Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Kenneth Smith Harrelson, nicknamed "The Hawk" due to his distinctive profile, is a former All-Star first baseman and outfielder in Major League Baseball. He is most known for his 33-year tenure as the broadcast announcer for the Chicago White Sox. Harrelson was born in Woodruff, South Carolina, his family moved to Savannah, when he was in fifth grade; as a child Harrelson was interested in basketball and he hoped to pursue a basketball scholarship from the University of Kentucky. His parents divorced, he played golf, baseball and basketball at Benedictine Military School in Savannah, Georgia. Throwing and batting right-handed, Harrelson played for four teams: the Kansas City Athletics, Washington Senators, Boston Red Sox, Cleveland Indians. In his nine-season career, Harrelson was a. 421 RBI in 900 games. His time with the Athletics ended abruptly in 1967 when Harrelson was quoted in a Washington newspaper calling team owner Charlie Finley "a menace to baseball" following the dismissal of manager Alvin Dark.
Although Harrelson denied using the word "menace", Harrelson was released and ended up signing a lucrative deal with the Boston Red Sox, who were in contention to win their first pennant since 1946. Brought in to replace the injured Tony Conigliaro, Harrelson helped the team win the pennant, but watched the team drop the World Series to the St. Louis Cardinals in seven games. However, in 1968, he had his finest season, making the American League All-Star team and leading the American League in runs batted in with 109, he finished third in the American League Most Valuable Player balloting, with two Detroit Tigers finishing ahead of him—pitcher Denny McLain won the award and catcher Bill Freehan finished second. On April 19, 1969, Harrelson was traded to the Indians, a move that shocked him and led him to retire. Following conversations with commissioner Bowie Kuhn and a contract adjustment by Cleveland, Harrelson reported to the team, finishing the year with 30 home runs, he used his local celebrity status to host a half-hour TV show, The Hawk's Nest, on local CBS affiliate WJW-TV.
Harrelson was popular in Cleveland, with his autobiography coming out around the time of the trade to the Indians. During spring training the following year, Harrelson suffered a broken leg while sliding into second base during a March 19 exhibition game against the Oakland Athletics; the injury kept him on the sidelines for much of the season. When Indians rookie Chris Chambliss took over the first base position in 1971, Harrelson retired mid-season to pursue a professional golf career. Harrelson is credited with inventing the batting glove by wearing a golf glove while at bat with the A's. Morris does credit Harrelson with popularizing the batting glove in the 1960s. Roger Maris used what was thought to be a batting glove, most a golf glove, in the 1961 season. After his time on the links brought minimal compensation over the next few years, Harrelson turned to a broadcasting career beginning in 1975 with the Red Sox on WSBK-TV partnering with Dick Stockton, he became popular after being teamed with veteran play-by-play man Ned Martin in 1979, but after being publicly critical of player personnel decisions made by Boston co-owner Haywood Sullivan, Harrelson was fired at the close of the 1981 season.
Harrelson served as a Chicago White Sox announcer from 1982 to 1985 and left broadcasting during the 1986 season to become the White Sox's general manager. During his one season as GM, Harrelson fired field manager Tony La Russa and assistant general manager Dave Dombrowski. Harrelson traded rookie Bobby Bonilla a six-time All-Star, to the Pittsburgh Pirates for pitcher José DeLeón. During the 1987–1988 seasons, he was the play-by-play man for New York Yankees games on SportsChannel New York. From 1984 to 1989, Harrelson served as a backup color commentator on NBC's Game of the Week broadcasts alongside play-by-play man Jay Randolph. In 1994, Harrelson served as a broadcaster for the short-lived Baseball Network and was the US broadcaster for the Japan Series that aired through the Prime-SportsChannel regional networks. Harrelson returned to the White Sox in 1990 as the main play-by-play announcer during television broadcasts, teaming up with Tom Paciorek until 2000 and Darrin "DJ" Jackson from 2000 to 2008.
In 2009, former Chicago Cubs color analyst Steve Stone, who broadcast with the late Baseball Hall of Fame broadcaster Harry Caray and Chip Caray, began accompanying Harrelson in the television booth. During this time he won two Illinois Sportscaster of the Year awards. However, in 2010, GQ named Harrelson and broadcast partner Steve Stone the worst pair of broadcasters in baseball. Starting with the 2016 season, Harrelson cut back his schedule to select home games. Jason Benetti took over as the television announcer for most home games. On May 31, 2017, Harrelson announced. After calling his final game, a 6-1 loss to the crosstown rival Chicago Cubs, Harrelson retired from broadcasting on September 24, 2018. Harrelson is known for his homerism and catch phrases known as "Hawkisms". Popular "Hawkisms" inc
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
St. Joseph County, Indiana
St. Joseph County called St. Joe County by locals, is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of Census 2010, the population was 266,931. Formed in 1830, it was named for the St. Joseph River; the county seat is South Bend. St. Joseph County is part of the South Bend -- IN-MI, Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 461.38 square miles, of which 457.85 square miles is land and 3.54 square miles is water. Mishawaka South Bend Granger Notre Dame Berrien County, Michigan Cass County, Michigan Elkhart County Marshall County Starke County LaPorte County I-80 / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road US 6 US 20 Bus. US 20 US 31 Bus. US 31 SR 2 SR 4 SR 23 SR 104 SR 331 SR 933 In recent years, average temperatures in South Bend have ranged from a low of 16 °F in January to a high of 83 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1943 and a record high of 109 °F was recorded in July 1934. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.98 inches in February to 4.19 inches in June.
The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. St. Joseph County is part of Indiana's 2nd congressional district and is represented by Jackie Walorski in the United States Congress. Indiana's US Senators are Todd Young; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 266,931 people, 103,069 households, 66,365 families residing in the county. The population density was 583.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 114,849 housing units at an average density of 250.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 78.7% white, 12.7% black or African American, 1.9% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.4% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.3% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 12.0% were Polish, 8.5% were English, 4.5% were American. Of the 103,069 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 36.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $57,510. Males had a median income of $45,269 versus $31,667 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,082.
About 10.7% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.7% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. North Liberty Elementary Walkerton Elementary Urey Middle School John Glenn High School Olive Township Elementary New Prairie Middle School New Prairie High School Bittersweet Elementary Elm Road Elementary Elise Rogers Elementary Horizon Elementary Madison Elementary Mary Frank Elementary Meadow's Edge Elementary Moran Elementary Northpoint Elementary Prairie Vista Elementary Walt Disney Elementary Discovery Middle School Grissom Middle School Schmucker Middle School Penn High School Battell Elementary Beiger Elementary Emmons Elementary Hums Elementary LaSalle Elementary Liberty Elementary Twin Branch Elementary John Young Middle School Mishawaka High School Bingham Elementary School John Adams High School Bird's Eye Clay High School Bird's Eye James Whitcomb Riley High School Bird's Eye Washington High School Bird's Eye Brown Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Clay Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Dickinson Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Edison Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Greene Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Jackson Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Jefferson Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Lasalle Intermediate Academy Bird's Eye Marshall Intermediate Center Bird's Eye Na
Mishawaka is a city on the St. Joseph River, in Penn Township, St. Joseph County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 48,252 as of the 2010 census, its nickname is "the Princess City." Mishawaka is a principal city of the South Bend -- IN-MI, Metropolitan Statistical Area. Mishawaka’s recorded history began with the discovery of bog iron deposits at the beginning of the 1830s. Settlers arriving to mine the deposits founded the town of St. Joseph Iron Works in 1831. Within a few years, the town had a blast furnace, a general store, a tavern, about 200 residents. Business prospered, in 1833 St. Joseph Iron Works, Indiana City, two other adjacent small towns were incorporated to form the city of Mishawaka; the Mishawaka post office has been in operation since 1833. In September 1872, a fire destroyed three quarters of Mishawaka’s business district. However, the citizens attracted new industry; the Dodge Manufacturing Company, Perkins Windmills and the Mishawaka Woolen and Rubber Company all helped the town to prosper.
Mishawaka grew through both agriculture. In the late 19th century, Mishawaka became known as the "Peppermint Capital of the World", since the area's rich black loam produced great quantities of mint. From 1906 to 1915, Mishawaka was the manufacturing home of the luxurious American Simplex motor car. Four American Simplex autos entered the first Indianapolis 500 in 1911. One Simplex crashed, killing the mechanic riding with the driver, while the other Mishawaka cars finished sixth and twentieth. Ball Band made rubber garments and was hit by a major strike in 1931, it flourished in the 1940s closing in 1997 in the face of cheaper imports. Manufacturing in Mishawaka peaked in the 1940s and began a slow decline due to industrial restructuring; the economic base shifted to small industry. In 1979, University Park Mall opened north of Mishawaka. In 1990, AM General began producing the Hummer in its Mishawaka plant; the MV-1 replaces the planned Standard Taxi. The car is built in Mishawaka at an AM General plant.
AM General will begin making Mercedes vehicles at this plant in 2015. A Business Week Magazine Best Place to Raise Your Kids 2010: Indiana Old-fashioned neighborhoods are found across the city. Many of the newer residential subdivisions that have been developed within the city in recent years have adopted design guidelines to produce the "hometown" neighborhood feel and encourage community spirit; the city continually develops new neighborhood park and recreation facilities. A total of 29 parks allow Mishawaka residents to golf, play ball and exercise. In 1968, the city opened an outdoor Olympic-size swimming pool and an adjacent ice skating rink at Merrifield Park. On the south side, Mishawaka's George Wilson Park is home to the city's most popular winter toboggan spot, as well as an 18-hole frisbee golf course; some of the city's Italian immigrants and their descendants still play traditional games such as bocce, a few ethnic Belgians continue to raise and race homing pigeons. The city hosted the nation's oldest and largest wiffleball tournament, the World Wiffle Ball Championship, from 1980-2012.
The city's three high schools have won a combined 11 state championships in football since 1920. Soest, North Rhine-Westphalia Shiojiri, Japan Beutter Park - The new park includes a river race with elliptical-shaped overlook weirs and fiber-optic underwater lighting, two connecting bridges across the St. Joseph River race to the park, the Mishawaka Riverwalk, the "Shards" sculpture, an 800-foot perennial garden. Battell Park Historic District, has a WPA-built band shelter and terraced rock garden. Old Mishawaka Carnegie Library on N. Hill St - is now a restaurant. Shiojiri Garden, located in Merrifield Park, is a Japanese strolling garden that symbolizes the Sister-City relationship between Mishawaka and Shiojiri City, Japan; the Beiger Mansion, built in 1903 and restored in 1973, was gutted by arson in 1974. The building has since been renovated, it is operated as a bed-and-breakfast and events facility. The Otis R. Bowen Museum, located on the campus of Bethel College, houses memorabilia and artifacts related to Dr. Otis Bowen's years as Governor of Indiana and Secretary of Health and Human Services.
It has a copy of the Otis Bowen bust. In addition to the Battell Park Historic District, Beiger Mansion, Old Mishawaka Carnegie Library, the Dodge House, Eller-Hosford House, Ellis-Schindler House and Schellinger Brewery, Merrifield-Cass House, Normain Heights Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Tivoli Theater, demolished in 2005, was listed. According to the 2010 census, Mishawaka has a total area of 17.348 square miles, of which 17 square miles is land and 0.348 square miles is water. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $33,986, the median income for a family was $41,947. Males had a median income of $33,878 versus $23,672 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,434. About 7.3% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.7% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 48,252 people, 21,343 households, 11,730 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,838.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 24,088 housing units at an average density of 1,416.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.1% White, 6.9% African American, 0.4% Na
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry
The Grange named The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, is a fraternal organization in the United States that encourages families to band together to promote the economic and political well-being of the community and agriculture. The Grange, founded after the Civil War in 1867, is the oldest American agricultural advocacy group with a national scope; the Grange lobbied state legislatures and Congress for political goals, such as the Granger Laws to lower rates charged by railroads, rural free mail delivery by the Post Office. In 2005, the Grange had a membership of 160,000, with organizations in 2,100 communities in 36 states, it is headquartered in Washington, D. C. in a building built by the organization in 1960. Many rural communities in the United States still have a Grange Hall and local Granges still serve as a center of rural life for many farming communities. President Andrew Johnson commissioned Oliver Kelley to go to the Southern states and to collect data to improve Southern agricultural conditions.
In the South, poor farmers bore the brunt of the Civil War and were suspicious of Northerners like Kelley. Kelley found. With Southern Masons as guides, he toured the war-torn countryside in the South and was appalled by the outdated farming practices, he saw the need for an organization that would bring people from the North and South together in a spirit of mutual cooperation and, after many letters and consultations with the other founders, the Grange was born. The first Grange, Grange # 1, was founded in 1868 in New York. Seven men and one woman co-founded the Grange: Oliver Hudson Kelley, William Saunders, Francis M. McDowell, John Trimble, Aaron B. Grosh, John R. Thompson, William M. Ireland, Caroline Hall. Paid agents organized local Granges and membership in the Grange increased from 1873 to 1875. Many of the state and local granges adopted non-partisan political resolutions regarding the regulation of railroad transportation costs; the organization was unusual at this time, because women and any teen old enough to draw a plow were encouraged to participate.
The importance of women was reinforced by requiring that four of the elected positions could be held only by women. Rapid growth infused the national organization with money from dues, many local granges established consumer cooperatives supplied by the wholesaler Aaron Montgomery Ward. Poor fiscal management, combined with organizational difficulties resulting from rapid growth, led to a massive decline in membership. By the turn of the 20th century, the Grange rebounded and membership stabilized; the Granger movement supported efforts by politicians to regulate rates charged by the railroads and grain warehouses. It claimed credit for the ideas of the Cooperative Extension Service, Rural Free Delivery, the Farm Credit System; the peak of their political reputation was marked by the Supreme Court decision in Munn v. Illinois, which held that grain warehouses were a "private utility in the public interest," and so could be regulated by public law; however this achievement was overturned by the Supreme Court in Wabash v. Illinois.
The Grange endorsed the temperance cause to avoid alcohol, the direct election of Senators and women's suffrage. Grange membership has declined as the percentage of American farmers has fallen from a third of the population in the early 20th century to less than two percent today. Between 1992 and 2007, the number of Grange members fell by 40%. Washington has the largest membership of any state, at 13,000; as of 2013 the Grange continues to press for the causes of farmers, including issues of free trade and farm policy. In its 2006 Journal of Proceedings, the organization's report on its annual convention, the organization lays out its mission and how it works towards achieving it through fellowship and legislation: The Grange provides opportunities for individuals and families to develop to their highest potential in order to build stronger communities and states, as well as a stronger nation; as a non-partisan organization, the Grange supports only policies, never political parties or candidates.
Although the Grange was founded to serve the interests of farmers, because of the shrinking farm population the Grange has begun to broaden its range to include a wide variety of issues, anyone is welcome to join the Grange. The Junior Grange is open to children 5-14. Regular Grange membership is older; the Grange Youth, a group within the Grange, consists of members 13 1/2-35. In 2013, the Grange signed on to a letter to Congress calling for the doubling of legal immigration and legalization for undocumented immigrants in the United States. However, this position has been somewhat revised, the Grange now emphasizes an expansion in the H-2A visa program to increase legal immigration and address the crisis-level labor shortage in agriculture, they support the enforcement of immigration law but urge discretion with regard to the impact on labor availability. When the Grange first began in 1867, it borrowed some of its rituals and symbols from Freemasonry, including secret meetings and special passwords.
It copied ideas from Greek and Roman mythology and the Bible. Small, ceremonial farm tools are displayed at Grange meetings. Elected officers are in charge of closing each meeting. There are seven degrees of Grange membership. During the last few decades, the Grange has moved toward public meetings and no longer meets in secret. Though the secret meetings do not occur, the Grange still acknowle