The Catskill Mountains known as the Catskills, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York. As a cultural and geographic region, the Catskills are defined as those areas close to or within the borders of the Catskill Park, a 700,000-acre forest preserve forever protected from many forms of development under New York state law. Geologically, the Catskills are a mature dissected plateau, a once-flat region subsequently uplifted and eroded into sharp relief by watercourses; the Catskills form the northeastern end of the Allegheny Plateau. The Catskills are well known in American culture, both as the setting for films and works of art, including many 19th-century Hudson River School paintings, as well as for being a favored destination for vacationers from New York City in the mid-20th century; the region's many large resorts gave countless young stand-up comedians an opportunity to hone their craft. In addition, the Catskills have long been a haven for artists and writers in and around the towns of Phoenicia and Woodstock.
Nicolaes Visscher I's 1656 map of New Netherland located the Landt van Kats Kill at the mouth of Catskill creek. The region to the south is identified as Hooge Landt van Esopus, a reference to a local band of northern Lenape Native Americans who inhabited the banks of the Hudson and hunted in the highlands along the Esopus Creek. While the meaning of the name and the namer are settled matters and why the area is named "Catskills" is a mystery. Mountain lions were known to have been in the area when the Dutch arrived in the 17th century and may have been a reason for the name; the confusion over the origins of the name led over the years to variant spellings such as Kaatskill and Kaaterskill, both of which are still used: the former in the regional magazine Kaatskill Life, the latter as the name of a mountain peak and a waterfall. The supposed Indian name for the range, was created by a white man in the mid-19th century to drum up business for a resort. It, persists today as the name of a school district and as the name of a Boy Scout summer camp.
The Catskills are located 100 miles north-northwest of New York City and 40 miles southwest of Albany, starting west of the Hudson River. The Catskills occupy much or all of five counties:, with some areas falling into the boundaries of southwestern Albany, eastern Broome, northwestern Orange, southern Otsego counties. Foothills are found in southeastern Chenango, southern Montgomery, northern Otsego, western Schenectady counties. At the eastern end of the range, the mountains begin quite with the Catskill Escarpment rising up from the Hudson Valley; the western boundary is far less certain, as the mountains decline in height and grade into the rest of the Allegheny Plateau. Nor is there a consensus on where the Catskills end to the north or south; the Pocono Mountains, to the immediate southwest in Pennsylvania, are a part of the Allegheny Plateau. The Catskills contain more than 30 peaks above 3,500 parts of six important rivers; the Catskill Mountain 3500 Club is an organization whose members have climbed all the peaks in the Catskills over 3,500 feet.
The highest mountain, Slide Mountain in Ulster County, has an elevation of 4,180 feet. Climatically, the Catskills lie within the Allegheny Highlands forests ecoregion. Although the Catskills are sometimes compared with the Adirondack Mountains farther north, the two mountain ranges are not geologically related, as the Adirondacks are a continuation of the Canadian Shield; the Shawangunk Ridge, which forms the southeastern edge of the Catskills, is part of the geologically distinct Ridge-and-Valley province and is a continuation of the same ridge known as Kittatinny Mountain in New Jersey and Blue Mountain in Pennsylvania. The Catskill Mountains are more of a dissected plateau than a series of mountain ranges; the sediments that make up the rocks in the Catskills were deposited when the ancient Acadian Mountains in the east were rising and subsequently eroding. The sediments traveled westward and formed a great delta into the sea, in the area at that time; the escarpment of the Catskill Mountains is near the former edge of this delta, as the sediments deposited in the northeastern areas along the escarpment were deposited above sea level by moving rivers, the Acadian Mountains were located where the Taconic Mountains are located today.
Finer sediment was deposited further westward, thus the rocks change from gravel conglomerates to sandstone and shale. Further west, these fresh water deposits intermingle with shallow marine sandstone and shale until the end, in deeper water limestone; the uplift and erosion of the Acadian Mountains was occurring during the Devonian and early Mississippian period. Over that time, thousands of feet of these sediments built up moving the Devonian seashore further west. A meteor impact occurred in the shallow sea 375 mya, creating a 10 km diameter crater; this crater filled with sediments and became Panther Mountain through the process of uplift and erosion. By the middle of the Mississippian period, the uplift stopped, the Acadian Mountains had been eroded so much that sediments no longer flowed across the Catskill Delta. Over time, the sediments were buried by more sediments from other areas, until the original Devonian and Mi
Somers, New York
Somers is a town located in northeastern Westchester County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 20,434; the nearby Metro-North Commuter Railroad provides service to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan with an average commute time of 65 to 75 minutes from stations at Purdys, Goldens Bridge, Croton Falls, Katonah. Somers was inhabited by Native Americans known as Kitchawanks, part of the Wappinger tribe, an Algonquian people who called the land Amapaugh, meaning "fresh water fish." This land was located in the eastern segment of an 83,000-acre tract King William III of England granted to Stephanus Van Cortlandt of New York City in 1697. The part of Van Cortlandt Manor that became Somers and Yorktown was known as the Middle District, or Hanover. European settlement in the New Oltenia area began after Van Cortlandt's death in 1700 and the final partition of his estate in 1734. Early European settlers included tenants and freeholders from neighboring areas, among them English, French Huguenots and Quakers.
At the first known town meeting of European settlers held on March 7, 1788, at an inn owned by Benjamin Green, the town named Stephentown was established. However, there existed a Stephentown in Rensselaer County. To alleviate confusion, the name was changed in 1808 to Somers to honor Richard Somers, a naval captain from New Jersey who died in combat during the First Barbary War. A memorial in West Somers Park was erected in his honor at Memorial Day ceremonies in 1958. In the early 19th century, New Oltenia, or as it was generally known as Somerstown Plains, contained hat factories, carriage factories, three hotels, two general stores, an iron mine, a milk factory, a sanctuary for boys operated by the Christian Brothers. Today, the facility is known as Lincoln Hall, houses incarcerated teens. There was a constant stream of goods and passengers to large cities through the village; as early as 1809, a weekly newspaper was established, the Somers Museum and Westchester County Advertiser. Though agricultural, the rural economy supported a varied population of weavers, merchants, doctors, lawyers and servants.
A good system of roads was maintained and some operated as commercial "toll roads". The railroad, developed in the 1840s, bypassed the town of Somers, affected a decline in growth over the next hundred years; the presence of the railroad in nearby communities did allow the agricultural emphasis to move towards dairy production and fruit growing, since the products could be shipped to markets in the city. Industries continued to thrive, with grist, paper and clothing mills operating in the area. Between 1890 and 1910, the Croton and Muscoot rivers were flooded to create the New York City reservoir system thereby changing the local landscape considerably. In the 1920s small lake communities began to spring up as vacation havens for summer visitors and farmers’ guests; these lake communities became larger and established evolving from seasonal to year-round neighborhoods now known as Lake Lincolndale, Lake Purdys and Lake Shenorock. Following World War II, the rural countryside of Somers continued attracting "weekenders", many from New York City who became more mobile because of the proliferation of automobile travel.
The construction of Interstate 684 in the mid-1970s facilitated a resurgence of residential and commercial development in Somers for the next 20 years. Somers grew most during the 1980s and 1990s, after IBM and PepsiCo built large corporate facilities within it. Somers is known for being the "cradle of the American circus", it gained this notoriety after Hachaliah Bailey bought an African elephant, which he named "Old Bet". Somers was in a minor dispute with Baraboo, over which community is the "birthplace" of the American circus. Bailey intended to use the elephant for farm work, but the number of people it attracted caused Bailey to take her throughout the Northeast. Bailey's success caused numerous others to tour with exotic animals, during the 1830s the old-style circus and Bailey's attractions merged to form the modern circus. Old Bet died on tour in 1827. Bailey erected the Elephant Hotel in Somers in honor of Old Bet, it was purchased by the town in 1927, it is a town landmark and in 2006 was dedicated a National Historic Landmark.
The elephant remains a symbol of the town to this day, with the high school sports teams nicknamed "Tuskers". The Elephant Hotel is the Somers Town Hall; the Mount Zion Methodist Church, Gerard Crane House, Elephant Hotel, Somers Business Historic Preservation District, Bridge L-158 and West Somers Methodist Episcopal Church and Cemetery are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 32.3 square miles, of which 30.0 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles, or 6.88%, is water. The town's northern border is the town of Carmel in Putnam County, its eastern border is the town of North Salem. Its southern borders are the towns of Lewisboro and New Castle, its western border is the town of Yorktown. U. S. Route 202 and U. S. Route 6 pass through the town; as of the census of 2010, there were 20,434 people, 6,802 households, 5,169 families residing in the town. The population density was 610.7 people per square mile. There were 7,098 housing units at an average density of 236.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 94.81% White, 1.7% African American, 0.05% Native American, 1.86% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 2.96% of the population were Hi
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
North Country (New York)
The North Country is a region of the U. S. state of New York that encompasses the state's extreme northern frontier, bordering Lake Ontario on the west, the Saint Lawrence River and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec on the north and northwest, Lake Champlain and Vermont on the east. Speaking, the North Country is understood to be that portion of northern New York which lies outside the Adirondack Park and consists of level lands or the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains, but is not within the Adirondack range itself. New York's North Country shares with Ontario the Thousand Islands, an archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River; the region is the most sparsely populated but is the geographically largest, in New York. At the 2010 United States Census, the population of all six counties is 428,357; the New York State Department of Transportation defines the northern lobe of the state as part of the Adirondack Region, which includes the counties of Clinton, Franklin, Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Warren.
The North Country incorporates cultural similarities with Canada. The North Country Trail, more formally known as the "North Country National Scenic Trail," is a 4,600-mile long-distance trail being developed and is proposed to begin at Crown Point, New York on Lake Champlain and traverses New York, Ohio, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Clinton County Essex County Franklin County Jefferson County Lewis County St. Lawrence County Hamilton County Warren County According to some authorities, it includes the northern half of Herkimer County Ogdensburg in St. Lawrence County Plattsburgh in Clinton County Watertown in Jefferson County Tupper Lake in Franklin County Lake Placid in Essex County Potsdam in St. Lawrence County Canton in St. Lawrence County Heuvelton in St. Lawrence County Massena in St. Lawrence County Malone in Franklin County Cumberland Head in Clinton County Saranac Lake in Franklin and Essex Counties Gouverneur in St. Lawrence County Fort Drum, an army base in Jefferson County Lowville in Lewis County Ticonderoga in Essex County Dannemora in Clinton County Alexandria Bay in Jefferson County Carthage in Jefferson County St. Regis Falls in Franklin County Norfolk in St. Lawrence County Norwood in St. Lawrence County Star Lake in St. Lawrence County Akwesasne in Franklin County Champlain in Clinton County Rouses Point in Clinton County Public higher education is provided by the following State University of New York campuses: State University of New York at Canton SUNY-ESF Newcomb Campus Adirondack Ecological Center SUNY-ESF Ranger School State University of New York at Potsdam State University of New York at Plattsburgh Clinton Community College Jefferson Community College North Country Community College Clarkson University Paul Smith's College of Arts and Sciences St. Lawrence University Tug Hill Upstate New York North Country travel guide from Wikivoyage Description and information from the New York Department of Education Development Authority of the North Country website, a New York state public benefit corporation Hudson River-Black River Regulating District website, a New York state public benefit corporation
Central New York Region
The Central New York Region is a term used by the New York State Department of Economic Development to broadly describe the central region of upstate New York for tourism purposes. The region corresponds to the Mohawk and upper Susquehanna valleys, it is one of two overlapping regions that identify as Central New York, the other being the Syracuse metropolitan area. The region includes the following counties and cities: The region has a population of 764,240, according to the 2000 Census; the Central region of New York is a tourism region in New York State defined by the New York State Division of Tourism. It includes elements of the surrounding regions, forming a microcosm of the state as a whole, with hills and rivers and farms, places of hard work and recreation; the eight-county area is known for its fresh produce and homemade goods from numerous family-run farms and farm stands, an abundance of B&Bs, country houses and inns offering overnight accommodations and culinary experiences, live musical and theatrical performances at various venues, year-round festivals and exhibits exploring cultural heritage and ancestry, trailblazing opportunities throughout its many forests and lakeside areas.
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is located within this region. Leatherstocking Country refers to the fictional character Natty Bumppo, featured by author James Fenimore Cooper in his collection of stories, Leatherstocking Tales, set in this region. Leatherstocking is a term for the leather leggings worn by Indians to protect their legs from brush and briers in the woods
Central New York
Central New York is the central region of New York State including the following counties and cities: Under this definition, the region has a population of about 1,177,073, includes the Syracuse metropolitan area. The total area of the above counties is 8,639 square miles, smaller than New Hampshire; the major colleges and universities in the region include Colgate University, Cornell University, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Hamilton College, Le Moyne College, SUNY Oswego, SUNY Cortland, Utica College, Ithaca College, Syracuse University the SUNY ESF, Cazenovia College, Morrisville State College, SUNY Polytechnic Institute. Major newspapers in the region include the Oneida Daily Dispatch, Syracuse Post-Standard, Auburn Citizen, Rome Daily Sentinel, Ithaca Journal, Utica Observer-Dispatch, as well as the alternative newsweekly Syracuse New Times; the region is served by several television stations based in Utica. Note: Cortland County and Tompkins County are considered part of the New York State region called the Southern Tier.
Tompkins County, which features Ithaca at the end of Cayuga Lake, is considered part of the Finger Lakes. Oneida County and Herkimer County are considered part of the New York State region called the Mohawk Valley, although the "Central New York" and "Mohawk Valley" definitions overlap, neither definition is mutually exclusive. Therefore, Tompkins County, Cortland County, Oneida County, Herkimer County are only Central New York in the broader sense of the phrase "Central New York". Only Onondaga County, Cayuga County, Oswego County and Madison County are always considered "Central New York"; the New York State Department of Transportation's definition of the Central/Eastern region includes the counties of Albany, Chenango, Cortland, Fulton, Herkimer, Montgomery, Onondaga, Otsego, Saratoga, Schoharie, Sullivan and Washington, but does not commit itself to a definition of Central New York per se. During the early historic period, the Iroquois excluded Algonquian tribes from the region; the Central New York Military Tract was located here.
Many towns derived from the tracts have classical names. Many Central New Yorkers pronounce elementary as instead of the General American pronunciations of and; the r-colored vowels in documentary and complimentary follow suit. Syracuse metropolitan area
Economy of New York (state)
The economy of the State of New York is reflected in its gross state product in 2017 of $1.607 trillion, ranking third in size behind the larger U. S. states of Texas. If New York State were an independent nation, it would rank as the 12th or 13th largest economy in the world, depending upon international currency fluctuations. However, in 2013, the multi-state, New York City-centered Metropolitan Statistical Area produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, while in 2012, the corresponding Combined Statistical Area generated a GMP of over US$1.15 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only twelve nations and eleven nations, respectively. New York City and the surrounding New York metropolitan area dominate the economy of the state. Manhattan is the leading center of banking and communication in the United States and is the location of the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street. Many of the world's largest corporations locate their home offices in Manhattan or in nearby Westchester County.
Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet of office space in 2015, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with nearly 400 million square feet in 2015, is the largest central business district in the world. The state has a large manufacturing sector, which includes printing and publishing and the production of garments, railroad rolling stock, bus line vehicles; some industries are concentrated in upstate locations such as ceramics and glass and nanotechnology, photographic equipment. New York's agricultural outputs comprise dairy products and other livestock, nursery stock, apples; the counties of Nassau and Suffolk have long been known for their affluence. Long Island has a high standard of living with residents paying some of the highest property taxes in the country. In opulent pockets of the North Shore of Long Island and South Shore, assets have passed from one generation to the next over time. From about 1930 to about 1990, Long Island was one of the aviation centers of the United States, with companies such as Grumman Aircraft having their headquarters and factories in the Bethpage area.
Grumman was long a major supplier of Carrier-based aircraft. Parts are still made for assembly elsewhere. Long Island is home to the Hauppauge Industrial Park; the park has over 1,300 tenant companies employing over 55,000 Long Islanders. Long Island has played a prominent role in engineering, it is the home of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Tourism thrives in the summer on the east end of Suffolk County; the east end of the island is still agricultural, now including many vineyards and pumpkin farms as well as traditional truck farming. Fishing continues to be an important industry at Northport and Montauk. A moderately large saltwater commercial fishery operates on the Atlantic side of Long Island; the principal catches by value are clams, lobsters and flounder. There was in past centuries a large oyster fishery in New York waters as well, but at present, oysters comprise only a small portion of the total value of seafood harvested; the best known aspect of the fishing sector is the famous Fulton Fish Market in New York City, which distributes not only the New York catch but imported seafood from all over the world.
At the turn of the 21st century the market moved from Fulton Street in Manhattan to The Bronx. New York's mining sector is concentrated in three areas; the first is near New York City. This area specializes in construction materials for use in the city, but it contains the emery mines south of Peekskill in Westchester County, one of two locations in the U. S. where that mineral is extracted. The second area is the Adirondack Mountains; this is an area of specialized products, including talc, industrial garnets, zinc. The Adirondacks are not part of the Appalachian system, despite their location, but are structurally part of the mineral-rich Canadian Shield. In the inland southwestern part of the state, in the Allegheny Plateau, is a region of drilled wells; the only major liquid output at present is salt in the form of brine. New York produced 211,292,000 barrels of crude oil and 55.2 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2005 worth $440M. 1.58 billion US gallons of Salt Brine were produced in 2005 at a value of about $100M.
Geothermal energy potential is being explored in the state, with 24 drilling applications being submitted to the Division of Mineral Resources in 2005. New York exports a wide variety of goods such as foodstuffs, minerals, manufactured goods, cut diamonds, automobile parts. New York's top five export markets in 2004 were Canada, United Kingdom, Japan and Switzerland. New York's largest imports are oil, aluminum, natural gas, rough diamonds, lumber. Canada has become a important economic partner of New York. 23% of the state's total worldwide exports went to Canada in 2004. Tourism constitutes a significant part of the economy; the Erie Canal, completed in 1825, opened eastern markets to Midwest farm products. The canal contributed to the growth of New York City, helped create large cities, encouraged immigration to the state. Except in the mountain regions, the areas between cities are agriculturally rich; the Finger Lakes region has orchards producing apples, w