In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
San Gorgonio Mountain
San Gorgonio Mountain known locally as Mount San Gorgonio, or Old Greyback, is the highest peak in Southern California and the Transverse Ranges at 11,503 feet. It is in the San Bernardino Mountains, 27 miles east of the city of San Bernardino and 12 miles north-northeast of San Gorgonio Pass, it lies within the San Gorgonio Wilderness, part of the Sand to Snow National Monument managed by the San Bernardino National Forest. Spanish missionaries in the area during the early 17th century named the peak after Saint Gorgonius. Since it is the highest point in a region, separated from higher peaks by low terrain, San Gorgonio Mountain is one of the most topographically prominent peaks in the United States, it is ranked 7th among peaks in 18th among overall. Like other high peaks in the Transverse Ranges, the mountain has a pyramid shape, with a steep north face and a shallower south face; the mountain is broad. In contrast to its spectacular but lower neighbor, San Jacinto Peak, San Gorgonio is not craggy, from a distance, it only appears to be an high hill, earning it the name of greyback.
Despite not being striking in appearance during the summer, it is the only mountain in Southern California with a summit a significant distance above the tree line. As such its bright white winter snow cap, unobstructed by vegetation, makes the mountain noticeable from many miles away; the mountain hosts the longest recorded line of sight in the contiguous United States. San Gorgonio Mountain lies at the easternmost extremity of the Transverse Ranges; the mountain is a eroded dissected plateau. Big Bear Lake, California is the largest city near San Gorgonio, hosts two major ski resorts, as well as a popular summer get away for many southern Californians that utilize the lake for boating swimming, fishing; the shape of the mountain is influenced by a series of steeply dipping thrust faults on the north face of the mountain. The south side of the mountain contains river canyons typical of a dissected plateau; the mountain is a massive block of quartz monzonite, which sits on an ancient platform of Precambrian gneissic rocks.
Glacial and fluvial deposits dominate the surface of the lowest part of the mountain. Three major Southern California rivers have their source on San Gorgonio Mountain: the Santa Ana River, the Whitewater River, the San Gorgonio River. Jenks Lake, on the north slope of the mountain, is one of the few perennial lakes in Southern California. San Gorgonio Mountain sits on the Great Basin Divide, which separates steams that flow into the basins of the Basin and Range Province from rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean; the climate on most of the mountain is Csb under the Köppen climate classification. The summit of San Gorgonio has an Alpine climate, as no month in that area has an average temperature greater than 10 °C. Like most other peaks in the Transverse Ranges, the summit is a technically easy class 1 hike. Several trails lead to the broad summit of San Gorgonio Mountain, which rises a few hundred feet above the tree line. Most routes are strenuous and require well over 4,000 feet of elevation gain.
The trail leading from the Fish Creek Trailhead to San Gorgonio Mountain has about 3,400 feet of gain, less than the routes from the South Fork and Vivian Creek trailheads. Hikers should always take caution. On December 1, 1952, a Douglas C-47, serial number 45-1124, crashed at the 11,000 feet level on the eastern face of the mountain; the C-47 was en route from Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska to March Air Force Base near Riverside, California when it struck the mountain at night in the middle of a storm. "The aircraft was last heard from at 9:51 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, Monday." Thirteen people died. Nearly one month after the C-47 accident a Marine Corps HRS-2 helicopter, bureau number 129037, crashed on the mountain in coordination of the efforts of recovering the victims; the three crewmen of the helicopter survived the impact. Most of the wreckage of the two aircraft remain on the mountain and are accessible via the Fish Creek Trailhead or the South Fork Trailhead. In more recent years, the mountain claimed the lives of Frank Sinatra's mother and Dean Paul Martin, son of Dean Martin, in unrelated plane crashes.
Martin was an Air National Guard pilot and the McDonnell Douglas F-4C he was flying disappeared in a snowstorm and the wreckage was found on the mountain several days later. List of highest points in California by county List of Ultras of the United States "San Gorgonio". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-07. "San Gorgonio Wilderness Association". Retrieved 2008-11-24. OnTheTrail.org - San Gorgonio Topo and Trail Map
Spruce Knob, at 4,863 feet, is the highest point in the state of West Virginia and the summit of Spruce Mountain, the highest peak in the Allegheny Mountains. The summit of Spruce Knob has a definite alpine feel, much more so than most other mountains of the Southern Appalachians; the upper few hundred feet are covered in a dense spruce forest, a relic boreal forest environment similar to those found in northern New England and Canada. The summit is accessible both via trails and a paved Forest Service road, is crowned with a stone lookout tower amid a mixture of boulder fields and trees. A handicap-accessible nature trail. High west winds near the summit have gnarled the spruce there like Krummholz, flagged with limbs only on their leeward side; as is typical in the southern Appalachians, the highest point on a ridge is referred to as a knob or dome. Spruce Knob is the highest point along a ridge known as the Allegheny Front. Dropping steeply to the east, it offers views of the Germany North Fork Mountain.
It is the highest point in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Like the rest of this part of the Appalachian Mountains, Spruce Knob began to form with the breakup of Pangea I between 570 and 500 mya; the African Plate separated from the North American Plate opening the Proto-Atlantic Ocean. The North American Plate stretched and thinned, allowing it to backfill with a shallow inland sea. About 50 million years with the Taconic Orogeny, the two plates reversed course and began to move towards each other. Mid-ocean subduction created a volcanic arc which collided with the North American Plate; the arc fused onto the continent and the land to the west was uplifted. The accumulation of shells and other hard parts of marine organisms at the bottom of the shallow inland sea cemented into a layer of Greenbrier Limestone; the shallow inland sea began to retreat with the uplift. This caused fine grains of mud and silt to settle out and lithify into a layer of Mauch Chunk Shale on top of the Greenbrier Limestone.
As the Blue Ridge eroded, rivers carried sediment down to the low-lying areas that formed a layer of Pottsville Conglomerate on top of the shale. The large boulders on the summit are remnants of this layer, outcrops of both Mauch Chunk Shale and Greenbrier Limestone can be found lower on the mountain; when the North American and African Plates collided around 250 mya, it caused a massive uplift that folded and faulted these layers of sedimentary rock. Spruce Knob was in the bottom of one of these folds, but over time cracks in the Pottsville Conglomerate in the higher elevations allowed it to erode and the softer layers of shale and limestone were quick to follow; this left Spruce Knob as the highest point in the landscape. Spruce Knob is the westernmost extent of this intense faulting. To the west, the Allegheny Plateau is composed of more sloping hills and dendritic drainages. Spruce Knob's climate can be classified as cold highland. Summers are cool and damp, with thunderstorms common both in spring and summer.
Winters are cold and snowy, with an average of around 180 inches of annual snowfall leaving the summit access road impassible between October and April. Blizzard conditions can develop in minutes behind cold frontal passages and last days with upslope snowfall continuing with northwest winds, making travel on the mountain dangerous during the colder months; this mountain can receive high winds year-round. The summit was named for the spruce trees. Red spruce is the most common tree species on the summit; the lower altitudes are populated by oak, birch and maple. Bald eagles and peregrine falcons have been seen on the mountain. Mammals such as black bear, white-tailed deer, porcupine and rabbit are found. Spruce Knob is within the Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area, which in turn is part of Monongahela National Forest. Established in 1965, it was the first National Recreation Area designated by the U. S. Forest Service and includes more than 100,000 acres. There are over 75 miles of hiking trails around the mountain and a small 25-acre lake well stocked with trout on the west side of the mountain.
Two campgrounds are on the mountain. Paved access is from U. S. Route 33/West Virginia Route 28 about 2 miles south of Riverton. Briery Gap Road, Forest Road 112 and Forest Road 104 have been reconstructed and paved to provide a hard-surfaced road to the summit. Forest Roads 104 and 112 are not maintained in the winter. Impassable conditions can be expected any time from mid-October to mid-April. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountains of West Virginia List of U. S. states by elevation Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area Monongahela National Forest: Spruce Knob
Dillingham Census Area, Alaska
Dillingham Census Area is a census area located in the state of Alaska, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 4,847, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest community by far is the city of Dillingham, on a small arm of Bristol Bay on the Bering Sea. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has a total area of 20,915 square miles, of which 18,569 square miles is land and 2,346 square miles is water. Bethel Census Area, Alaska - west/north Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska - east Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Hagemeister Island Togiak National Wildlife Refuge Togiak Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 4,922 people, 1,529 households, 1,105 families residing in the census area; the population density was 0 people per square mile. There were 2,332 housing units at an average density of 0/sq mi; the racial makeup of the census area was 21.64% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 70.13% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 6.68% from two or more races.
2.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.6 % reported speaking Eskimo at home. There were 1,529 households out of which 45.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.10% were married couples living together, 15.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.84. In the census area the population was spread out with 38.10% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 19.50% from 45 to 64, 5.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.80 males. The per capita income is estimated at 23,500 U. S. dollars per year. Aleknagik Clark's Point Dillingham Ekwok Manokotak New Stuyahok Togiak Koliganek Portage Creek Twin Hills List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of airports in the Dillingham Census Area Census Area map: Alaska Department of Labor
Carbon County, Montana
Carbon County is a county in the U. S. state of Montana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 10,078 and estimated at 10,696 as of a 2017 estimate, its county seat is Red Lodge. Carbon County is part of MT Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carbon County was named for the rich coal deposits found in the area, it was organized on March 1895, from portions of Park and Yellowstone counties. Land from Park and Yellowstone counties was used to form Carbon County on March 4, 1895. More than sixty federally designated historic sites are located in the county, including Petroglyph Canyon, one of the state's most important rock art sites; the first commercial oil well in the state was established in Elk Basin fields in 1915. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,062 square miles, of which 2,049 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. Granite Peak, the state's highest mountain, is found in Carbon County's Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Highway, one of the "most spectacular alpine highways", links Red Lodge to Cooke City.
The Pryor Mountains are in the east of the county, along with the Big Horn River. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area Custer National Forest Gallatin National Forest Carbon County has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1968; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,552 people, 4,065 households, 2,707 families residing in the county. The population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 5,494 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.07% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.65% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. 1.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.8% were of German, 11.5% English, 9.2% Irish, 8.9% Norwegian, 5.9% American and 5.2% Italian ancestry. There were 4,065 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 6.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families.
28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.86. The county population contained 24.00% under the age of 18, 5.70% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 27.30% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,139, the median income for a family was $38,405. Males had a median income of $30,226 versus $19,945 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,204. About 8.20% of families and 11.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.30% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,078 people, 4,571 households, 2,884 families residing in the county; the population density was 4.9 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 6,441 housing units at an average density of 3.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.2% white, 0.8% American Indian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 32.3% were German, 16.2% were Irish, 14.5% were English, 12.6% were American, 6.6% were Norwegian. Of the 4,571 households, 23.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families, 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age was 48.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,010 and the median income for a family was $59,823. Males had a median income of $41,241 versus $26,150 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,983.
About 8.1% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.1% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. During the early history of Carbon County, coal mining was the predominant industry; the current economy relies on agriculture and tourism. In 2009 the top employers were Beartooth Hospital & Health Center, Red Lodge Mountain, the Red Lodge Pizza Company. In December 2014, construction began on a large windfarm, Mud Springs Wind Ranch, with 120 wind turbines, 12 miles southeast of Bridger. Red Lodge List of cemeteries in Carbon County, Montana List of lakes in Carbon County, Montana List of mountains in Carbon County, Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Carbon County, Montana County government website Homepage of the Carbon County News Carbon County Sheriff's Office
Mount Baldy (Arizona)
Mount Baldy is a mountain in eastern Arizona in the United States. It is the highest point in the White Mountains and Apache County, it is the fifth-highest point in the state, the highest outside the San Francisco Peaks in the Flagstaff area. With a summit elevation of 11,409 feet, the peak of Mount Baldy rises above the tree line and is left bare of vegetation, lending the mountain its current name; the summit of Mount Baldy is within the Fort Apache Indian Reservation and is off-limits to hikers without permission. An unnamed sub-peak with an elevation of 10,890 feet exists 0.5 miles to the north of the summit, off reservation and accessible to the public via maintained trail. A third peak, Ord Peak, sits about three miles northwest of Baldy Peak, not to be confused with Mount Ord. Mount Baldy is one of the most sacred mountains to the Apache of Arizona; the Western Apache of Arizona inhabited the areas within their most four sacred mountain ranges: the White Mountains of Eastern Arizona, the Pinaleno Mountains near the town of Safford in southeastern Arizona, the Four Peaks near the City of Phoenix and the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff.
When Captain George M. Wheeler visited the mountaintop in 1873, he described the view as "The most magnificent and effective of any among the large number that have come under my observation". Wheeler named the mountain Mount Thomas after General Lorenzo Thomas, who fought in the Mexican–American War, it became Mount Baldy. The name Mount Thomas has been assigned to a nearby peak by the U. S. Geological Survey. Mount Baldy contains the headwaters of the Little Colorado River and Salt River and produces the most abundant trout fishing streams in Arizona. No other mountain in Arizona streams. Along its slope are numerous man made lakes; the area around Mount Baldy averages the most abundant precipitation in Arizona. Wildlife is abundant on the mountain and includes the introduced Mexican Grey Wolf. While looking northeast from Historic Fort Apache Mount Baldy rises 6,130 ft in elevation. List of mountains and hills of Arizona by height
Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness was created from existing National Forest lands in 1978 and is located in Montana and Wyoming, United States. The wilderness is in Gallatin and Shoshone National Forests and is composed of 944,000 acres; the wilderness encompasses two distinct mountain ranges, namely the Absaroka ranges. These ranges are distinct geologically speaking with the Absarokas composed of volcanic and metamorphic rock, while the Beartooths are made up entirely of granitic rocks; the Absarokas are noted for their dark and craggy appearance and forested valleys and abundant wildlife. The highest peak in the range, located in Wyoming, is Francs Peak at 13,153 feet; the Beartooths are more alpine with huge treeless plateaus and the highest peak in the state of Montana. The wilderness contains 30 peaks over 12,000 feet; the wilderness is an integral part of the 20-million-acre Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and borders Yellowstone National Park. Wilderness areas do not allow mechanical equipment including bicycles.
Although camping and fishing are allowed with proper permit, no roads or buildings are constructed and there is no logging or mining, in compliance with the 1964 Wilderness Act. Wilderness areas within National Forests and Bureau of Land Management areas allow hunting in season. There are 700 miles of trails in the wilderness, hundreds of lakes, a few dozen streams and a similar number of small glaciers can be found in the wilderness; the forests are dominated by various species of spruce and pine while in the Beartooth Mountains, due to the altitude, tundra conditions prevail. The Beartooths have the largest unbroken area of land in excess of 10,000 feet in altitude in the U. S. outside of Alaska. Animals found in the wilderness include bald eagles and yellowstone cutthroat trout and the threatened grizzly bear and lynx as well as the gray wolf. Access to the wilderness is difficult but can be achieved via the Beartooth Highway US 212 from Red Lodge, Montana. There are some forest access roads from the west off of US 89 south from Livingston, Montana.
The Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness is full of beautiful landscapes. Below are some of the highlights: East Rosebud- Many avid hikers say that "East Rosebud is the most scenic valley of all." It is filled with waterfalls that would be major tourism draws anywhere else. In fact, there are so many different waterfalls and lakes within this valley that many of them have yet to be named. Slough Lake is found within the East Rosebud valley. Slough Lake is accessed by following the Phantom Creek Trail, which can be used to access Granite Peak, which has an elevation of 12,799 feet above sea level, is the highest peak in Montana. Mystic Lake-the deepest lake in the Beartooth Mountains, it is a wonderful destination for a day hike. The Montana Power Company does utilize the power of this large lake, they do have a dam present, but they do as much as possible to maintain the wilderness. Mystic Lake supports a rainbow trout fishery, the fishing is great when the fish are feeding. Hiking the trail up 3 miles to Mystic Lake provides great views of West Rosebud Valley and a few other lakes.
List of U. S. Wilderness Areas Silkwood, J. T. and G. N. Green.. Generalized geologic map of the Absaroka-Beartooth study area, south-central Montana. Reston, VA: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. "Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness". The National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness.net. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-16. "USGS Cooke City Topo Map Quad". TopoQuest. Retrieved 2008-06-29. "Wilderness Legislation: The Wilderness Act of 1964". The National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness.net. Archived from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-16