The River Torrens is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains and was one of the reasons for the siting of the city of Adelaide, capital of South Australia. It flows 85 kilometres from its source in the Adelaide Hills near Mount Pleasant, across the Adelaide Plains, past the city centre and empties into Gulf St Vincent between Henley Beach South and West Beach; the upper stretches of the river and the reservoirs in its watershed supply a significant part of the city's water supply. The river's long linear parks and a constructed lake in the lower stretch are iconic of the city. At its 1836 discovery an inland bend was chosen as the site of the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide; the river is named after Colonel Robert Torrens, chairman of the colonial commissioners and a significant figure in the city's founding. The river is known by its native Kaurna name Karra wirra-parri; the river and its tributaries are variable in flow, together drain an area of 508 square kilometres. They range from sometimes raging torrents, damaging bridges and flooding city areas, to trickles and dry in summer.
Winter and spring flooding has prompted the construction of flood reduction works. A constructed sea outlet, landscaped linear parks and three holding reservoirs contain peak flow; the river's flora and fauna have accidentally impacted since settlement. In the 19th century, native forests were cleared, gravel removed for construction and many foreign species introduced. With construction of the linear parks, many species native to the river have been replanted, introduced species have been controlled as weeds. Since European settlement the river has been a touted tourist attraction. During the early years of settlement, the river acted as both the city's primary water source and main sewer, leading to outbreaks of typhoid and cholera; the River Torrens runs westward from the Adelaide Hills, through the centre of Adelaide to the Gulf St Vincent. It originates close to the eastern fault scarp of the Mount Lofty Ranges, near Mount Pleasant 480 metres above sea level, it runs predominantly along faulted north-south ground structures, which were formed over 250 million years ago during the Paleozoic era further dislocated during the Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary.
There is a 400-metre subsidence along the Para Fault which affects the rivers flow. This subsidence was formed after the Pliocene era. From its origin to Birdwood the river follows rolling level country before entering a hilly section that continues to Gumeracha; the river follows sedimentary rock strata before entering a gorge after Cudlee Creek. It flows through the gorge to Athelstone, passing over the Eden Fault Zone of the Adelaide Hills face and associated escarpment. After the scarp it flows over sedimentary rocks of varying resistance to erosion, which has led to interspersed narrows and broad basins. From the base of the Adelaide Hills to Adelaide's central business district it runs in a shallow valley with a terraced floor down the slope of its own alluvial fan; the structure of this fan shows that the river entered Gulf St Vincent via the Port River. Over time the Torrens deposited sediment; the Torrens is fed by numerous seasonal creeks. There are five main creeks that join from the south side as it crosses the Adelaide Plains east of Adelaide, at least five more in its path through the Adelaide Hills.
The plains tributaries, known as First to Fifth Creeks, with First being the closest to Adelaide's city-centre and the rest numbered consecutively eastward, were named Greenhill, Todd and Ormsley rivulets respectively. They flow vigorously in winter and spring but are otherwise dry, except for small flows in limited areas upstream. "Moriatta" a Kaurna word meaning "ever flowing" is now the official name of Fourth Creek. This name has been adapted to Morialta, now the name of an electoral district and the Morialta Conservation Park through which the creek flows. First and Third Creeks have been heavily modified; some sections have been converted to concrete channels. Much of the original vegetation has disappeared from the creeks those closest to the city. Introduced species including Olives, boxthorn and blackberries have displaced native flora; the largest catchment of the Torrens is Sixth Creek in the Adelaide Hills, which joins the Torrens at Castambul on Gorge Road. At the time of European settlement the river was a summertime chain of waterholes bounded by large gum trees.
Flowing through the area where the city of Adelaide is sited the river was sometimes invisible beneath its gravel stream bed. It flooded in winter and did not reach the sea, instead ending at coastal dunes where its waters created a vast but shallow freshwater wetlands; these wetlands, known as The Reedbeds after the dominant vegetation, occupied a large area of the western Adelaide Plains and were fed by other waterways. The river only flowed to the sea through the Port River, Barker Inlet, Patawalonga River following heavy rain; the river's catchment area of 500 km2 is the largest of any waterway within the Adelaide region. The upper reaches are used to create a potable water supply for metropolitan Adelaide with the river supplying three of Adelaide's eight reservoirs; the upper catchment has an average annual rainfall
Woodville railway station, Adelaide
Woodville railway station is the junction station for the Grange and Outer Harbor lines with the lines diverging north of the station. Situated in the western Adelaide suburb of Woodville, it is 7.5 kilometres from Adelaide station. It has auto pedestrian lights. Platform 3 had a small kiosk, built around 2006, that sells refreshments and tickets, but has not been opened since 2009. Woodville station was one of the original stations on the Adelaide to Port Adelaide railway, which opened in April 1856; the only other intermediate stations on the new line were at Alberton. In the early days, Adelaide to Port Adelaide was a single-track railway and a passing loop was provided at Woodville; as traffic on the line increased, the single track was duplicated throughout in 1881. The 1920s and 1930s saw significant development of heavy industry in Woodville and the neighbouring areas. For example, Holdens Motor Body Builders built a factory in the fork between the Grange and Outer Harbor lines. Sidings were laid to service the factory and Holdens station opened in 1928 a short way along the Grange line.
Cars were dispatched by rail from Holdens' sidings. The Woodville signal cabin became obsolete after a resignalling project in the late 1980s and has been relocated to the National Railway Museum, Port Adelaide. In late 2016, the station was ranked as one of the best stations in the western suburbs based on 5 criteria; the railway line between Woodville and Grange opened in September 1882. It was a private railway, constructed by the Grange Investment Company; the early railway was not a financial success and was bought out by the South Australian Railways in 1893. In World War II several munitions and armaments factories were opened, which resulted in construction of two new industrial branch lines in the Woodville area; the Finsbury line departed from the main line at Woodville. It headed in a northerly direction and serviced a wartime munitions works at Cheltenham Park and a Government Supply Depot at Finsbury; the line continued through Pennington to join the Dry Creek-Port Adelaide railway at Gillman Junction.
The layout at Woodville station was altered in 1942 when a new platform face was constructed on the north-east side of today's Platform 3 to serve Finsbury trains. The original 1856 station building on the Port Adelaide-bound platform was demolished and a new signal cabin was provided adjacent to the Woodville Road level crossing; this industrial line had limited passenger services, designed to cater for workers at factories in the vicinity. After the end of World War II there were no off-peak trains, or weekend services after Saturday lunchtime; the Finsbury line closed on 17 August 1979 and dismantled and redeveloped. The Islamic Arabic Centre & Al-Khalil Mosque on Torrens Road, Woodville North stands where the extensive Woodville North station platform used to stand until the 1980s. For many years the Grange line was operated by a shuttle service train at weekends and in the evenings; this terminated at Platform 1 and made connections with Outer Harbor line trains to and from Adelaide. However, since about 1996, all Grange trains have operated through to Adelaide.
Rails Through Swamp and Sand – A History of the Port Adelaide Railway. M. Thompson pub. Port Dock Station Railway Museum ISBN 0-9595073-6-1 Media related to Woodville railway station, Adelaide at Wikimedia Commons
Port Road, Adelaide
Port Road is a major road in Adelaide, South Australia connecting the Adelaide city centre with Port Adelaide. It is 12 km long, has a wide median strip, giving a total width of 70 m; the original design, conceived soon after the establishment of Adelaide, was to accommodate a standard road and a canal, with the canal replaced in the plans by a railway line. The canal and railway line were never created in the road allotment: the railway line when built in 1853 was built 1 km to the east. Since the extension of the Glenelg tram in 2009, 200 metres of median strip at the city end is occupied by tram lines. In the 1968 Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study the road was destined to be upgraded to become the Port Freeway; the plan fell through, yet in 2005 the Government of South Australia announced a 600 m tunnel for South Road below Port Road and the railway line. The Torrens Road to River Torrens project to upgrade South Road to include a free-flowing road in a trench under Port Road and several other intersections started construction in 2015 and is expected to be completed by the end of 2018.
Some routes in Adelaide were renumbered in 2017. Port Road had been designated route A21 between Park Terrace. After the change, the West Terrace end is not numbered, it bears route R1 between James Congdon Drive and Park Terrace. Australian Roads portal South Australian History: Port Adelaide 34°54′30″S 138°34′37″E
3000 class railcar
The 3000/3100 class are a class of diesel railcars operated by the State Transport Authority and its successors in Adelaide. They were built by Comeng and Clyde Engineering between 1987 and 1996. In March 1985, the State Transport Authority awarded a tender for 20 diesel railcars to Comeng, Dandenong; the design was based on the stainless steel shell of the Comeng electric train in production for Melbourne's Public Transport Corporation, but 2.3 metres longer and with only two doors per side. Because of a contractual requirement to maximise local content, the fit out was conducted at Comeng's Dry Creek facility; the first commenced testing in May 1987, entering service in November 1987. The eight 3000s were built first with the first 3100 class completed in mid-1988. In the original contract, there was an option to order 76 further examples; however Comeng came back to the STA with a higher price, so the work was put out to tender and a contract for 50 awarded to Clyde Engineering in November 1989.
Comeng concluded a deal to sell the 3000 class tooling. However by the time construction commenced, Comeng had sold its Dandenong plant to ABB who backed away from an agreement to hand over the jigs and tooling, so they were built between 1992 and 1996 by Clyde Engineering's Somerton factory. All were delivered with unpainted stainless steel offset by orange stripes. In April 2002 the first was repainted by Bluebird Rail Operations in Adelaide Metro's yellow and red, they operated on all Adelaide suburban lines, however since the electrification of the Seaford and Tonsley lines in 2014, they have been confined to the Belair, Gawler and Outer Harbor lines. On rare occasions during Seaford and Tonsley maintenance or emergencies they may replace 4000 class EMUs, they have on occasions ventured beyond the Adelaide metropolitan area, operating special services to Nuriootpa on the Barossa Valley line and Riverton on the Roseworthy-Peterborough line. These tours stopped in the mid 2000s; the Comeng builts railcar feature an underfloor mounted Mercedes Benz OM444LA 475 hp V12 twin turbo direct injection diesel engine, operating at a constant 1500 RPM, directly coupled to a Reliance 400kVA alternator.
Drive is provided by two Stromberg traction motors, rated at a continuous 130 kW each, mounted on a single bogie. The railcars feature an auxiliary transformer providing 3 phase 50 Hz at 415 V which supplies air-conditioning and other ancillary power needs; the Clyde built. The 3000 class bogies are built by feature airbag secondary suspension. All 3000 class railcars are fitted with electro-magnetic track brakes, which are comparatively rare on trains, though they are found on trams; these are operated separately from the normal dynamic braking. Trains are equipped with automatic Scharfenberg couplers. Coupling operations are sometimes performed at Adelaide station, requiring an extra staff member to flag the driver as well as to connect the safety chains; this feature allows sets of up to six cars to be formed. Two headlights are mounted at the top of the car in the centre on driver's cab ends. There are no marker lights at the front. There are metal steps up the side of the car to each door, they are illuminated by lights at night.
All cars are air-conditioned. In the 2008/09 State Budget it was announced that five out of six of Adelaide's railway lines were to be electrified commencing with the Noarlunga and Gawler lines; this was to have resulted in 58 of the 3000/3100 class railcars being converted to electric operation with the remaining 12 to be retained as diesels for operation on the Belair line. However with the electrification project scaled back, the conversions were cancelled. Since April 2018, 3000/3100 series trains have begun a life extension program, which includes engine upgrades and a new red livery similar to the 4000 class units; this upgrade will mean that these trains can continue to operate on the network for many years to come until network electrification is completed. Further information on the 3000 and 3100 series railcar, including several interior photographs Media related to 3000 class railcars at Wikimedia Commons
Gawler railway line
The Gawler railway line is a suburban commuter railway line in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. It is the only rail route in Adelaide to have no interchange with another line at any station except Adelaide; the line was opened in 1857 from Adelaide to Gawler, extended to Kapunda in 1860. Branches were built from Gawler to termini in Angaston, Morgan, Peterborough and Gladstone. Between Adelaide and Salisbury, the two broad gauge lines are paralleled by one standard gauge line on the Adelaide to Port Augusta line. A little north of Salisbury the standard gauge line heads north-west, from Salisbury to Gawler there are two broad gauge tracks, with a single broad gauge track north of Gawler. South of Gawler, there were branches to the Holden factory at Elizabeth South, the Penfield railway line which serviced the former munitions factory and other Defence facilities in the area now called Edinburgh, the Port Pirie line which branched from the Gawler line at Salisbury railway station until it was converted to standard gauge with a new track laid alongside the broad gauge tracks.
Prior to 1987, at Dry Creek, the Dry Creek-Port Adelaide railway line branched west, the Northfield railway line used to branch east. In 2008, the State Government announced a plan to rebuild the Gawler line in preparation for the line to be electrified with the Federal Government to provide funding; this work saw the track removed, the track bed and track renewed. Dual gauge sleepers were laid to allow for the line to be converted to standard gauge at a future date; the line was closed between North Adelaide and Mawson Interchange for four months from June 2010 for this work to be performed, between Mawson Interchange and Gawler Central station for seven months from September 2011. On 6 February 2011, a new Adelaide Metro railcar depot opened to the east of Dry Creek station to replace the facility behind the new Royal Adelaide Hospital site and Adelaide station; the depot is the major maintenance and re-fuelling facility for the 2000 and 3000 class diesel fleets, with capacity to store 70 railcars with over 11 kilometres of track.
The depot has been designed to allow future conversion to support electric rollingstock. The last freight service on the line was the Penrice Stone Train which operated to Penrice until June 2014. Since 2015 the line has been served by Adelaide Metro services using 3000 class railcars operating from Adelaide station to Gawler Central station. Following the withdrawal of the Federal Government funding, the electrification was postponed in October 2013. In 2017, the Gawler line between Adelaide and Mawson Lakes was closed along with the Outer Harbor and Grange lines during April, June and August to work on the Torrens Rail Junction Project in Bowden. In mid-September 2017 it was announced that from 1 to 15 October the Gawler and Outer Harbor lines line would be closed for major works to build a rail underpass at Park Terrace, Bowden. Delays in works pushed the opening from December 2017 to January 2018Following a decade of on-again, off-again talks, electrification of the Gawler line was announced in 2018.
The announcement only promised Stage 1 electrification as far as Salisbury with works to commence in 2018. A $220 million grant from the Federal Government allowed for Stage 2 electrification for the remainder of the line to proceed. Works are expected to commence in 2018-19 to be completed by the end of 2020; the line runs from Adelaide station north via Prospect, Mawson Lakes, Salisbury and Smithfield to the town Gawler on the outer northern metropolitan fringe. The line is 42.2 kilometres in length and is the longest of the Adelaide suburban railway lines. Like the rest of the Adelaide suburban passenger rail network, the line is 1,600 mm broad gauge for its entire length; the Australian Rail Track Corporation's standard gauge Adelaide to Port Augusta line runs parallel to the route from the Adelaide Gaol triangle to Salisbury turns north west towards Virginia. Parking / Park ‘n’ Ride / Hi Frequency All suburban rail passenger services are operated by Adelaide Metro. On 28 April 2008, new timetables were introduced on the Gawler line in an effort to boost efficiency.
Shorter secondary services that terminated at Dry Creek and Salisbury were withdrawn, new limited express services were introduced, a new Hi-Frequency station policy adopted. Nearly all services either start or terminate their journey at Gawler or Gawler Central stations, apart from a morning peak express service that commences its journey at Salisbury. Under this policy, the Hi-Frequency stations have services every 15 minutes, while all other stations have a 30-minute service; this is in addition to several peak hour express services that stop only at selected Hi-Frequency stations. Weekend services operate with 30 minute frequency, every second train runs express between Adelaide and Dry Creek using 3000 class railcars. Evening/Night services stop at all stations with the exception of North Adelaide; until April 2008, most services along the line were operated by 3000 class railcars. However, with the introduction of the new timetable, 2000 class railcars became more frequent during peak hour.
Freight is still a major factor along this transport corridor, with the Australian Rail Track Corporation's standard gauge Adelaide to Port Augusta line running parallel to the broad gauge track between Adelaide and Salisbury. Since 1984, this line had no interface with the suburban lines. Aurizon, Genesee & Wyoming Australia, Pac
A concrete sleeper or concrete tie is a type of railway sleeper or railroad tie made out of steel reinforced concrete. Concrete sleepers are less elastic, noisier than wooden sleepers as trains pass over them. In 1877, Joseph Monier, a French gardener, suggested that concrete reinforced with steel could be used for making sleepers for railway track. Monier designed a sleeper and obtained a patent for it. Concrete sleepers were first used on the Alford and Sutton Tramway in 1884, their first use on a main line railway was by the Reading Company in America in 1896, as recorded by AREA Proceedings at the time. Designs were further developed and the railways of Austria and Italy used the first concrete sleepers around the turn of the 20th century; this was followed by other European railways. Major progress was not achieved until World War II, when the timbers used for sleepers were scarce due to competition from other uses, such as mines. Following research carried out on French and other European railways, the modern pre-stressed concrete sleeper was developed.
Heavier rail sections and long welded rails were being installed, requiring higher-quality sleepers. These conditions spurred the development of concrete sleepers in France and Britain, where the technology was perfected; the 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in gauge Lynton and Barnstaple Railway in North Devon, experimented with concrete sleepers at a number of locations along the line. As the sleepers were cast to gauge, they were of little use outside the station areas on this curvaceous line where gauge slackening was required, they were noisy and lacked the elasticity of wooden sleepers creating a rigid road. Some of those concrete sleepers can now be seen on display at Woody Bay Station. Interest in concrete railway sleepers increased after World War II following advances in the design and production of pre-stressed concrete. Chaired bullhead; this design was used by the government-run railways during World War II and in particular prior to D-Day when timber was scarce and track extension or replacement was urgently required.
Gravesend West Street station was thus relaid in 1944 to enable the huge increase in freight to be handled. Concrete sleepers can be one piece of variable dimensions, they can consist of two separate blocks connected by a steel tie rod. Again, the Great Western Railway during World War Two produced chaired "pot" type sleepers — two concrete pods connected by steel bars — for use on sidings and some loops but these monoblock pot sleepers did not carry a gauge-tie at every position, such being placed every 3 or 4 pots or successively at rail joints; such an example was recorded in a siding at Talyllyn East Junction and at Rock Siding, Talybont-on Usk, on the former Brecon & Merthyr Railway in September 1963. Until quite examples were to be seen at Dovey Junction on the Cambrian Coast and others may still exist elsewhere. Exceptionally, the concrete can be poured as two separate longitudinal slabs, as has been used in Namibia. Slab track consists of a continuous concrete roadbed without division into separate sleepers, these are most used in tunnels.
British Rail experimented with slabs during the late 1960s and laid several miles alongside the main running lines north of Derby. Concrete sleepers lack the elasticity of wooden sleepers and, ballast tracks with concrete sleepers have a much quicker degradation of the ballast when loaded; this is true in curves and switches. To reduce the wear on the ballast, in some cases offer vibration isolation, pads are fitted to the base of the sleeper; the pads are manufactured of polyurethane foams with a stiffness tailored to meet the elasticity requirements of the track. To reduce the wear of the ballast, the best material to use is a stiff semi-plastic polyurethane foam that mimics the plastic behaviour of wooden sleepers; these pads are 7–10 mm thick. In order to achieve vibration isolation as well, the elastic layer needs to be softer, in many cases thicker. A vibration isolation of 5-12 dB can be achieved, but the results will depend on many factors, such as axle load, subsoil stiffness, ballast thickness, ballast quality and more.
Therefore, it is difficult to predict the results exactly. Advantages include: They do not rot like timber sleepers, extra weight makes track more stable, they can withstand fire hazards better than wooden sleepers, they give more retentivity to the track, they have a longer life than wooden sleepers, they need less maintenance, resulting in lower ongoing costs and fewer track closures. Additionally, concrete sleepers are not soaked in creosote like most wooden sleepers, therefore they are environmentally friendlier. Disadvantages include: When trains derail and the wheels hit the sleepers, timber sleepers tend to absorb the blow and remain intact, while concrete sleepers tend to shatter and have to be replaced. Initial costs are greater, they are unsuitable for change of gauge, unless this is taken into account. Concrete sleepers are up to 300 lbs heavier than their wooden counterparts; as a result, larger sized ballast is required to both support and hold in place the sleepers on the roadbed.
Additionally, they do not absorb as much vibration from passing trains. This can cause degradation of the sl
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba