St John the Evangelist, Upper Norwood
The Church of St John the Evangelist is a Church of England church in Upper Norwood, a suburb of South London, in the United Kingdom. It is a Grade II* listed red brick Gothic Revival church which was built between 1878 and 1887 by the English architect John Loughborough Pearson, the church is dedicated to the Christian saint, John the Evangelist. A large, temporary church was built to provide a place of worship for the new area. The Priests-in-charge were Rev Philip Kingswood and Rev Thomas Helmore, the fundraising was supplemented by a memorial fund set up in memory of the vicars wife, who died unexpectedly in 1878 from tuberculosis. Pearson was to draw up plans for a building to seat 1000 people at Upper Norwood, the Foundation stone was laid on 6 May 1878 in a field, but building work could not commence until enough funds had been raised. The Church Commissioners contributed an additional £1000 on the condition that the plans included a tower. In 1881, after a total of £7,156 pounds,17 shillings and six-and-a-half pence had been raised, construction began, Church Commissioners conditions were never met due to financial difficulty and the church to this day does not have a spire.
John Taylor Smith, Bishop of Sierra Leone 1897–1901, had been curate at Upper Norwood 1885–1890, Rev Kenneth Mackenzie, who was Bishop of Brechin in the Scottish Episcopal Church from 1935–1943, served his curacy at St John the Evangelist 1903-05. Pearsons design is a red brick exterior with two turrets at the west end which Pevsner describes as typically Pearsonian. The 160-foot -long church is cruciform, and the transept was originally designed to carry a 208-foot -high tower. Above the nave is a tall clerestory, the interior of the building is stock brick with arcades and brick rib vaulting. Most striking is the stone rood screen across the chancel, which features five gothic arches topped by four statues. The church was damaged by the bombing during the Second World War, the building is suffering from the effects of subsidence which has required the reconstruction of the rood screen and presently threatens the structure of the south aisle. Since the incumbency of Thomas Helmore, the Church of St John the Evangelist has maintained a tradition of music in Christian worship.
The organ was built by Thomas Christopher Lewis in 1882 during the construction of the church. The instrument was of a design, while the organ itself was situated in the north transept. This led to problems and the organ underwent several rebuilds in 1912,1947. The church is situated on the corner of Auckland Road and Sylvan Road, the nearest railway stations are Crystal Palace and Anerley
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The former Royal Air Force Station Kenley, more commonly known as RAF Kenley was a station of the Royal Flying Corps in the First World War and the RAF in the Second World War. It is located near Kenley, Surrey and its active phase commenced in 1917, and ceased in 1959 when RAF Fighter Command left the aerodrome. The airfield at Kenley now hosts 615 Volunteer Gliding Squadron, a squadron of the Air Cadet Organisation. During the Second World War RAF Kenley was one of the three main fighter stations responsible for the air defence of London, during the Battle of Britain, these three RAF stations became prominent because of their role in defending against the German Luftwaffe. RAF Kenley suffered its worst damage in an attack on 18 August 1940. While 15 September is considered by many to be the climax of the Battle of Britain,18 August is often cited as the costliest or hardest day — the British lost 68 aircraft and the Germans lost 69. At Kenley, all ten hangars and twelve aircraft, including ten Hurricanes, were destroyed, the Sector Operations Room had to be moved to an emergency location away from the airfield.
Hammond Innes book Attack Alarm, published in 1941, was based on his experiences as a Royal Artillery anti-aircraft gunner at RAF Kenley during the Battle of Britain. Innes novels are marked by attention to detail, and the book contains graphic descriptions of the station. Many famous pilots served at Kenley, including the famous South African fighter ace Sailor Malan, p/O Arthur Gerald Donahue,64 Squadron, flew out of Kenley. Donahue was from St. Charles, Minnesota, USA, and was one of seven Americans to fly and he was shot down August 13,1940, and suffered burns but returned to service. Donahue described his experiences in the book, Tally Ho, yankee in a Spitfire published by Macmillan in 1941. English Heritage identified Kenley as The most complete fighter airfield associated with the Battle of Britain to have survived, the respective councils of Croydon and Tandridge have designated the airfield site as a Conservation Area. The south-west corner, previously occupied by married quarters, has been redeveloped with modern high-density housing directly abutting the airfield, some of the original 12 E-shaped blast pens remain, as well as the shelters for the servicing personnel.
One in particular — forming the background to the RAF memorial — has been fully restored, since 2004 these structures are protected as Scheduled Monuments. The airfield is used today by 615 VGS flying the Grob Viking glider. They provide air experience flights, gliding scholarships and AGT to Air Cadets, Flying Instructors, the pub is decorated with pictures and artifacts associated with the airfield. Part of the air station is preserved as a tribute to the service personnel of the Commonwealth
London Borough of Croydon
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London. It covers an area of 87 km2 and is the largest London borough by population and it is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, and from a market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. Croydon is the centre of the borough. The borough is now one of Londons leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in entertainment, the economic strength of Croydon dates back mainly to Croydon Airport which was a major factor in the development of Croydon as a business centre. Once Londons main airport for all flights to and from the capital. It is now a Grade II listed building and tourist attraction, Croydon Council and its predecessor Croydon Corporation unsuccessfully applied for city status in 1954,2000,2002 and 2012. Croydon is mostly urban, though there are suburban and rural uplands in the south.
Since 2003 Croydon has been certified as a Fairtrade borough by the Fairtrade Foundation and it was the first London Borough to have Fairtrade status which is awarded on certain criteria. The area is one of the hearts of culture in London, institutions such as the major arts and entertainment centre Fairfield Halls add to the vibrancy of the borough. However, its famous fringe theatre the Warehouse Theatre was put under administration in 2012 when the council withdrew its funding, the Croydon Clocktower was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 as an arts venue featuring a library, the independent David Lean Cinema and museum. From 2000 to 2010, Croydon staged a summer festival celebrating the areas black and Indian cultural diversity. An internet radio station, Croydon Radio, is run by people for the area. The borough is home to its own local TV station, Croydon TV. Premier League football club Crystal Palace F. C. play at Selhurst Park in South Norwood, for the history of the original town see History of Croydon The London Borough of Croydon was formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon.
The name Croydon comes from Crogdene or Croindone, named by the Saxons in the 8th century when they settled here, although the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon croeas deanas, meaning the valley of the crocuses, indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, by the time of the Norman invasion Croydon had a church, a mill and around 365 inhabitants as recorded in the Domesday Book
Croydon transmitting station
The Croydon transmitting station is a broadcasting and telecommunications facility on Beulah Hill in Upper Norwood, England, in the London Borough of Croydon, owned by Arqiva. It was established in 1955 and initially used a lattice tower. The present tower is 152 metres high and was built in 1962 and it was originally used to broadcast the London ITV signal on VHF Band III. When UHF broadcasting began, the nearby Crystal Palace transmitting station was used and it carried Channel 5s analogue signal, and the digital terrestrial signal is transmitted from Crystal Palace. Croydon had reserve transmitters for BBC1, BBC2, ITV and Channel 4, the site is a maintenance base for transmitter maintenance teams and used to house one of four Regional Operations Centres. The past ITV franchises which originally served London were Associated-Rediffusion and Associated Television began transmitting on VHF9 on 22 September 1955, the transmitters power was originally 60 kW but after the new tower was built in 1962 this was increased to 400 kW.
Thames Television and London Weekend Television took over the London franchise area in 1968, the VHF analogue service closed down, along with the rest of the UK, on 3 January 1985. Channel 5 launched on 30 March 1997 with transmissions from Croydon, backup for ITV and Channel 4 was added in case they were not available from Crystal Palace and some time later, BBC1 and BBC2. Since 18 April 2012, no television has been broadcast from Croydon, backup for the PSB1,2 and 3 and COM4,5 and 6 multiplexes are available should there be a problem at Crystal Palace. Wrotham transmitting station, Brookmans Park transmitting station and Droitwich transmitting station - the main radio transmitters serving London on VHF, mediumwave and longwave respectively
Addington Palace is an 18th-century mansion in Addington near Croydon in south London, England. The original manor house called Addington Place was built about the 16th century, the Leigh family gained this serjeanty upon becoming Lords of the Manor of Addington prior to the coronation of Charles II in 1661. The Addington estate was owned by the Leigh family until the early 18th century, sir John Leigh died without heirs in 1737 and his estates went to distant relatives, who eventually sold to Barlow Trecothick. Mr Trecothick had been brought up in Boston and became a merchant there, he moved to London still trading as a merchant. He bought the estate for £38,500 and became Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1770 and he built a new house, designed by Robert Mylne in the Palladian style, a country mansion with single-storey wings. He died before it was completed in 1774 and it was inherited by his heir, James Ivers, James continued the work on the house, having the substantial grounds and gardens landscaped by Lancelot Capability Brown.
Due to financial difficulties, James Trecothick had to sell the estate in 1802, the estate was sold in lots in 1803. The next owners got into trouble and sold it by Act of Parliament in 1807. This enabled the mansion to be purchased for the Archbishops of Canterbury and it became Addington Farm under the first few Archbishops and gradually changed to Addington Palace. It was the residence for six Archbishops of Canterbury, the archbishops made further changes and enlarged the building, work on the building was overseen by Richard Norman Shaw. All except Benson are buried in St Marys Church or churchyard, the house was sold in 1897 to Mr F. A. English, a diamond merchant from South Africa. After his death, the mansion in World War I was taken over by the Red Cross and became a fever hospital, the house was Grade II* listed in 1951. In 1953, it was leased to the Royal School of Church Music and it is used extensively for weddings. It is surrounded by a park and golf courses, and its gardens are largely in their original design.
Much of the grounds have been leased by golf clubs and the exclusive Bishops Walk housing development was built on Bishops Walk, a famous very large cedar tree stands next to the Palace
HOK, formerly Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, is an American worldwide design, architecture and urban planning firm. As of 2016, HOK is the largest U. S. -based architecture-engineering firm, the firm maintains more than 1,800 professional staff across a global network of 23 offices and is active in all major architectural specialties. Its senior leaders are located in different locations across the world. HOK was established in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1955, the design firm started with 26 employees and its three founders. The practices first building designs were schools in St. Louis suburbs, another prominent school they designed was the Saint Louis Priory School. Also in 1968, HOK launched its interior design practice, HOK expanded into Washington, DC, after winning the commission to design the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. In 1973, HOK established a presence in New York by acquiring Kahn & Jacobs, in 1979, George Kassabaum was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician.
In 1983, HOK formed HOK Sport Venue Event, which became a leader in designing sport stadiums, arenas, in January 2009, the Board of HOK Group, Inc. and managers of HOK Sports Facilities, LLC transferred ownership of HOK Sport to leaders of that practice. The company became an independent firm, and rebranded itself as Populous, HOKs first office outside the United States opened in Hong Kong in 1984. In 1987, the opened a London office and then, in 1995. In November 1994, HOK acquired CRSS Architects, Inc. based in Houston, adding offices in Houston, HOK established its first offices in Canada in 1997 with the acquisition of Urbana Architects. In 2004, George Hellmuths nephew, William Hellmuth, was named president of the firm, by 2007, international work represented more than 40% of HOKs annual revenue. In 2008, HOK opened an office in Mumbai, India, in 2010, it established an office in Seattle, Washington. In 2012, HOK Chairman Bill Valentine retired after 50 years with the firm, HOK Chief Executive Officer Patrick MacLeamy, FAIA, assumed the role of chairman.
In 2013, HOK acquired the New York and Shanghai offices of hospitality design firm BBG-BBGM, bBG-BBGMs office in Washington, D. C. continues to operate as BBGM. In 2014, ORO Editions published “HOK Tall Buildings, ” a 300-page book exploring the design of the contemporary high-rise, the acquisition enabled HOK to launch a new global Sports + Recreation + Entertainment design practice and to open new offices in Kansas City and Columbus, Ohio. In January 2016, HOK announced that Bill Hellmuth, the president, would succeed Patrick MacLeamy as CEO. MacLeamy continued to serve as chairman of HOK, in 1983, HOK introduced HOK Draw, computer-aided drafting software products that specialized in conceptual architectural design
Queen Anne style architecture
George Devey and the better-known Norman Shaw popularized the Queen Anne style of British architecture of the industrial age in the 1870s. Norman Shaw published a book of architectural sketches as early as 1858, Shaws eclectic designs often included Tudor elements, and this Old English style became popular in the United States, where it became known as the Queen Anne style. Confusion between buildings constructed during the reign of Queen Anne and the Queen Anne Style still persists, in the late 1850s the name Queen Anne was in the air, following publication in 1852 of William Makepeace Thackerays novel, The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. A Colonel in the Service of Her Majesty Queen Anne, one minor side-effect of Thackerays novel and of Norman Shaws freehand picturesque vernacular Renaissance survives to this day. The British Victorian version of the style more closely with the Arts and Crafts movement than does its American counterpart. A good example is Severalls Hospital in Colchester, now defunct, in the 20th century Edwin Lutyens and others used an elegant version of the style, usually with red-brick walls contrasting with pale stone details.
In the United States, the so-called Queen Anne style is used of a wide range of picturesque buildings with free Renaissance details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right. The gabled and domestically scaled Queen Anne style arrived in New York City with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industry Sidney V. Stratton, architect, 1878). Dentils, classical columns, spindle work and bay windows, horizontal bands of leaded windows, monumental chimneys, painted balustrades, front gardens often had wooden fences. The Federation period went from 1890 to 1915 and included twelve styles and this became the most popular style for houses built between 1890 and 1910. The style often utilised Tudor-style woodwork and elaborate fretwork that replaced the Victorian taste for wrought iron, verandahs were usually a feature, as were the image of the rising sun and Australian wildlife, plus circular windows and towers with conical or pyramid-shaped roofs. The first Queen Anne house in Australia was Caerleon in the suburb of Bellevue Hill, Caerleon was designed initially by a Sydney architect, Harry Kent, but was substantially reworked in London by Maurice Adams.
This led to controversy over who deserved the credit. The house was built in 1885 and was the precursor for the Federation Queen Anne house that were to become so popular. Caerleon was followed soon after by West Maling, in the suburb of Penshurst, New South Wales and these houses, although built around the same time, had distinct styles, West Maling displaying a strong Tudor influence that was not present in Annesbury. The style soon became popular, appealing predominantly to reasonably well-off people with an Establishment leaning. The style as it developed in Australia was highly eclectic, blending Queen Anne elements with various Australian influences, Old English characteristics like ribbed chimneys and gabled roofs were combined with Australian elements like encircling verandahs, designed to keep the sun out. One outstanding example of this approach is Urrbrae House, in the Adelaide suburb of Urrbrae, South Australia
Scottish Widows plc is a life and investment company located in Edinburgh, and is a subsidiary of Lloyds Banking Group. Its product range includes life assurance, pensions and savings, the company has been providing financial services to the UK market since 1815 and is the most trusted life and investment provider in the UK according to a 2010 Ipsos study. The company sells products through independent financial advisers, direct to customers, in March 1812, a number of prominent Scotsmen gathered in the Royal Exchange Coffee Rooms in Edinburgh. Scottish Widows Fund and Life Assurance Society opened in 1815 as Scotlands first mutual life office and its most noteworthy leader was Very Rev James Grant who served as its Director for a record fifty years. In 1999, Lloyds TSB agreed to buy the society for £7 billion, the society demutualised on 3 March 2000 as part of the acquisition. At the time of its takeover, Scottish Widows set up an account to hold £1.7 billion of the proceeds from the sale.
This fund was to be used to enhance terminal bonuses across the company, in April 2009, Lloyds Banking Group announced that the sales team of Clerical Medical would be merged into that of Scottish Widows, and the Clerical Medical brand would eventually be phased out. In November 2013, Lloyds Banking Group sold its asset management division, in 2015, Scottish Widows sold Clerical Medical to international life assurance company RL360°. The Scottish Widow first appeared in an advert directed by David Bailey in 1986. Since then, Scottish Widows has made 10 adverts featuring the Scottish Widow, four models have portrayed the Scottish Widow, a hooded character featured in the companys advertising. The original Widow, chosen to portray the brand values in the ‘Looking Good’ commercial in 1986, was Deborah Moore. In 1994, Amanda Lamb took over the role, hayley Hunt became the third Scottish Widow in 2005. In 2014, the announced that the fourth Scottish Widow would be Amber Martinez. Scottish Widows was the Official Pensions and Investment Provider of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, the company employs athletes Roger Black MBE and Sarah Storey OBE as their Olympic Ambassadors.
The establishment of the fund is briefly mentioned in Yuval Hararis 2011 book Sapiens, A Brief History of Humankind
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market
Nandos is an international casual dining restaurant chain originating in South Africa, with a Mozambican/Portuguese theme. Founded in 1987, Nandos operates about 1,000 outlets in 30 countries, Nandos specialises in grilled chicken dishes with various peri-peri marinades. After trying the chicken, cooked in piri piri, a sauce originating in Mozambique. They renamed the restaurant Nandos after Fernando, after two years, the restaurant had four outlets, three in Johannesburg and one in Portugal. By 2013, around 1,000 Nandos branches were in 35 countries, in 2010, Advertising Age magazine named Nandos as one of the worlds top 30 hottest marketing brands. As of July 2014, the Nandos restaurant group is owned by South African businessman Dick Enthoven. Enthovens son, Robby Enthoven, was responsible for expanding the Nandos chain in the United Kingdom, Nandos specialises in flame-grilled peri peri chicken. The chicken is served in quarters, wholes, and it serves burgers, salads and wraps. Nandos has locations in five continents worldwide, the first Nandos restaurant was opened in South Africa in 1987 by Fernando Duarte.
By 1997, there were 105 Nandos restaurants in the country, Nandos has been operating in Botswana since 1993. There are three Nandos restaurants in Mauritius, Nandos launched in Namibia in 1995. There are two outlets in Swaziland, in Mbabane and Manzini, Nandos began operating in Zambia in 2002. In Zimbabwe, there are a total of 11 restaurants, Nandos has been running in Bangladesh since 2007. The first restaurant was opened in Dhanmondi area and it is running there as a franchised business. All four of the outlets in Bangladesh sell halal foods, Nandos opened restaurants in India in late 2010. As of February 2013, Nandos has restaurants in five cities, Nandos plans additional expansion in India. Nandos has been established in Malaysia since 1998, as of May 2015, there were 69 restaurants operating throughout the country. Nandos has been established since 2001, It has currently eight restaurants nationwide, in Qatar, Nandos has been established since 2001, with the first restaurant located on Salwa Road