi-purpose facility located in the centre of the fair grounds; the stadium is used by two professional sports teams based in Toronto, the Toronto Argonauts Canadian football team and the Toronto FC soccer team. In Coronation Park, located across Lake Shore Boulevard, opposite the Princes' Gates, the CNE holds a youth peewee baseball tournament and a women's fastball tournament; the 2013 and 2014 CNEs featured a zip line ride. Operated by Ziptrek Ecotours, the CNE zip line was the highest and longest temporary zip line in the world; the launch tower, positioned southeast of the Food Building, measured 180 ft high.
The landing tower, southwest of the Direct Energy Centre, was 60 ft. The zip line ride consisted of four lines, each measuring nearly 1,100 ft. Zip line riders travelled at 65 km/hour. Food is considered by many visitors to be a key part of the CNE experience. Many options are available across the 192-acre site during the 18 days of the fair. A major destination for CNE visitors, the Food Building offers a wide variety of food options ranging from classic fair favourites, such as Beaver Tail
Fathers of Confederation
The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage. Queen Victoria has been called the "Mother of Confederation", her role in Confederation is recognized by the celebration of Victoria Day in Canada. Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation; the leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are referred to as Fathers of Confederation. The provisional government established by Louis Riel negotiated the terms under which Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation in 1870; the leadership of Amor De Cosmos was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing the province into Confederation in 1871.
The province of Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation in 1949 under the leadership of Joey Smallwood, referred to as the "only living Father of Confederation". Of the 36 Fathers, 11 were Freemasons, notably Macdonald, but including Bernard, Carter, Galt, Haviland, Henry and Tilley. List of Prime Ministers of Canada List of national founders Persons of National Historic Significance Anti-Confederation Party Careless, J. M. C. "George Brown and Confederation," Manitoba Historical Society Transactions, Series 3, Number 26, 1969-70 online Coucill, Irma. Canada's Governors General and Fathers of Confederation. Pembroke Publishers. ISBN 1-55138-185-0. Fathers of Confederation - Library and Archives Canada
Dundas Street, is a major historic arterial road in Ontario, Canada. The road connects the city of Toronto with its western suburbs and several cities in southwestern Ontario. Three provincial highways—2, 5, 99—followed long sections of its course, although these highway segments have since been downloaded to the municipalities they passed through. Intended as a military route to connect the shipping port of York to the envisioned future capital of London, the street today connects Toronto landmarks such as Yonge-Dundas Square and the city's principal Chinatown to rural villages and the regional centres of Hamilton and London. A historic alternate name for the street was Governor's Road, the section between Hamilton and Paris still bears that name. Dundas Street is one of the few east–west routes to run uninterrupted through the Greater Toronto Area, from Toronto to Halton Region. Within Toronto, the TTC's 505 Dundas streetcar route serves the street from Riverdale to the Junction; the route of Dundas through the city of Toronto is irregular.
The street, as laid out today, is made up from what were several smaller named streets, running parallel but unconnected. Proceeding southwest and parallel to the Lake Ontario shore in central Toronto, Dundas Street East originates near the Beaches neighbourhood at Kingston Road, itself a historic route to eastern Lake Ontario and the town of Kingston; the street began at today's Queen and Ossington intersection, incorporated today's Ossington Street north to the current Dundas intersection proceeded west along the route still used today. Crossing the lower reaches of the Don River west of Broadview Avenue, Dundas serves as one of the few arterial roads connecting the central city to the city's original eastern suburbs. At Yonge Street, Dundas passes Yonge-Dundas Square, within sight of downtown landmarks such as the Eaton Centre and Ryerson University. Called Dundas Street West from this point westward, the route passes to the north of City Hall and Nathan Phillips Square. At McCaul Street, the road fronts the Art Gallery of Ontario in proximity to some of the city's institutions of higher learning, including OCAD University, Michener Institute, the University of Toronto.
At Spadina Avenue, Dundas serves as the east-west axis of the city's largest Chinatown. West of Ossington Avenue, it meanders northwards towards Bloor Street near the intersection of Roncesvalles Avenue, heading north toward the Junction district at Keele Street. Proceeding due west from Keele through the Junction, Dundas parallels the CP Rail line through the mixed industrial-residential district. At Scarlett Road, the route veers southwest toward a high crossing over the Humber River valley, through the former village of Lambton Mills. Beyond the river, Dundas serves as the northern boundary of the Kingsway residential district. Passing the historic St. George's Church-on-the-Hill, Dundas again heads southwest toward the former village of Islington; this route traverses the west end of the city, avoiding obstacles that were expensive to negotiate in the 18th century, such as Grenadier Pond in what is now High Park and the highest point of the Humber Valley. Dundas intersects for a second time with Bloor Street at Kipling Avenue at the Six Points interchange in Etobicoke.
In 1961, the intersection was rebuilt into a highway-type interchange, with an overpass over Kipling. The City of Toronto is in the process of demolishing the interchange and building a new Etobicoke Civic Centre at a new intersection, all at-grade. A new routing of Dundas Street to the south of the former interchange was opened in February 2019, connecting via Dunbloor Road to the section east of Kipling. From Kipling, Dundas is a six-lane arterial road. Upon crossing the Toronto-Peel boundary at Etobicoke Creek, the street follows a true southwestern heading, again paralleling the lakeshore; the road passes through Mississauga, Oakville and Waterdown. The street loses the name "Dundas St." west of Highway 6, as the route follows a still-provincially maintained stretch of Highway 5, entering rural Brant County near St. George, ending in Paris, with the junction of the former Highway 2 The name resumes west of Paris as the route proceeds west along the former highway through Woodstock en route to the city of London.
In London, the street ends just east of the confluence of the Thames River before it crosses the Kensington Bridge to west London. This section was called "Dundas Street West" with the eastern portion being "Dundas Street East". However, since construction in the mid-1980s, the entire western portion has been called "Riverside Drive"; some Londoners still refer to "Dundas Street East". Immigrant communities have sprung up along the route of Dundas Street within Toronto, with most still retaining elements of their original character. Kensington Market was home to Toronto's first Jewish community; this district was settled by emigrants from Portugal and Brazil and bears the name "Rua Açores". The Junction attracted many immigrant labourers from Ireland and Southern and Eastern Europe due to its proximity to railways and heavy industry, such as meat packing, which sprouted up there in the late 19th century. Downtown centre Dundas Street is centrally located in downtown Toronto, about midway between
Trinity—Spadina was a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1988 to 2015. It encompassed the western portion of Downtown Toronto, its federal Member of Parliament was Olivia Chow of the New Democratic Party. She defeated Tony Ianno of the Liberal Party of Canada in the January 2006 election. On March 12, 2014, Chow resigned from her seat in order to run for the 2014 Toronto mayoral election, the seat was won by Adam Vaughan, in a by-election; the riding has long been a battle ground between the NDP and the Liberals, with the Liberals winning both federally and provincially. Major landmarks within the riding included the western portion of the University of Toronto, the CN Tower, Rogers Centre, Air Canada Centre, the Canadian Broadcasting Centre, 299 Queen Street West, the Toronto Eaton Centre, the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Toronto City Hall, Kensington Market, Christie Pits, Trinity Bellwoods Park, the southern portion of Bay Street and Palmerston Boulevard.
The riding contained Toronto's Chinatown, Little Italy, Little Portugal. The northern section of the riding was the Annex district, while the eastern edge contained part of the University of Toronto and thousands of students. According to the Canada 2011 Census Average household income: $86,895 Median household income: $60,659 Median income: $34,761 Unemployment: 7.3% Language, mother tongue: English 61.2%, Chinese 13.0%, Portuguese 4.4%, French 2.8%, Spanish 2.1%, Italian 1.8%, Korean 1.4%, Arabic 1.4% Religion: Christian 42.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Jewish 4.1%, Buddhist 3.4%, Hindu 1.8%, No religion 42.5%. Ethnic groups: White 61.8%, Chinese 16.0%, South Asian 5.1%, Black 3.6%, Korean 1.8%, Filipino 1.8%, Latin American 1.7%, Southeast Asian 1.7%, Arab 1.6%, West Asian 1.1% It consists of the Toronto Islands and the part of the City of Toronto bounded on the south by Toronto Harbour, on the west and east by a line drawn from the harbour north on Spencer Avenue, east along the Gardiner Expressway, north on Dufferin, east on Queen Street West, southeast along the Canadian Pacific Railway line, north along Dovercourt Road, east along Dundas Street West, north along Ossington Avenue, east along the Canadian Pacific Railway situated north of Dupont Street, south along Avenue Road and Queens Park Crescent West, east along College Street and south along Yonge Street to the Harbour.
These borders were somewhat changed in the 2004 redistribution. The northwestern corner, a somewhat pro-NDP area was lost to Davenport. A large, but business area of Toronto Centre—Rosedale between University Avenue and Yonge St. was given to the riding. This region tends to support the Liberals; the Toronto Islands were added to the riding from Toronto Centre—Rosedale. This area is strongly NDP and has a activist population that provides many campaign workers for the New Democrats; the riding was created in 1987 from Trinity and Spadina, smaller parts of Toronto Centre—Rosedale and Parkdale—High Park. It consisted of the part of the City of Toronto bounded on the south by Toronto Harbour, on the east by Avenue Road, Queen's Park Crescent West, University Avenue and York Street, on the west and north by a line drawn from the harbour north along Spencer Avenue, east along the Gardiner Expressway, north along Atlantic Avenue, southeast along the Canadian National Railway line, north along Dovercourt Road, east along Bloor Street West, north along Ossington Avenue, east along the Canadian Pacific Railway line to Avenue Road.
In 2003, it was given its current boundaries. As per 2012 federal electoral boundaries redistribution and the 2013 representation order, Trinity—Spadina will be dissolved following the conclusion of the next general election to be called after May 1, 2014; the area south of Dundas Street will be transferred to the new electoral district of Spadina—Fort York, the area north of Dundas and west of a line following Bay Street and Front Street will be transferred to the new electoral district of University—Rosedale while the area east of Bay Street and north of Front Street will be transferred to Toronto Centre. This riding has elected the following members of the House of Commons of Canada: The seat became vacant on March 12, 2014 when Olivia Chow resigned in order to run in the Toronto mayoral election; the 2011 election was not the expected close race between the incumbent NDP MP Olivia Chow and Liberal candidate, Toronto lawyer Christine Innes, that some observers predicted. The Liberals did not make gains here, which were anticipated by those who believed that the number of condominiums along the Toronto waterfront would bring in more centrist and right leaning voters.
A third battle between NDP challenger Olivia Chow and longtime Liberal incumbent Tony Ianno took place in the 2006 election. Ianno's narrow victory over Chow in 2004 had surprised most observers. After the writ was dropped for the federal election, Chow resigned her City Hall seat and vowed not to return to her previous job as municipal councillor. Chow ran a more disciplined campaign than in 2004, focusing on winning her own seat rather than lending her support to the national campaign of her husband, NDP leader Jack Layton. Ianno suffered from the broader decline in Liberal fortunes across Canada losing to Chow by nearly six percentage points, the largest margin of victory in any of their three electoral encounters; the strongest areas for the NDP were the Annex, Seaton Village, the University of Toronto area, Sussex-Ulster and Kensington Market. T
The Ward, Toronto
The Ward was a neighbourhood in central Toronto, Canada in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was bound by College Street, Queen Street, Yonge Street, University Avenue and was centred on the intersection of Terauley and Albert Street. For several decades of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, it was a dense mixed-used neighbourhood where successive waves of new immigrants would settle before establishing themselves. Characterized by authorities in the nineteenth century as a slum, it was the home of refugees from the European Revolutions of 1848, the Irish Potato Famine, the Underground Railroad, refugees from Russia and Eastern Europe, it was the centre of the city's Jewish community from the late nineteenth century until the 1920s when the Jewish community moved west to Spadina Avenue and Kensington Market and was until the late 1950s, the home of the city's original Chinatown, of many of the city's original Black residents centred on the British Methodist Episcopal Church, at 94 Chestnut Street, of the city's Italian community until it moved west along College Street to Little Italy.
The city's Polish, Ukrainian and numerous other non-Anglo-Saxon immigrants first established themselves in The Ward. Today, the area is considered a part of what the City of Toronto now calls the Discovery District, the area having been consumed by the central business district; the old neighbourhood has not wholly disappeared. The short restaurant strip on the south side of Dundas st. between University Ave. and Bay Street still retains many buildings which were part of the Ward. The building in the right of the lead photograph in this article is still standing at Dundas and Elizabeth; the YWCA at 87 Elm st. was the Toronto House of Industry, a workhouse established in the centre of the Ward in 1848 to serve impoverished residents. And a small group of row houses still stands on Elm St. just West of Bay St. on the South side - the last surviving remnant of the ward's residential character. The area was known as St. John's Ward, one of the municipal wards that the city was divided into in the 19th century, but it became known as "The Ward".
In the 1830s, Thornton Blackburn—an African American fugitive slave—began acquiring several properties in the neighbourhood. Blackburn provided arrived fugitive slaves with inexpensive housing. By 1850, many Black families settled in The Ward; the earliest Jewish settlers in Toronto had come from the United States, or Western Europe. With only a few hundred Jewish citizens in the city, they settled in several neighbourhoods and integrated with the rest of the city. In the 1890s, an influx of Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe began arriving in Toronto. For the several thousand new arrivals impoverished and unable to speak English, the densely packed houses of The Ward became their new community; the Ward was home to Toronto's first Chinatown as Chinese railway workers settled along York and Elizabeth Streets north of Union Station. The development of the neighbourhood caused much consternation in Toronto, including anti-Semitic riots and government clearance efforts. In 1909, 8 acres of The Ward were demolished to build the Toronto General Hospital.
The neighbourhood began to change in character. As the Jewish immigrants became more settled, they moved westwards to the Kensington Market area and the Ward became a centre for Italian immigrants, who were arriving in great numbers; the Italians moved west to what is today Little Italy, by the Second World War, the Ward had become Toronto's first Chinatown. Central Neighbourhood House was established in 1911 as a settlement house to assist new immigrants in the Ward. From the 1920s the Ward was demolished as land was expropriated for office towers and most prominently, the first Chinatown centred on Elizabeth Street was expropriated in the 1950s to make way for Nathan Phillips Square, named after a mayor of Toronto, with most businesses moving West to establish the "old" Chinatown centred at Spadina Ave and Dundas Street. For many decades, the area was wholly commercial and institutional, but recent years have seen a return of residents to what used to be the Ward with multiple condominium towers being erected in the area.
- Toronto's First Synagogues - Dr. Stephen Speisman Historicist: Forgotten Urban Squalor of The Ward