Vector graphics editor
A vector graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to compose and edit vector graphics images interactively on a computer and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML. Vector editors are contrasted with bitmap editors, their capabilities complement each other. Vector editors are better for page layout, logos, sharp-edged artistic illustrations, technical illustrations and flowcharting. Bitmap editors are more suitable for retouching, photo processing, photorealistic illustrations and illustrations drawn by hand with a pen tablet. Recent versions of bitmap editors such as GIMP and Adobe Photoshop support vector tools, vector editors such as Adobe Fireworks, Adobe FreeHand, Adobe Illustrator, Affinity Designer, Artboard, Autodesk Graphic, CorelDRAW, Inkscape, sK1 or Xara Photo & Graphic Designer have adopted raster effects that were once limited to bitmap editors; some vector editors support animation, while others are geared towards producing animated graphics.
Vector graphics are more suitable for animation, though there are raster-based animation tools as well. Vector editors are related to desktop publishing software such as Adobe InDesign or Scribus, which usually include some vector drawing tools. Special vector editors are used for computer-assisted drafting; these are not suitable for artistic or decorative graphics, but are rich in tools and object libraries used to ensure precision and standards compliance of drawings and blueprints. 3D computer graphics software such as Maya, Blender or 3D Studio Max can be thought of as an extension of the traditional 2D vector editors, as they share some common concepts and tools. Comparison of vector graphics editors Raster graphics editor Image editing Graphics MetaPost Bitmap and Vector Graphics Explained Edit SVG Images Online
Graphics are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain. In contemporary usage, it includes a pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, in educational and recreational software. Images that are generated by a computer are called computer graphics. Examples are photographs, Line art, diagrams, numbers, geometric designs, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics combine text and color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or the creation of a distinctive style. Graphics can be artistic; the latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred.
It can be used for architecture. The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods are cave paintings and markings on boulders, bone and antlers, which were created during the Upper Palaeolithic period from 40,000–10,000 B. C. or earlier. Many of these were found to record astronomical and chronological details; some of the earliest graphics and drawings are known to the modern world, from 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder seals, marking the beginning of the historical periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes. Records from Egypt predate these and papyrus was used by the Egyptians as a material on which to plan the building of pyramids. From 600–250 BC, the Greeks played a major role in geometry, they used graphics to represent their mathematical theories such as the Circle Theorem and the Pythagorean theorem. In art, "graphics" is used to distinguish work in a monotone and made up of lines, as opposed to painting.
Drawing involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool or moving a tool across a surface. In which a tool is always used as if there were no tools it would be art. Graphical drawing is an instrumental guided drawing. Woodblock printing, including images is first seen in China. In the West the main techniques have been woodcut and etching, but there are many others. Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid; the acid eats the metal, leaving behind roughened areas, or, if the surface exposed to the acid is thin, burning a line into the plate. The use of the process in printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, who decorated armour in this way. Etching is used in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards and semiconductor devices. Line art is a rather non-specific term sometimes used for any image that consists of distinct straight and curved lines placed against a background, without gradations in shade or hue to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects.
Line art is monochromatic, although lines may be of different colors. An illustration is a visual representation such as a drawing, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form; the aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information, traditionally by providing a visual representation of something described in the text. The editorial cartoon known as a political cartoon, is an illustration containing a political or social message. Illustrations can be used to display a wide range of subject matter and serve a variety of functions, such as: giving faces to characters in a story displaying a number of examples of an item described in an academic textbook visualizing step-wise sets of instructions in a technical manual communicating subtle thematic tone in a narrative linking brands to the ideas of human expression and creativity making a reader laugh or smile for fun funny A graph or chart is an information graphic that represents tabular, numeric data.
Charts are used to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationships between different parts of the data. A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, constructions, statistical data, etc. used to visualize and clarify the topic. A symbol, in its basic sense, is a representation of a quantity. In more psychological and philosophical terms, all concepts are symbolic in nature, representations for these concepts are token artifacts that are allegorical to a symbolic meaning, or symbolism. A map is a simplified depiction of a space, a navigational aid which highlights relations between objects within that space. A map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representation of a three-dimensional space. One of the first'modern' maps was made by Waldseemüller. One difference between photography and other forms of graphics is that a photographer, in principle, just records a single moment in reality, with no interpretation. However, a photographer can choose the field of view and angle, may use other techniques
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
CorelDraw is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel Corporation. It is the name of the Corel graphics suite, which includes the bitmap-image editor Corel Photo-Paint as well as other graphics-related programs; the latest version is marketed as CorelDraw Graphics Suite 2019, was released in 12 March, 2019. CorelDraw is designed to edit two-dimensional images such as posters. In 1987, Corel engineers Michel Bouillon and Pat Beirne undertook to develop a vector-based illustration program to bundle with their desktop publishing systems; that program, CorelDraw, was released in 1989. CorelDraw 1.x and 2.x ran under Windows 2.x and 3.0. CorelDraw 3.0 came into its own with Microsoft's release of Windows 3.1. The inclusion of TrueType in Windows 3.1 transformed CorelDraw into a serious illustration program capable of using system-installed outline fonts without requiring third-party software such as Adobe Type Manager. CorelDraw was developed for Microsoft Windows 3 and runs on Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10.
The latest version, 2019, was released on March 12, 2019. CorelDraw Graphics Suite 2019 for Mac OS X was released on March 2019, after an 18-year absence. With version 6, CorelDraw introduced the automation of tasks using a Corel proprietary scripting language, COREL Script. With version 10, support for VBA was introduced for scripting by. Corel recommends to no longer use the COREL Script language but only VBA; until the release of version 5, CorelDraw versions existed for Windows 3.1x, CTOS and OS/2. In its first versions, the CDR file format was a proprietary file format used for vector graphic drawings, recognizable by the first two bytes of the file being "WL". Starting with CorelDraw 3, the file format changed to a Resource Interchange File Format envelope, recognizable by the first four bytes of the file being "RIFF", a "CDR*vrsn" in bytes 9 to 15, with the asterisk "*" being just a blank in early versions. Beginning with CorelDraw 4 it included the version number of the writing program in hexadecimal.
The actual data chunk of the RIFF remains a Corel proprietary format. From version X4 on, the CDR file is a ZIP-compressed directory of several files, among them XML files and the RIFF-structured riffdata.cdr with the familiar version signature in versions X4 and X5, a root.dat with CorelDraw X6, where the bytes 9 to 15 look different -- "CDRGfver" in a file created with X6. "F" was the last valid hex digit, the "fver" now indicates that the letter before no longer represents a hex digit. There is no publicly available CDR file format specification. Other CorelDraw file formats include CorelDraw Compressed, CorelDraw Template and Corel Presentation Exchange. In December 2006 the sK1 open-source project team started to reverse-engineer the CDR format; the results and the first working snapshot of the CDR importer were presented at the Libre Graphics Meeting 2007 conference taking place in May 2007 in Montreal. On the team parsed the structure of other Corel formats with the help of the open source CDR Explorer.
As of 2008, the sK1 project claims to have the best import support for CorelDraw file formats among open source software programs. The sK1 project developed the UniConvertor, a command line open source tool which supports conversion from CorelDraw ver.7-X4 formats to other formats. UniConvertor is used in the Inkscape and Scribus open source projects as an external tool for importing CorelDraw files. In 2007, Microsoft blocked CDR file format in Microsoft Office 2003 with the release of Service Pack 3 for Office 2003. Microsoft apologized for inaccurately blaming the CDR file format and other formats for security problems in Microsoft Office and released some tools for solving this problem. In 2012 the joint LibreOffice/re-lab team implemented libcdr, a library for reading CDR files from version 7 to X3 and CMX files; the library has extensive support for shapes and their properties, including support for color management and spot colors, has a basic support for text. The library provides a built-in converter to SVG, a converter to OpenDocument is provided by writerperfect package.
The libcdr library is used in LibreOffice starting from version 3.6, thanks to public API it can be used by other applications. CDR file format import is or supported in following applications: Adobe Illustrator - CorelDraw 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Corel PaintShop Photo Pro Corel WordPerfect Office Inkscape with UniConvertor installed. Drawing file versions 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0, Corel Clipart sK1 - partial support Xara Designer Pro and Xara Photo & Graphic Designer - early versions of CorelDraw CDR and CMX Comparison of vector graphics editors Comparison of raster to vector conversion software Official website Old CorelDraw 4 product announcement How to open CorelDraw file extension
Adobe Inc. is an American multinational computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California. It has focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray towards digital marketing software. Adobe is best known for its Adobe Flash web software ecosystem, Photoshop image editing software, Acrobat Reader, the Portable Document Format, Adobe Creative Suite, as well as its successor Adobe Creative Cloud. Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution; as of 2018, Adobe has about 19,000 employees worldwide, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe has major development operations in Newton, Massachusetts, it has major development operations in Noida and Bangalore in India The company was started in John Warnock's garage.
The name of the company, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, which ran behind Warnock's house. Adobe's corporate logo features a stylized "A" and was designed by Marva Warnock, graphic designer and John Warnock's wife. Steve Jobs asked to buy the company for five million dollars in 1982, but Warnock and Geschke refused, their investors urged them to work something out with Jobs, so they agreed to sell him shares worth 19 percent of the company, for which Jobs paid a five-times multiple of their company's valuation at the time, plus a five-year license fee for PostScript, in advance. The purchase and advance made Adobe the first company in the history of Silicon Valley to become profitable in its first year. Warnock and Geschke considered various business options including a copy-service business and a turnkey system for office printing, they chose to focus on developing specialized printing software, created the Adobe PostScript page description language. PostScript was the first international standard for computer printing as it included algorithms describing the letter-forms of many languages.
Adobe added kanji printer products in 1988. Warnock and Geschke were able to bolster the credibility of Postscript by connecting with a typesetting manufacturer, they weren't able to work with Compugraphic, but worked with Linotype to license the Helvetica and Times Roman fonts. By 1987, PostScript had become the industry-standard printer language with more than 400 third-party software programs and licensing agreements with 19 printer companies. Warnock described the language as "extensible", in its ability to apply graphic arts standards to office printing. Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines, licensed it to Microsoft. In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh.
Illustrator, which grew from the firm's in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Adobe entered NASDAQ in August 1986, its revenue has grown from $1 billion in 1999 to $4 billion in 2012. Adobe's fiscal years run from December to November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30, 2007. In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably soon dominated the market. In 1993, Adobe introduced PDF, the Portable Document Format, its Adobe Acrobat and Reader software. PDF is now an International Standard: ISO 32000-1:2008. In December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded as Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1992, Adobe acquired Inc.. In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added PageMaker and After Effects to its product line in the year. In the same year, Adobe acquired Compution Inc.. In 1995, Adobe added FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its product line after Adobe acquired Frame Technology Corp.
In 1996, Adobe Inc added Ares Software Corp. In 2002, Adobe acquired Canadian company Accelio. On December 12, 2005, Adobe acquired its main rival, Macromedia, in a stock swap valued at about $3.4 billion, adding ColdFusion, Captivate, Adobe Connect, Dreamweaver, Flash, FlashPaper, FreeHand, HomeSite, JRun and Authorware to Adobe's product line. Adobe released Adobe Media Player in April 2008. On April 27, Adobe discontinued development and sales of its older HTML/web development software, GoLive in favor of Dreamweaver. Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials and migration assistance. On June 1, Adobe launched a series of web applications geared for collaborative work. Creative Suite 4, which includes Design, Production Premium, Master Collection came out in October 2008 in six configurations at prices from about US$1,700 to $2,500 or by individual application; the Windows version of Photoshop includes 64-bit processing.
On December 3, 2008, Adobe laid off 600 of its employees citing the weak economic environment. On November 10, 2009, the company laid off a further 680 emplo
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve
Raster graphics editor
A raster graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to create and edit images interactively on the computer screen and save them in one of many "bitmap" or "raster" formats such as JPEG, PNG, GIF. Vector graphics editors are contrasted with raster graphics editors, yet their capabilities complement each other; the technical difference between vector and raster editors stem from the difference between vector and raster images. Vector graphics are created mathematically; each element is manipulated numerically. Raster images include digital photos. A raster image is made up of rows and columns of dots, called pixels, is more photo-realistic; this is the standard form for digital cameras. The image is represented pixel like a microscopic jigsaw puzzle. Vector editors tend to be better suited for graphic design, page layout, logos, sharp-edged artistic illustrations, e.g. cartoons, clip art, complex geometric patterns, technical illustrations and flowcharting. Advanced raster editors, like GIMP and Adobe Photoshop, use vector methods for general layout and elements such as text, but are equipped to deal with raster images down to the pixel and have special capabilities in doing so, such as brightness/contrast, adding "lighting" to a raster image or photograph.
Select a region for editing Draw lines with simulated brushes of different color, size and pressure Fill a region with a single color, gradient of colors, or a texture Select a color using different color models, e.g. RGB, HSV, or by using a color dropper Edit and convert between various color models. Add typed letters in various font styles Remove imperfections from photo images Composite editing using layers Apply filters for effects including sharpening and blurring Convert between various image file formats Comparison of raster graphics editors Vector graphics editor Texture map Text editor 3D modelling software Media related to Bitmap graphics editors at Wikimedia Commons