The surgeon's knot is a surgical knot and is a simple modification to the reef knot. It adds an extra twist when forming a double overhand knot; the additional turn provides more friction and can reduce loosening while the second half of the knot is tied. This knot is used by surgeons in situations where it is important to maintain tension on a suture, giving it its name. Surgeon's knots are used in fly fishing, in tying quilts, for tying knots with twine; some sources categorize the surgeon's knot as a bend. Like the reef knot, the surgeon's knot capsizes and fails if one of the working ends is pulled away from the standing end closest to it. List of bend knots List of binding knots List of knots Video instructions for tying a Surgeon's Knot used for wound closure Video instructions for tying a Surgeon's Knot for fishing knot use
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed. Ancient or primitive granaries are most made out of pottery. Granaries are built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals. From ancient times grain has been stored in bulk; the oldest granaries yet found date back to 9500 BC and are located in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A settlements in the Jordan Valley. The first were located in places between other buildings; however beginning around 8500 BC, they were moved inside houses, by 7500 BC storage occurred in special rooms. The first granaries measured 3 x 3 m on the outside and had suspended floors that protected the grain from rodents and insects and provided air circulation; these granaries are followed by those in Mehrgarh in the Indus Valley from 6000 BC. The ancient Egyptians made a practice of preserving grain in years of plenty against years of scarcity; the climate of Egypt being dry, grain could be stored in pits for a long time without discernible loss of quality.
A silo was a pit for storing grain. It is distinct from a granary, an above-ground structure. Simple storage granaries raised up on four or more posts appeared in the Yangshao culture in China and after the onset of intensive agriculture in the Korean peninsula during the Mumun pottery period as well as in the Japanese archipelago during the Final Jōmon/Early Yayoi periods. In the archaeological vernacular of Northeast Asia, these features are lumped with those that may have functioned as residences and together are called'raised floor buildings'. In vernacular architecture of Indonesian archipelago granaries are made of wood and bamboo materials and most of them are built raised up on four or more posts to avoid rodents and insects. Examples of Indonesian granary is Sundanese Minang rangkiang. In Great Britain small granaries were built on mushroom-shaped stumps called staddle stones, they were built of timber frame construction and had slate roofs. Larger ones were similar to linhays, but with the upper floor enclosed.
Access to the first floor was via stone staircase on the outside wall. Towards the close of the 19th century, warehouses specially intended for holding grain began to multiply in Great Britain. There are climatic difficulties in the way of storing grain in Great Britain on a large scale, but these difficulties have been overcome. Modern grain farming operations use manufactured steel granaries to store grain on-site until it can be trucked to major storage facilities in anticipation of shipping; the large mechanized facilities seen in Russia and North America are known as grain elevators. Grain must be kept away from moisture for as long as possible to preserve it in good condition and prevent mold growth. Newly harvested grain brought into a granary tends to contain excess moisture, which encourages mold growth leading to fermentation and heating, both of which are undesirable and affect quality. Fermentation spoils grain and may cause chemical changes that create poisonous mycotoxins. One traditional remedy is to spread the grain in thin layers on a floor, where it is turned to aerate it thoroughly.
Once the grain is sufficiently dry it can be transferred to a granary for storage. A modern variation on this, is to use a grain auger to move grain stored in one granary to another. In modern silos, grain is force-aerated in situ or circulated through external grain drying equipment. Hórreo Raccard Storage silo Corn crib Groote Schuur, the stately South African home was a granary. Rice barn Treppenspeicher Ghorfa Parish granary
A blood knot is most usefully employed for joining sections of monofilament nylon line while maintaining a high portion of the line's inherent strength. Other knots used for this purpose can cause a substantial loss of strength. In fly fishing, this serves to build a leader of decreasing diameter with the castable fly line attached at the large diameter end and the fly or hook at the small diameter end; the principal drawback to the blood knot is the dexterity required to tie it. It is likely to jam, not a concern in fishing line, no great loss to cut, but may be a concern in normal rope. "Blood knot" may refer to, "a double overhand knot tied in a cat-o'-nine-tails." The barrel knot, called blood knot by Keith Rollo, is the best bend there is for small, stiff or slippery line. The ends may be trimmed short and the knot offers the least resistance possible when drawn through water. A half blood knot is a knot, used for securing a fishing line to a fishing lure, snap or swivel; when two half blood knots are used to join two lines they are considered as one knot and called a blood knot.
A half blood knot is one of the strongest knots for tying a medium-size hook to a medium-size line such as hooksize 4 to 4/0 onto line size 6 lb to 30 lb. In tying the blood knot, the two lines to be joined are overlapped for 6–8 cm with the short ends of the two lines in opposite directions; the short end of one line is wrapped 4–6 times around the second line and the remaining portion of the first short end brought back and passed between the lines at the beginning of the wraps. The short end of the second line is wrapped 4–6 times around the first line and the end of this line brought back and passed through what is now an oval space between the first wrap of each set; the above method has been called by Stanle Barnes "outcoil", is contrasted with the method that resembles the finished knot from the start, "incoil". The images here are incorrect to present the finished knot as having its free/"tag" ends go from the center of the knot to the extreme ends. In fishing line, in other material if not deliberately set snug and maybe re-set after some initial tensioning, the outcoil form will transform into the incoil form.
The lines are moistened and the wraps tightened by pulling on the long ends of the line. This causes the wraps to tighten and compress, creating two short sections of "barrel", which look much like a hangman's knot, that slide together; the short ends of the line are trimmed close to the wraps, or one of the ends may be left intact to be used for a second fly or lure, called a "dropper". List of bend knots List of knots Video instructions on how to tie a half blood knot Video instructions for tying a Blood Knot Grog. "Blood Knot". Animated Knots. Retrieved September 5, 2016
The thief knot resembles the reef knot except that the free, or bitter ends are on opposite sides. It is said that sailors would secure their belongings in a ditty bag using the thief knot with the ends hidden. If another sailor went through the bag, the odds were high the thief would tie the bag back using the more common reef knot, revealing the tampering, hence the name, it is difficult to tie by mistake, unlike the granny knot. The thief knot is much less secure than the insecure reef knot, it unties itself. The thief or bag knot is called bread bag knot, it appears like the reef knot, but there is one real and scarcely evident difference. It does not consist of two half knots. There is a legend that sailors tie clothesbags, bread bags with this knot and that thieves always retie them with reef knots and so are detected, it is a pleasing story. However, if I have met this knot in practical use, I have neither recognized it nor paid penalty for my failure to do so. List of binding knots List of knots The Reef Knot Family
Heaving line bend
The heaving line bend is a knot dubiously presented as bending a smaller line to a larger line to be brought across some span. This particular knot gained its name and was put forwards to assume this role after a mistake in illustration. Hjalmar Ohrvall found the knot in a museum on a Japanese shamisen. Ashley et al. saw only the mistaken image and assumed the function of the knot. Whether it has seen actual nautical use is unconfirmed — the knot is of a rather insecure/instable nature for pulling a line through heavy seas, it is knot number 1463 in The Ashley Book of Knots, appeared in the 1916 Swedish knot manual Om Knutar. List of knots List of bend knots
The adjustable bend is a bend knot, easy to lengthen or shorten. A rolling hitch is used to tie the end of each rope to the standing part of the other. Clifford Ashley suggested it for tying guy ropes. List of bend knots List of knots
The Bourchier knot is a variety of heraldic knot. It was used as a heraldic badge by the Bourchier family, whose earliest prominent ancestor in England was John de Bourchier, a Judge of the Common Pleas, seated at Stanstead Hall in the parish of Halstead, Essex, he was the father of Robert Bourchier, 1st Baron Bourchier, Lord Chancellor of England. The various branches of his descendants held the titles Baron Bourchier, Count of Eu, Viscount Bourchier, Earl of Essex, Baron Berners, Baron FitzWarin and Earl of Bath; the knot should have been called the "FitzWarin knot" as according to Boutell the device was first used by the FitzWarin family, whose heir was the Bourchier family. The Bourchier knot is shown in two forms: as a granny knot. Relief sculpture of a Bourchier knot on the chest-tomb in Bampton Church, supposed to be that of Thomasine Hankford, heiress of the feudal barony of Bampton, wife of William Bourchier, 9th Baron FitzWarin, great-grandson of the 1st Baron Bourchier. Bourchier knots on the monument of William Bourchier, 3rd Earl of Bath in St Peter's Church, Devon.
Beningbrough Hall, North Yorkshire, owned at one time by a branch of the Bourchier family. A large Bourchier knot is cut into a lawn adjoining the house. On the tomb of Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury in Canterbury Cathedral Sculpted on the Tudor gatehouse of Tawstock Court in North Devon, seat of the Bourchier Earls of Bath. Tawstock Church in North Devon, visible on monuments to Bourchiers and Wrey baronets. Aveling, S. T. Heraldry: Ancient and Modern, New York, 1891. Mollett, J. W. Illustrated Dictionary of Art and Archeology by J W Mollett, 1883. Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, Complete Guide to Heraldry, 1909, pp. 390, 469. Media related to Bourchier knot at Wikimedia Commons