Hyperrealism (visual arts)
Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures; the term is applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 1970s. Carole Feuerman is the forerunner in the hyperrealism movement along with Duane Hanson and John De Andrea. Belgian art dealer Isy Brachot coined the French word Hyperréalisme, meaning Hyperrealism, as the title of a major exhibition and catalogue at his gallery in Brussels in 1973; the exhibition was dominated by such American Photorealists as Ralph Goings, Chuck Close, Don Eddy, Robert Bechtle and Richard McLean. Since Hyperealisme has been used by European artists and dealers to apply to painters influenced by the Photorealists. Among contemporary European hyperrealist painters we find Gottfried Helnwein, Willem van Veldhuizen and Tjalf Sparnaay, Roger Wittevrongel, as well as the French Pierre Barraya, Jacques Bodin, Ronald Bowen, François Bricq, Gérard Schlosser, Jacques Monory, Bernard Rancillac, Gilles Aillaud and Gérard Fromanger.
Early 21st century Hyperrealism was founded on the aesthetic principles of Photorealism. American painter Denis Peterson, whose pioneering works are universally viewed as an offshoot of Photorealism, first used "Hyperrealism" to apply to the new movement and its splinter group of artists. Graham Thompson wrote "One demonstration of the way photography became assimilated into the art world is the success of photorealist painting in the late 1960s and early 1970s, it is called super-realism or hyper-realism and painters like Richard Estes, Denis Peterson, Audrey Flack, Chuck Close worked from photographic stills to create paintings that appeared to be photographs."However, Hyperrealism is contrasted with the literal approach found in traditional photorealist paintings of the late 20th century. Hyperrealist painters and sculptors use photographic images as a reference source from which to create a more definitive and detailed rendering, one that unlike Photorealism, is narrative and emotive in its depictions.
Strict Photorealist painters tended to imitate photographic images, omitting or abstracting certain finite detail to maintain a consistent over-all pictorial design. They omitted human emotion, political value, narrative elements. Since it evolved from Pop Art, the photorealistic style of painting was uniquely tight and mechanical with an emphasis on mundane, everyday imagery. Hyperrealism, although photographic in essence entails a softer, much more complex focus on the subject depicted, presenting it as a living, tangible object; these objects and scenes in Hyperrealism paintings and sculptures are meticulously detailed to create the illusion of a reality not seen in the original photo. That is not to say they're surreal. Textures, lighting effects, shadows appear clearer and more distinct than the reference photo or the actual subject itself. Hyperrealism has its roots in the philosophy of Jean Baudrillard, "the simulation of something which never existed." As such, Hyperrealists create a false reality, a convincing illusion based on a simulation of reality, the digital photograph.
Hyperreal paintings and sculptures are an outgrowth of high-resolution images produced by digital cameras and displayed on computers. As Photorealism emulated analog photography, Hyperrealism uses digital imagery and expands on it to create a new sense of reality. Hyperrealistic paintings and sculptures confront the viewer with the illusion of manipulated high-resolution images, though more meticulous; the Hyperrealist style focuses much more of its emphasis on the subjects. Hyperreal paintings and sculptures are not strict interpretations of photographs, nor are they literal illustrations of a particular scene or subject. Instead, they use additional subtle, pictorial elements to create the illusion of a reality which in fact either does not exist or cannot be seen by the human eye. Furthermore, they may incorporate emotional, social and political thematic elements as an extension of the painted visual illusion. Hyperrealist painters and sculptors make allowances for some mechanical means of transferring images to the canvas or mold, including preliminary drawings or grisaille underpaintings and molds.
Photographic slide projections or multi media projectors are used to project images onto canvases and rudimentary techniques such as gridding may be used to ensure accuracy. Sculptures utilize polyesters applied directly onto mold. Hyperrealism requires a high level of technical virtuosity to simulate a false reality; as such, Hyperrealism incorporates and capitalizes upon photographic limitations such as depth of field and range of focus. Anomalies found in digital images, such as fractalization, are exploited to emphasize their digital origins by some Hyperrealist painters, such as Chuck Close, Denis Peterson, Bert Monroy and Robert Bechtle. Subject matter ranges from portraits, figurative art, still life, landscapes and narrative scenes; the more recent hyperrealist style is much more literal than Photorealism as to exact pictorial detail with an emphasis on social, cultural or political themes. This is in stark contrast to the newer concurrent Photorealism with its continued avoidance of photogr
Visualization or visualisation is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. Visualization through visual imagery has been an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the dawn of humanity. Examples from history include cave paintings, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek geometry, Leonardo da Vinci's revolutionary methods of technical drawing for engineering and scientific purposes. Visualization today has ever-expanding applications in science, engineering, interactive multimedia, etc. Typical of a visualization application is the field of computer graphics; the invention of computer graphics may be the most important development in visualization since the invention of central perspective in the Renaissance period. The development of animation helped advance visualization; the use of visualization to present information is not a new phenomenon. It has been used in maps, scientific drawings, data plots for over a thousand years. Examples from cartography include Ptolemy's Geographia, a map of China, Minard's map of Napoleon's invasion of Russia a century and a half ago.
Most of the concepts learned in devising these images carry over in a straightforward manner to computer visualization. Edward Tufte has written three critically acclaimed books. Computer graphics has from its beginning been used to study scientific problems. However, in its early days the lack of graphics power limited its usefulness; the recent emphasis on visualization started in 1987 with the publication of Visualization in Scientific Computing, a special issue of Computer Graphics. Since there have been several conferences and workshops, co-sponsored by the IEEE Computer Society and ACM SIGGRAPH, devoted to the general topic, special areas in the field, for example volume visualization. Most people are familiar with the digital animations produced to present meteorological data during weather reports on television, though few can distinguish between those models of reality and the satellite photos that are shown on such programs. TV offers scientific visualizations when it shows computer drawn and animated reconstructions of road or airplane accidents.
Some of the most popular examples of scientific visualizations are computer-generated images that show real spacecraft in action, out in the void far beyond Earth, or on other planets. Dynamic forms of visualization, such as educational animation or timelines, have the potential to enhance learning about systems that change over time. Apart from the distinction between interactive visualizations and animation, the most useful categorization is between abstract and model-based scientific visualizations; the abstract visualizations show conceptual constructs in 2D or 3D. These generated shapes are arbitrary; the model-based visualizations either place overlays of data on real or digitally constructed images of reality or make a digital construction of a real object directly from the scientific data. Scientific visualization is done with specialized software, though there are a few exceptions, noted below; some of these specialized programs have been released as open source software, having often its origins in universities, within an academic environment where sharing software tools and giving access to the source code is common.
There are many proprietary software packages of scientific visualization tools. Models and frameworks for building visualizations include the data flow models popularized by systems such as AVS, IRIS Explorer, VTK toolkit, data state models in spreadsheet systems such as the Spreadsheet for Visualization and Spreadsheet for Images; as a subject in computer science, scientific visualization is the use of interactive, sensory representations visual, of abstract data to reinforce cognition, hypothesis building, reasoning. Data visualization is a related subcategory of visualization dealing with statistical graphics and geographic or spatial data, abstracted in schematic form. Scientific visualization is the transformation, selection, or representation of data from simulations or experiments, with an implicit or explicit geometric structure, to allow the exploration and understanding of the data. Scientific visualization focuses and emphasizes the representation of higher order data using graphics and animation techniques.
It is a important part of visualization and maybe the first one, as the visualization of experiments and phenomena is as old as science itself. Traditional areas of scientific visualization are flow visualization, medical visualization, astrophysical visualization, chemical visualization. There are several different techniques to visualize scientific data, with isosurface reconstruction and direct volume rendering being the more common. Educational visualization is using a simulation to create an image of something so it can be taught about; this is useful when teaching about a topic, difficult to otherwise see, for example, atomic structure, because atoms are far too small to be studied without expensive and difficult to use scientific equipment. Information visualization concentrates on the use of computer-supported tools to explore large amount of abstract data; the term "information visualization" was coined by the User Interface Research Group at Xerox PARC and included Jock Mackinlay. Practical application of information visualization in computer programs involves selecting and representing abstract data in a form that facilitates human interaction for exploration and understanding.
Non-photorealistic rendering is an area of computer graphics that focuses on enabling a wide variety of expressive styles for digital art. In contrast to traditional computer graphics, which has focused on photorealism, NPR is inspired by artistic styles such as painting, technical illustration, animated cartoons. NPR has appeared in movies and video games in the form of "toon shading", as well as in scientific visualization, architectural illustration and experimental animation. An example of a modern use of this method is that of cel-shaded animation; the term "non-photorealistic rendering" is believed to have been coined by the SIGGRAPH 1990 papers committee, who held a session entitled "Non Photo Realistic Rendering" The term, has received criticism. For artists, who are the target consumers of NPR techniques, it refers to a school of painting that focuses on reproducing the effect of a camera lens, with all the distortion and hyper-reflections that it involves. For graphics researchers, it refers to an image, visually indistinguishable from reality.
In fact, graphics researchers lump the kinds of visual distortions that are used by photorealist painters into non-photorealism. Describing something by what it is not is problematic. Equivalent comparisons might be "non-elephant biology", or "non-geometric mathematics". NPR researchers have stated that they expect the term will disappear and be replaced by the more general term "computer graphics", with "photorealistic graphics" being used to describe traditional computer graphics. Many techniques that are used to create'non-photorealistic' images are not rendering techniques, they are modelling post-processing techniques. While the latter are coming to be known as'image-based rendering', sketch-based modelling techniques, cannot technically be included under this heading, inconvenient for conference organisers; the first conference on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering included a discussion of possible alternative names. Among those suggested were "expressive graphics", "artistic rendering", "non-realistic graphics", "art-based rendering", "psychographics".
All of these terms have been used in various research papers on the topic, but the term NPR seems to have nonetheless taken hold. The first technical meeting dedicated to NPR was the ACM sponsored Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Rendering and Animation in 2000. NPAR is traditionally co-located with the Annecy Animated Film Festival, running on numbered years. From 2007 NPAR began to run on odd-numbered years, co-located with ACM SIGGRAPH. Three-dimensional NPR is the style, most seen in video games and movies; the output from this technique is always a 3D model, modified from the original input model to portray a new artistic style. In many cases, the geometry of the model is identical to the original geometry, only the material applied to the surface is modified. With increased availability of programmable GPU's, shaders have allowed NPR effects to be applied to the rasterised image, to be displayed to the screen; the majority of NPR techniques applied to 3D geometry are intended to make the scene appear two-dimensional.
NPR techniques for 3D images include Gooch shading. For enhanced legibility, the most useful technical illustrations for technical communication are not photorealistic. Non-photorealistic renderings, such as exploded view diagrams assist in showing placement of parts in a complex system; the input to a two dimensional NPR system is an image or video. The output is a an artistic rendering of that input imagery although some 2D NPR serves non-artistic purposes e.g. data visualization. The artistic rendering of images and video traditionally focused upon heuristic algorithms that seek to simulate the placement of brush strokes on a digital canvas. Arguably, the earliest example of 2D NPR is Paul Haeberli's'Paint by Numbers' at SIGGRAPH 1990; this provide the user with a canvas that they can "paint" on using the cursor — as the user paints, a stylized version of the image is revealed on the canvas. This is useful for people who want to simulate different sizes of brush strokes according to different areas of the image.
Subsequently basic image processing operations using gradient operators or statistical moments were used to automate this process and minimize user interaction in the late nineties. This automation enabled practical application of 2D NPR to video, for the first time in the living paintings of the movie What Dreams May Come. More sophisticated image abstractions techniques were developed in the early 2000s harnessing Computer Vision operators e.g. image salience, or segmentation operators to drive stroke placement. Around this time, machine learning began to influence image stylization algorithms notably image analogy that could learn to mimic the style of an existing artwork; the advent of deep learning has re-kindled activity in image stylization, notably with Neural Style Transfer algorithms that can mimic a wide gamut of artistic styles from single visual examples. These algorithms underpin mobile apps capable of the same e.g. Prisma In addition to the above stylization methods, a related class of techniques in 2D NPR address the simulation of artistic media.
These methods include simulating the diffusion of ink through different kinds of paper, of pigments th
Page layout is the part of graphic design that deals in the arrangement of visual elements on a page. It involves organizational principles of composition to achieve specific communication objectives; the high-level page layout involves deciding on the overall arrangement of text and images, on the size or shape of the medium. It requires intelligence and creativity, is informed by culture and what the document authors and editors wish to communicate and emphasize. Low-level pagination and typesetting are more mechanical processes. Given certain parameters - boundaries of text areas, the typeface, font size, justification preference can be done in a straightforward way; until desktop publishing became dominant, these processes were still done by people, but in modern publishing they are always automated. The result might be tweaked by a graphic designer. Beginning from early illuminated pages in hand-copied books of the Middle Ages and proceeding down to intricate modern magazine and catalog layouts, proper page design has long been a consideration in printed material.
With print media, elements consist of type and place-holder graphics for elements that are not printed with ink such as die/laser cutting, foil stamping or blind embossing. With manuscripts, all of the elements are added by hand, so the creator can determine the layout directly as they create the work with an advance sketch as a guide. With ancient woodblock printing, all elements of the page were carved directly into wood, though layout decisions might need to be made if the printing was transferred onto a larger work, such as a large piece of fabric with multiple block impressions. With the Renaissance invention of letterpress printing and cold-metal moveable type, typesetting was accomplished by physically assembling characters using a composing stick into a galley—a long tray. Any images would be created by engraving; the original document would be a hand-written manuscript. After the first round of typesetting, a galley proof might be printed in order for proofreading to be performed, either to correct errors in the original, or to make sure that the typesetter had copied the manuscript properly, interpreted the markup.
The final layout would be constructed in a "form" or "forme" using pieces of wood or metal to space out the text and images as desired, a frame known as a chase, objects which lock down the frame known as quoins. This process is called imposition, includes arranging multiple pages to be printed on the same sheet of paper which will be folded and trimmed. An "imposition proof" might be created to check the final placement; the invention of hot metal typesetting in 1884 sped up the typesetting process by allowing workers to produce slugs—entire lines of text—using a keyboard. The slugs were the result of molten metal being poured into molds temporarily assembled by the typesetting machine; the layout process remained the same as with cold metal type, however: assembly into physical galleys. Offset lithography allows the bright and dark areas of an image to control ink placement on the printing press; this means that if a single copy of the page can be created on paper and photographed any number of copies could be printed.
Type could be set with a typewriter, or to achieve professional results comparable to letterpress, a specialized typesetting machine. The IBM Selectric Composer, for example, could produce type of different size, different fonts, with text justification. With photoengraving and halftone, physical photographs could be transferred into print directly, rather than relying on hand-made engravings; the layout process became the task of creating the paste up, so named because rubber cement or other adhesive would be used to physically paste images and columns of text onto a rigid sheet of paper. Completed pages become known as camera-ready, "mechanical" or "mechanical art". Phototypesetting was invented in 1945; these machines became sophisticated, with computer-driven models able to store text on magnetic tape. As the graphics capabilities of computers matured, they began to be used to render characters, columns and multi-page signatures directly, rather than summoning a photographic template from a pre-supplied set.
In addition to being used as display devices for computer operators, cathode ray tubes were used to render text for phototypesetting. The curved nature of the CRT display however, led to distortions of text and art on the screen towards the outer edges of the screens; the advent of "flat screen" monitors in early 2010 eliminated the distortion problems caused by older CRT displays. As of 2016 flat panel displays have completely replaced CRT displays. Printers attached directly to computers allowed them to print documents directly, in multiple copies or as an original which could be copied on a ditto machine or photocopier. WYSIWYG word processors made it possible for general off
A slide show is a presentation of a series of still images on a projection screen or electronic display device in a prearranged sequence. The changes may be automatic and at regular intervals or they may be manually controlled by a presenter or the viewer. Slide shows consisted of a series of individual photographic slides projected onto a screen with a slide projector; when referring to the video or computer-based visual equivalent, in which the slides are not individual physical objects, the term is written as one word, slideshow. A slide show may be a presentation of images purely for their own visual interest or artistic value, sometimes unaccompanied by description or text, or it may be used to clarify or reinforce information, comments, solutions or suggestions which are presented verbally. Slide shows are sometimes still conducted by a presenter using an apparatus such as a carousel slide projector or an overhead projector, but now the use of an electronic video display device and a computer running presentation software is typical.
Slide shows had their beginnings in the 1600s, when hand-painted images on glass were first projected onto a wall with a "magic lantern". By the late 1700s, showmen were using magic lanterns to thrill audiences with supernatural apparitions in a popular form of entertainment called a phantasmagoria. Sunlight and oil lamps were the only available light sources; the development of new, much brighter artificial light sources opened up a world of practical applications for image projection. In the 1800s, a series of hand-painted glass "lantern slides" was sometimes projected to illustrate story-telling or a lecture. Widespread and varied uses for amusement and education evolved throughout the century. By 1900, photographic images on glass had replaced hand-painted images, but the black-and-white photographs were sometimes hand-colored with transparent dyes; the production of lantern slides had become a considerable industry, with dimensions standardized at 3.25 inches high by 4 inches wide in the US and 3.25 inches square in the UK and much of Europe.
"Magic lantern shows" served as a form of home entertainment and were popular with children. They continued to have a place among commercial public amusements after the coming of projected "moving pictures". Between films, early movie theaters featured "illustrated songs", which were community sing-alongs with the lyrics and illustrations provided by a series of projected lantern slides. Theaters used their lanterns to project advertising slides and messages such as "Ladies, kindly remove your hats". After 35 mm Kodachrome color film was introduced in 1936, a new standard 2×2 inch miniature lantern slide format was created to better suit the small transparencies the film produced. In advertising, the antique "magic lantern" terminology was streamlined, so that the framed pieces of film were "slides" and the lantern used to project them was a "slide projector"; the old-fashioned magic lantern show became an up-to-date "slide show". Home slide shows were a common phenomenon in middle-class American homes during the 1950s and 1960s.
If there was an enthusiast in the family, any visit from relatives or the arrival of a new batch of Kodachrome slides from the film processing service provided an excuse to bring out the entire collection of 35 mm slides, set up the slide projector and the screen, turn out the lights test the endurance of the assembled audience with a marathon of old vacation photos and pictures taken at weddings and other family events, all accompanied by live commentary. An image on 35 mm film mounted in a 2×2 inch metal, card or plastic frame is still by far the most common photographic slide format. A well-organized slide show allows a presenter to fit visual images to an oral presentation; the old adage "A picture is worth a thousand words" holds true, in that a single image can save a presenter from speaking a paragraph of descriptive details. As with any public speaking or lecturing, a certain amount of talent and rehearsal is required to make a successful slide show presentation. Presentation software is most used in the business world, where millions of presentations are created daily.
Another important area where it is used is for instructional purposes with the intention of creating a dynamic, audiovisual presentation. The relevant points to the entire presentation are put on slides, accompany a spoken monologue. Slide shows have artistic uses as well, such as being used as a screensaver, or to provide dynamic imagery for a museum presentation, for example, or in installation art. David Byrne, among others, has created PowerPoint art. Since the late 1960s, visual artists have used slide shows in museums and galleries as a device, either for presenting specific information about an action or research or as a phenomenological form in itself. According to the introduction of Slide Show, an exhibition organized at the Baltimore Museum of Art: “Through the simple technology of the slide projector and 35 mm color transparency, artists discovered a tool that enabled the transformation of space through the magnification of projected pictures and images.” Although some artists have not used 35 mm or color slides, some, such as Robert Barry, have abandoned images for texts, 35 mm color film slides are most used.
The images are sometimes accompanied by written text, either as an intertitle. Some artists, such as James Coleman and Robert Smithson, have used a voice-over with their slide presentations. Slide shows have been used by artists who use other media such as painting and sculpture to present their work publicly. In recent years there has been a growin
Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect. Canvas paintings that extend the viewer's perspective of the artwork and incorporate multidimensional movement are the earliest examples of kinetic art. More pertinently speaking, kinetic art is a term that today most refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such as mobiles that move or are machine operated; the moving parts are powered by wind, a motor or the observer. Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of styles. There is a portion of kinetic art that includes virtual movement, or rather movement perceived from only certain angles or sections of the work; this term clashes with the term "apparent movement", which many people use when referring to an artwork whose movement is created by motors, machines, or electrically powered systems. Both apparent and virtual movement are styles of kinetic art that only have been argued as styles of op art; the amount of overlap between kinetic and op art is not significant enough for artists and art historians to consider merging the two styles under one umbrella term, but there are distinctions that have yet to be made.
"Kinetic art" as a moniker developed from a number of sources. Kinetic art has its origins in the late 19th century impressionist artists such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet who experimented with accentuating the movement of human figures on canvas; this triumvirate of impressionist painters all sought to create art, more lifelike than their contemporaries. Degas’ dancer and racehorse portraits are examples of what he believed to be "photographic realism". By the early 1900s, certain artists grew closer to ascribing their art to dynamic motion. Naum Gabo, one of the two artists attributed to naming this style, wrote about his work as examples of "kinetic rhythm", he felt that his moving sculpture Kinetic Construction was the first of its kind in the 20th century. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the style of kinetic art was reshaped by a number of other artists who experimented with mobiles and new forms of sculpture; the strides made by artists to "lift the figures and scenery off the page and prove undeniably that art is not rigid" took significant innovations and changes in compositional style.
Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet were the three artists of the 19th century that initiated those changes in the Impressionist movement. Though they each took unique approaches to incorporating movement in their works, they did so with the intention of being a realist. In the same period, Auguste Rodin was an artist whose early works spoke in support of the developing kinetic movement in art. However, Auguste Rodin's criticisms of the movement indirectly challenged the abilities of Manet and Monet, claiming that it is impossible to capture a moment in time and give it the vitality, seen in real life, it is impossible to ascribe Manet's work to any one era or style of art. One of his works, on the brink of a new style is Le Ballet Espagnol; the figures' contours coincide with their gestures as a way to suggest depth in relation to one another and in relation to the setting. Manet accentuates the lack of equilibrium in this work to project to the viewer that he or she is on the edge of a moment, seconds away from passing.
The blurred, hazy sense of color and shadow in this work place the viewer in a fleeting moment. In 1863, Manet extended his study of movement on flat canvas with Le déjeuner sur l'herbe; the light and composition are the same, but he adds a new structure to the background figures. The woman bending in the background is not scaled as if she were far away from the figures in the foreground; the lack of spacing is Manet's method of creating snapshot, near-invasive movement similar to his blurring of the foreground objects in Le Ballet Espagnol. Edgar Degas is believed to be the intellectual extension of Manet, but more radical for the impressionist community. Degas' subjects are the epitome of the impressionist era, his "modern subjects" never obscured his objective of creating moving art. In his 1860 piece Jeunes Spartiates s'exerçant à la lutte, he capitalizes on the classic impressionist nudes but expands on the overall concept, he places them in a flat landscape and gives them dramatic gestures, for him this pointed to a new theme of "youth in movement".
One of his most revolutionary works, L’Orchestre de l’Opéra interprets forms of definite movement and gives them multidimensional movement beyond the flatness of the canvas. He positions the orchestra directly in the viewer’s space, while the dancers fill the background. Degas is alluding to the Impressionist style of combining movement, but redefines it in a way, seen in the late 1800s. In the 1870s, Degas continues this trend through his love of one shot motion horseraces in such works as Voiture aux Courses, it wasn’t until 1884 with Chevaux de Course that his attempt at creating dynamic art came to fruition. This work is part of a series of horse races and polo matches wherein the figures are well integrated into the landscape; the horses and their owners are depicted as if caught in a moment of intense deliberation, trotting away casually in other frames. The impressi
Printmaking art techniques such as engraving, etching and lithography are covered more in their respective articles. Line art or line drawing is any image that consists of distinct straight or curved lines placed against a background, without gradations in shade or hue to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects. Line art can use lines of different colors, although line art is monochromatic. Line art emphasizes form and outline, over color and texture. However, areas of solid pigment and dots can be used in addition to lines; the lines in a piece of line art may be all of a constant width, of several constant widths, or of varying widths. Line art may tend towards realism, or it may be a caricature, ideograph, or glyph. Before the development of photography and of halftones, line art was the standard format for illustrations to be used in print publications, using black ink on white paper. Using either stippling or hatching, shades of gray could be simulated. One of the most fundamental elements of art is the line.
An important feature of a line is that it indicates the edge of a two-dimensional shape or a three-dimensional form. A shape can be indicated by means of an outline and a three-dimensional form can be indicated by contour lines. Old master print Printmaking Screentone Hatching Stippling Halftone Moiré pattern Ben-Day dots Dithering Grayscale Perspective Vanishing point Media related to Line art at Wikimedia Commons