Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta and the largest city in southern Alberta. It is Alberta's fourth-largest city by population after Calgary and Red Deer, the third-largest by land area after Calgary and Edmonton; the nearby Canadian Rockies contribute to the city's warm summers, mild winters, windy climate. Lethbridge lies southeast of Calgary on the Oldman River. Lethbridge is the commercial, financial and industrial centre of southern Alberta; the city's economy developed from drift mining for coal in the late 19th century and agriculture in the early 20th century. Half of the workforce is employed in the health, education and hospitality sectors, the top five employers are government-based; the only university in Alberta south of Calgary is in Lethbridge, two of the three colleges in southern Alberta have campuses in the city. Cultural venues in the city include performing art theatres and sports centres. Before the 19th century, the Lethbridge area was populated by several First Nations at various times.
The Blackfoot referred to the area as Mek-kio-towaghs, Assini-etomochi and Sik-ooh-kotok. The Sarcee referred to it as Chadish-kashi, the Cree as Kuskusukisay-guni, the Nakoda as Ipubin-saba-akabin; the Kutenai people referred to it as ʔa•kwum. After the US Army stopped alcohol trading with the Blackfeet Nation in Montana in 1869, traders John J. Healy and Alfred B. Hamilton started a whiskey trading post at Fort Hamilton, near the future site of Lethbridge; the post's nickname became Fort Whoop-Up. The whiskey trade led to the Cypress Hills Massacre of many native Assiniboine in 1873; the North-West Mounted Police, sent to stop the trade and establish order, arrived at Fort Whoop-Up on 9 October 1874. They managed the post for the next 12 years. Lethbridge's economy developed from drift mines opened by Nicholas Sheran in 1874 and the North Western Coal and Navigation Company in 1882. North Western's president was William Lethbridge. By the turn of the century, the mines employed about 150 men and producing 300 tonnes of coal each day.
In 1896, local collieries were the largest coal producers in the Northwest Territories, with production peaking during World War I. An internment camp was set up at the Exhibition Building in Lethbridge from September 1914 to November 1916. After the war, increasing oil and natural gas production replaced coal production, the last mine in Lethbridge closed in 1957; the first rail line in Lethbridge was opened on August 28, 1885 by the Alberta Railway and Coal Company, which bought the North Western Coal and Navigation Company five years later. The rail industry's dependence on coal and the Canadian Pacific Railway's efforts to settle southern Alberta with immigrants boosted Lethbridge's economy. After the Canadian Pacific Railway moved the divisional point of its Crowsnest Line from Fort Macleod to Lethbridge in 1905, the city became the regional centre for Southern Alberta. In the mid-1980s, the CPR moved its rail yards in downtown Lethbridge to nearby Kipp, Lethbridge ceased being a rail hub.
Between 1907 and 1913, a development boom occurred in Lethbridge, making it the main marketing and service centre in southern Alberta. Such municipal projects as a water treatment plant, a power plant, a streetcar system, exhibition buildings—as well as a construction boom and rising real estate prices—transformed the mining town into a significant city. Between World War I and World War II, the city experienced an economic slump. Development slowed, drought drove farmers from their farms, coal mining declined from its peak. After World War II, irrigation of farmland near Lethbridge led to growth in the city's population and economy. Lethbridge College opened in April 1957 and the University of Lethbridge in 1967; the city of Lethbridge is located at 49.7° north latitude and 112.833° west longitude and covers an area of 127.19 square kilometres. The city is divided by the Oldman River; the city is Alberta's fourth largest by population after Calgary and Red Deer. It is the third largest in area after Calgary and Edmonton and is near the Canadian Rockies, 210 kilometres southeast of Calgary.
Lethbridge is split into three geographical areas: north and west. The Oldman River separates West Lethbridge from the other two while Crowsnest Trail and the Canadian Pacific Railway rail line separate North and South Lethbridge; the newest of the three areas, West Lethbridge is home to the University of Lethbridge, opened at that site in 1971, but the first housing was not completed until 1974 and the prime Whoop-Up Drive access opened only in 1975. Much of the city's recent growth has been on the west side, it has the youngest median age of the three; the north side was populated by workers from local coal mines. It has the oldest population of the three areas, is home to multiple industrial parks and includes the former Hamlet of Hardieville, annexed by Lethbridge in 1978. South Lethbridge is the commercial heart of the city, it contains the downtown core, the bulk of retail and hospitality establishments, the Lethbridge College. Lethbridge has a semi-arid climate with an average maximum temperature of 12.3 °C and an average minimum temperature of −1.1 °C.
With precipitation averaging 365 mm
Pincher Creek is a town in the southwest of Alberta, Canada. It is located east of the Canadian Rockies, 101 km west of Lethbridge and 210 km south of Calgary. For centuries before European settlers reached this area and inhabited it, Aboriginal clans of the Blackfoot and Kootenai passed through, lived in or frequented the region; the town received its name in 1868 when a group of prospectors lost a pincer in the small creek at this location. These pincers would have been used as a mechanism for trimming the feet of the horses and thus had some value to the group. In 1874, the North-West Mounted Police came to southern Alberta. One of them discovered the rusting tools in the creek, they named the area Pincher Creek. In 1876, the NWMP established a horse farm in the area, it closed in 1881. James Schofield opened Pincher Creek's first store in 1884. By 1885 Pincher Creek had a store known as Hyde General Store. Harry Hyde succeeded Schofield as Pincher Creek's first postmaster. In 1898, Pincher Creek was incorporated a village.
In 1906, the community was incorporated as a town and named Pincher Creek. Many residents are descendants of the pioneer families. Strong Chinook winds blow off the mountains and Pincher Creek can be windy; the Oldman River and Castle River valleys seem to act as a kind of funnel for air masses, arguably making the area around Pincher Creek the windiest in Alberta. Any typical day may see wind speeds of 50–90 km/h, the most violent recorded wind being 177 km/h; the strong winds have given rise to a significant amount of wind farm development in the area, with the towers and blades of wind turbines being a characteristic of the scenery. Another consequence of the breezy conditions is that the weather is sunny and dry as the wind tends to dissipate cloud cover; the town was affected by a flood that hit the area in 1995 as the peak stream flow discharge of the creek that gave the town its name was 271 cubic meters per second. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Pincher Creek recorded a population of 3,642 living in 1,490 of its 1,589 total private dwellings, a −1.2% change from its 2011 population of 3,685.
With a land area of 10.09 km2, it had a population density of 361.0/km2 in 2016. The population of the Town of Pincher Creek according to its 2013 municipal census is 3,619, a 2.5% decrease from its 2008 municipal census population of 3,712. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Pincher Creek had a population of 3,685 living in 1,500 of its 1,581 total dwellings, a 1.7% change from its 2006 population of 3,625. With a land area of 10.19 km2, it had a population density of 361.6/km2 in 2011. The Kootenai Brown Pioneer Village is a popular tourist stop open year-round, it was named after Kootenay Brown, the founder of Waterton Park. The six acre site is home to over twenty-three historical buildings, all on open exhibit; each July, the village has a large Canada Day celebration, as well as hosting other community based events through the year. Among over 18,000 artifacts, historical archives are located on site and accessible to the public. Pincher Creek is located 57 km north of Waterton Lakes National Park.
The Castle Mountain Ski Resort is located 49 km to the southwest. The town's mayor is Don Anderberg. Pincher Creek is served by two newspapers, the Sun Media owned Pincher Creek Echo, which publishes on Wednesdays and has been in operation since 1900. and the locally owned Shootin' the Breeze, serving the community since 2011. Shootin' the Breeze is published in print weekly on Wednesdays and is available online at www.shootinthebreeze.ca. It is served by an online news website, the Pincher Creek Voice, established in 2011. Pincher Creek is served by a country music station based in nearby Blairmore. Mountain Radio's Pincher Creek transmitter can be heard on 92.7 FM. White Bird, Nez Perce leader Dustin Flundra, rodeo cowboy Matthew Halton, World War II news correspondent Beverley McLachlin, Hong Kong Court of Appeal judge and former Chief Justice of Canada Andy Russell and conservationist Gordon Walter Semenoff, theoretical physicist Darcy Wakaluk, former professional hockey player Warren Winkler, former Chief Justice of the Ontario Court of Appeal Alex Elliott, Mayor/Chef/Photographer/Hunting Guide Josh Kelly,Former Mayor List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website
Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
The Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is the union of the Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada and the Glacier National Park in the United States. Both parks are declared Biosphere Reserves by their union as a World Heritage Site; the union of the parks was achieved through the efforts of Rotary International members from Alberta and Montana, on June 18, 1932. The dedication address was given by 2nd Baronet; the two parks have separate entrance fees. In 2007, the International Dark-Sky Association named Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park the International Dark-Sky Park; the Chief Mountain Border Crossing, reached by Montana Highway 17 from the American side and by Alberta Highway 6 from the Canadian side, is the only road border crossing within the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. It is one of only two on the US-Canada border. "Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park".
Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada. "Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park World Heritage Site". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada. Boyer, David S.. "Pride of Two Nations". National Geographic. Vol. 171 no. 6. Pp. 796–823. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. Media related to Waterton Glacier International Peace Park at Wikimedia Commons UNESCO World Heritage Site Entry
Crowsnest Pass is a low mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Canadian Rockies on the Alberta–British Columbia border. The pass is located in southeast British Columbia and southwest Alberta, is the southernmost rail and highway route through the Canadian Rockies, it is the lowest-elevation mountain pass in Canada south of the Yellowhead Pass. Crowsnest Pass comprises a valley running east–west through Crowsnest Ridge. On the Alberta side, the Crowsnest River flows east from Crowsnest Lake draining into the Oldman River and reaching Hudson Bay via the Nelson River. Summit Lake on the British Columbia side drains via three intermediary creeks into the Elk River, which feeds into the Kootenay River, into the Columbia River to the Pacific. Before the arrival of Europeans, Aboriginal people used this major breach through the Front Ranges for seasonal migrations, for trade between mountain and plains cultures; the Canadian Pacific Railway built the Crowsnest Route line from Lethbridge, Alberta, to Kootenay Landing, British Columbia, through the Crowsnest Pass between 1897 and 1898.
This line was built to access mineral-rich southeastern BC via an all-Canadian rail route, to assert Canadian sovereignty in an area that U. S. railroads were beginning to build into. It opened up coal deposits in the Crowsnest and Elk River valleys which were important to mineral smelting operations and assisted the CPR in its conversion of locomotives from wood to coal; the CPR sought and received construction funding from the federal government in exchange for a freight subsidy on prairie farm exports and equipment imports which came to be called the "Crow's Nest Pass Agreement". "The Crow Rate", as the subsidy agreement came to be referred to, was extended from CPR's Crowsnest Pass railway line to apply to all railway lines in western Canada, regardless of corporate ownership or geography, creating artificially low freight rates for grain shipments through the Great Lakes ports. The rate correspondingly limited industrial growth in the western provinces as it was cheaper to produce items in eastern Canada and ship them west under the Crow Rate.
This subsidy was abolished in 1995. The first motor vehicle to cross the Canadian Rockies did so via Phillipps Pass, about 1 km north of Crowsnest Pass, in 1917 a road was blasted around the shores of Crowsnest Lake and across Crowsnest Pass, renamed Interprovincial Highway Three in 1932, it is known as the Crowsnest Highway. On August 7, 1919, Captain Ernest Hoy flew a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" through Crowsnest Pass, the first flight across the Canadian Rockies; the Crowsnest Pass area on both sides of the provincial boundary is rich in coal deposits, which were developed after completion of the rail line. All the mines on the Alberta side were closed by the end of the 20th century as cheaper and safer open-pit mines opened on the British Columbia side of the pass; some logging and oil and gas exploitation occur in the area and a sulphur plant has been in operation there for several years. Tourism based on the natural and historical resources of the area remains underdeveloped but is growing; the area hosts the world-class Sinister 7 Ultra Marathon, a 161-kilometre foot race that winds through the mountains around the community.
Crowsnest Pass has a local ski hill, Pass Powderkeg, an outdoor pool. The Crowsnest Pass is the richest archaeological zone in the Canadian Rockies; the oldest relics are stone tools found on a rock ridge outside Frank, from the Clovis culture, 11,000 years before present. Other sites include chert quarries on the Livingstone ridge dating back to 1000 BC. 1800: Members of David Thompson expedition avoid entering the pass. Ca. 1850: Crow Indians dispersed from area by Blackfoot Confederacy. 1873: Michael Phillips traverses pass, reports coal deposits. 1878: Government survey by George Dawson. 1881: first surveys by Canadian Pacific Railway. 1897: CPR enters into farm export subsidy agreement for freight rates in exchange for financing of the railway line between Lethbridge and Nelson, BC. Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company commences operations in British Columbia. 1898: CPR opens the railway line, 10th siding established. Settlement of Fernie, British Columbia, established. 1900: the Frank Mine opens and the new town of Frank, Alberta, is established.
Other coal mines and towns spring up between 1900 and 1919. 1902: explosion at Coal Creek mine kills 128 men. 1903: the cataclysmic Frank Slide occurs on the north slope of Turtle Mountain. 1904: Fernie, British Columbia, incorporates. 1908: forest fire destroys Fernie, which soon rebuilds. 1914: an explosion in the mine at Hillcrest kills 189 men, Canada's worst mine disaster. 1916–1923: Prohibition in Alberta. 1920: Train robbery and shootout at Bellevue Cafe. 1923:'Emperor Pic' and Florence Lassandro hanged for shooting a police constable. 1932: The portion of the Red Trail through the Frank Slide is realigned as a Great Depression project and renamed Interprovincial Highway 3. 1946: An RCAF DC-3 Dakota crashes into a mountain, killing all seven people on board. 1966: Communities of Michel and Sparwood amalgamate into the District Municipality of Sparwood, British C
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, a composition of grasses and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, the steppe of Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Lands referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America; the term encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of Canada, the United States, Mexico, which includes all of the Great Plains as well as the wetter, hillier land to the east. In the U. S. the area is constituted by most or all of the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Oklahoma, sizable parts of the states of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and western and southern Minnesota. The Palouse of Washington and the Central Valley of California are prairies; the Canadian Prairies occupy vast areas of Manitoba and Alberta. According to Theodore Roosevelt: Prairie is the French word for meadow.
The formation of the North American Prairies started with the uplift of the Rocky Mountains near Alberta. The mountains created a rain shadow; the parent material of most prairie soil was distributed during the last glacial advance that began about 110,000 years ago. The glaciers expanding southward scraped the landscape, picking up geologic material and leveling the terrain; as the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, it deposited this material in the form of till. Wind based loess deposits form an important parent material for prairie soils. Tallgrass prairie evolved over tens of thousands of years with the disturbances of fire. Native ungulates such as bison and white-tailed deer, roamed the expansive, diverse grasslands before European colonization of the Americas. For 10,000-20,000 years, native people used fire annually as a tool to assist in hunting and safety. Evidence of ignition sources of fire in the tallgrass prairie are overwhelmingly human as opposed to lightning. Humans, grazing animals, were active participants in the process of prairie formation and the establishment of the diversity of graminoid and forbs species.
Fire has the effect on prairies of removing trees, clearing dead plant matter, changing the availability of certain nutrients in the soil from the ash produced. Fire kills the vascular tissue of trees, but not prairie species, as up to 75% of the total plant biomass is below the soil surface and will re-grow from its deep roots. Without disturbance, trees will encroach on a grassland and cast shade, which suppresses the understory. Prairie and spaced oak trees evolved to coexist in the oak savanna ecosystem. In spite of long recurrent droughts and occasional torrential rains, the grasslands of the Great Plains were not subject to great soil erosion; the root systems of native prairie grasses held the soil in place to prevent run-off of soil. When the plant died, the fungi, bacteria returned its nutrients to the soil; these deep roots help native prairie plants reach water in the driest conditions. Native grasses suffer much less damage from dry conditions than many farm crops grown. Prairie in North America is split into three groups: wet and dry.
They are characterized by tallgrass prairie, mixed, or shortgrass prairie, depending on the quality of soil and rainfall. In wet prairies, the soil is very moist, including during most of the growing season, because of poor water drainage; the resulting stagnant water is conducive to the formation of fens. Wet prairies have excellent farming soil; the average precipitation is 10–30 inches a year. Mesic prairie good soil during the growing season; this type of prairie is the most converted for agricultural usage. Dry prairie has somewhat wet to dry soil during the growing season because of good drainage in the soil; this prairie can be found on uplands or slopes. Dry soil doesn't get much vegetation due to lack of rain; this is the dominant biome in the Southern Canadian agricultural and climatic region known as Palliser's Triangle. Once thought to be unarable, the Triangle is now one of the most important agricultural regions in Canada thanks to advances in irrigation technology. In addition to its high local importance to Canada, Palliser's Triangle is now one of the most important sources of wheat in the world as a result of these improved methods of watering wheat fields.
Despite these advances in farming technology, the area is still prone to extended periods of drought, which can be disastrous for the industry if it is prolonged. An infamous example of this is the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, which hit much of the United States great plains ecoregion - contributing to the Great Depression. Nomadic hunting has been the main human activity on the prairies for the majority of the archaeological record; this once included many now-extinct species of megafauna. After the other extinction, the main hunted animal on the prairies was the plains bison. Using loud noises and waving large signals, Native peoples would drive bison in fenced pens called to be killed with bows and arrows or spears, or drive them off a cliff, to kill or injure the bison en masse. Th
Foothills or piedmont are geographically defined as gradual increases in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area. They are a transition zone between plains and low relief hills and the adjacent topographically higher mountains and uplands. Foothills consist of alluvial fans, coalesced alluvial fans and dissected plateaus. Foothills border mountains those which are reached through low ridges that increase in size closer and closer to the mountain, but can border uplands and higher hills. Areas where foothills exist, or areas referred to as the foothills, include: The Sierra Nevada foothills of California, USA The Foothills of the San Gabriel Valley in Los Angeles County, California, USA The Front Range along the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, USA The Wasatch Front along the Wasatch Mountains in Utah, USA The Rocky Mountain Foothills in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada The Alpine foothills around the European Alps The Silesian Foothills in Silesia The Siwalik Hills along the Himalayas in the Indian subcontinent The Catalina Foothills in Tucson, Arizona, USA The foothills in Western North Carolina and Northwestern South Carolina, USA The Margalla hills near the Himalayas in Pakistan The Duars and Terai on the foothills of Himalayas The foothills around Boise in Idaho, USA'The foothills' of the Dandenong Ranges in Melbourne, Australia.
The area from Ferntree Gully/Boronia/The Basin through to Belgrave.'The foothills' of the Blue Mountains in Sydney, Australia. The foothills between Aeolis Palus and Aeolis Mons, Mars. Another word for a foothill region is "piedmont", derived from "foot of the mount" in Romance languages; the Piedmont region of Italy lies in the foothills of the Alps, several other foothills in other parts of the world are called "piedmont", include: The piedmont of the United States which consists of the eastern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Ecosystems of piedmonts are known as submontane zones, relating to the higher montane ecosystems. Förfjäll Ice piedmont Piedmont Precordillera
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000