Lepidium is a genus of plants in the mustard/cabbage family, Brassicaceae. The genus is distributed in the Americas, Asia and Australia, it includes familiar species such as garden cress and dittander. General common names include peppercress and pepperwort; some species form tumbleweeds. The genus name Lepidium is a Greek word meaning'small scale', thought to derived from a folk medicine usage of the plant to treat leprosy, which cause small scales on the skin. Another meaning is related to the small scale-like fruit. There are about 175, to 220 species in the genus. 10 species are found in California. Species include: Lepidium africanum Lepidium amelum Lepidium armoracia Fisch. & C. A. Mey. 1843 Lepidium apetalum Willd. - du xing cai Lepidium arbuscula Lepidium banksii Lepidium barnebyanum Lepidium biplicatum Lepidium bonariense - peppercress Lepidium campestre - field pepperwort, field cress Lepidium catapycnon Lepidium coronopus - swine cress Lepidium densiflorum - common pepperweed Lepidium desvauxii - bushy peppercress Lepidium dictyotum Lepidium didymum Lepidium draba - hoary cress Lepidium drummondii Lepidium echinatum Lepidium ecuadoriense Lepidium englerianum Lepidium fasciculatum - bundled peppercress Lepidium flavum Lepidium flexicaule Lepidium foliosum - leafy peppercress Lepidium fremontii - desert pepperweed Lepidium genistoides Lepidium ginninderrense Lepidium graminifolium Lepidium howei-insulae - mustard & cress Lepidium hypenantion Lepidium hyssopifolium Lepidium heterophyllum - Smith's pepperwort, Smith's cress Lepidium jaredii - Jared's pepperweed Lepidium lasiocarpum Lepidium latifolium - pepperweed, dittander Lepidium latipes Lepidium lyratogynum Lepidium merrallii Lepidium meyenii - maca Lepidium monoplocoides - winged peppercress Lepidium montanum - western pepperweed, mountain pepperweed Lepidium nanum - dwarf pepperweed Lepidium nesophilum Lepidium nitidum - shining pepperweed Lepidium oblongum Lepidium oleraceum Lepidium oxycarpum - forked pepperweed Lepidium oxytrichum Lepidium papilliferum - slickspot peppergrass Lepidium papillosum - warty peppercress Lepidium pedicellosum Lepidium peregrinum Lepidium perfoliatum Lepidium peruvianum Lepidium phlebopetalum Lepidium pholidogynum Lepidium pinnatifidum Lepidium platypetalum - slender peppercress Lepidium pseudohyssopifolium Lepidium pseudoruderale Lepidium pseudotasmanicum Lepidium puberulum Lepidium quitense Lepidium rotundum - veined peppercress Lepidium ruderale - narrow-leaved pepperwort Lepidium oleraceum - Cook's scurvy grass Lepidium sagittulatum Lepidium scandens Lepidium squamatum Lepidium strictum Lepidium sativum - garden cress Lepidium thurberi - Thurber's peppergrass, Thurber's pepperweed Lepidium virginicum - Virginian peppercress Lepidium xylodes Everitt, J.
H.. L.. R.. Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2 "Lepidium". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2008-02-28. "Inland Lepidium recovery plan 2000-2010". Department of Conservation, New Zealand. 2000. Retrieved 2007-10-04. D. A. Norton. J. de Lange. "Coastal Cresses Recovery Plan". Department of Conservation, New Zealand. Retrieved 2007-04-19. Species Profile: Hairy Whitetop. National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library
Eriophorum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cyperaceae, the sedge family. They are found throughout the arctic and temperate portions of the Northern Hemisphere in acid bog habitats, being abundant in Arctic tundra regions, they are herbaceous perennial plants with grass-like leaves. The seed heads are covered in a fluffy mass of cotton-like fibers which are carried on the wind to aid dispersal. In cold Arctic regions, these masses of translucent fibres serve as'down' – increasing the temperature of the reproductive organs during the Arctic summer by trapping solar radiation. Paper and the wicks of candles have been made of its fiber, pillows stuffed with the same material; the leaves were used in diarrhea, the spongy pith of the stem for the removal of tapeworm. These species are included: Eriophorum angustifolium Honck. – widespread across Europe, North America Eriophorum × beringianum Raymond – Alaska including Aleutians. & C. A. Mey. – Scandinavia, northern Russia, Korea, northern Canada Eriophorum callitrix Cham.
Ex C. A. Mey. – Siberia, Russian Far East, Canada, Montana, Wyoming Eriophorum chamissonis C. A. Mey. – Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Canada, Greenland and western United States Eriophorum crinigerum Beetle – Oregon, northwestern California Eriophorum × fellowsii M. S. Novos. – Ontario, Massachusetts Eriophorum gracile Koch – much of Europe. S. Novos. – European Russia Eriophorum humile Turcz. – Altai, Kazakhstan, Amur Eriophorum latifolium Hoppe – much of Europe. – eastern Canada and northeastern United States from Nunavut and Labrador to New Jersey Eriophorum tolmatchevii M. S. Novos. – Krasnoyarsk, Yakutiya Eriophorum transiens Raymond – Guizhou Eriophorum vaginatum L. – most of genus range Eriophorum virginicum L. – eastern North America from Labrador to Tennessee, west to Michigan Eriophorum viridicarinatum Fernald – Canada including Arctic territories.
Ruppia known as the widgeonweeds, ditch grasses or widgeon grass, is the only genus in the family Ruppiaceae, with eight known species. These are aquatic plants widespread over much of the world; the genus name was given in honour of a German botanist. They are widespread outside of the tropics; the leaf is simple and not rhizomatous. They can be perennial; these species are adapted to be in brackish water. The leaves are medium-sized, their disposition can be opposite, or whorled. Lamina keep entire and are setaceous or linear; the leaf just shows one vein without cross-venules. Stomata are not present; the mesophyll leaks calcium oxalate crystals. The minor leaf veins do not present phloem leaks vessels; these plants have stems without secondary xylem without vessels. The sieve-tube plastids are P-type; the root xylem does not present vessels. These plants are hermaphroditic, with hydrophilous pollination; the flowers are ebracteate and regular. The flowers are aggregated in ‘inflorescences’, but sometimes they are solitary.
They grow in racemes, spikes, or umbels. The scapiflorous inflorescences are terminal, in short spikes, or subumbelliform racemes, sometimes one- or few-flowered, they do not have hypogynous disks. These flowers do not have perianth absent, except when small staminal appendages are regarded as perianth segments; the androecial members are all equal. The androecium just presents two fertile stamens with sessile anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; the pollen is polysiphonous and its grains are three-celled and nonaperturate. The gynoecium 4 is superior and euapocarpous; the carpel is not apically stigmatic with the stigma peltate, or umbonate. These flowers only present one ovule pendulous, campylotropous and crassinucellate; the placentation is apical and embryo-sac development is of the polygonum type. Before fertilization, they fuse polar nuclei; the fruit is drupaceous and fleshy. The fruiting carpel is indehiscent on a long, spirally twisted peduncle, with each drupelet becoming long-stalked.
The fruit contains one nonendospermic seed with starch. The embryo can be straight or curved. Membranous testa do not have phytomelan; the Cronquist system of 1981 placed the family in order Najadales of subclass Alismatidae in class Liliopsida in division Magnoliophyta. The APG II system of 2003 does recognize such a family and places it in the order Alismatales, in the clade monocots. According to the AP-Website the family is doubtfully distinct from the family Cymodoceaceae: the plants in the three families Cymodoceaceae and Ruppiaceae form a monophyletic group. A genus-level taxonomy was revised by Zhao and Wu, including the following species in the world: speciesRuppia bicarpa - Western Cape, South Africa Ruppia cirrhosa* - temperate regions: Europe, north + south Africa, North America, West Indies, Argentina *The name is a homotypic synonym of R. maritima Ruppia didyma - Mexico, West Indies Ruppia drepanensis - western + central Mediterranean Ruppia filifolia - southern South America, Falkland Islands Ruppia maritima - seashores and lakeshores around the world Ruppia megacarpa - Australia, New Zealand, Asia Ruppia occidentalis - Canada, USA Ruppia polycarpa - Australia, New Zealand Ruppia spiralis - seashores and lakeshores around the world Ruppia tuberosa - AustraliaMarine grasses families: Zosteraceae, Cymodoceaceae and Posidoniaceae.
Related families: Potamogetonaceae and Zannichelliaceae. The first molecular phylogeny of the monogeneric family discerned three distinct species, R. tuberosa, R. megacarpa, R. polycarpa, one species complex comprising six lineages. The species complex, named R. maritima complex, was updated as a group of eight lineages. These studies revealed that multiple hybridization and polyploidy events as well as chloroplast capture have occurred in the evolution of the genus; these plants present an anatomy non-C4 type. Seven labdanes have been identified from this genus: ent-14,15-Dinor-8-labden-13-one Methyl ester of -15,16-Epoxy-12-hydroxy-12-oxo-8,13,14-labdatrien-19-oic acid. -15,16-epoxy-8,13,14-labdatrien-19-ol. Methyl ester of -15,16-epoxy-8,13,14-labdatrien-19-oic acid. -15,16-Epoxy-8,13,14-labdatrien-19-al. -15,16-Epoxy-8,13,14-labdatrien-19-yl acetate -8,13-Labdadien-15-olThree steroids have been isolated: -Ergosta-8,22-diene-3,6,7-triol. -Ergosta-8,22-diene-3,6,7-triol -Ergost-4-ene-3,6-dione.
Ruppiaceae in the Flora of North America NCBI Taxonomy Browser links at CSDL, Texas
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae known as the legume, pea, or bean family, are a large and economically important family of flowering plants. It includes trees and perennial or annual herbaceous plants, which are recognized by their fruit and their compound, stipulate leaves. Many legumes have characteristic fruits; the family is distributed, is the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and about 19,000 known species. The five largest of the genera are Astragalus, Indigofera and Mimosa, which constitute about a quarter of all legume species; the ca. 19,000 known legume species amount to about 7% of flowering plant species. Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas and Africa. Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that the Fabaceae is a single monophyletic family; this conclusion has been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by different groups within the family compared with that found among the Leguminosae and their closest relations, but by all the recent phylogenetic studies based on DNA sequences.
These studies confirm that the Fabaceae are a monophyletic group, related to the Polygalaceae and Quillajaceae families and that they belong to the order Fabales. Along with the cereals, some fruits and tropical roots, a number of Leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use is related to human evolution; the Fabaceae family includes a number of important agricultural and food plants, including Glycine max, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Medicago sativa, Arachis hypogaea, Ceratonia siliqua, Glycyrrhiza glabra. A number of species are weedy pests in different parts of the world, including: Cytisus scoparius, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulex europaeus, Pueraria lobata, a number of Lupinus species; the name'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus Faba, now included in Vicia. The term "faba" comes from Latin, appears to mean "bean". Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid, refers to the fruit of these plants, which are called legumes. Fabaceae range in habit from giant trees to small annual herbs, with the majority being herbaceous perennials.
Plants have indeterminate inflorescences. The flowers have a short hypanthium and a single carpel with a short gynophore, after fertilization produce fruits that are legumes; the Leguminosae have a wide variety of growth forms, including trees, herbaceous plants, vines or lianas. The herbaceous plants can be annuals, biennials, or perennials, without basal or terminal leaf aggregations. Many Legumes have tendrils, they are epiphytes, or vines. The latter support themselves by means of shoots that twist around a support or through cauline or foliar tendrils. Plants can be mesophytes, or xerophytes; the leaves are alternate and compound. Most they are even- or odd-pinnately compound trifoliate and palmately compound, in the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae bipinnate, they always have stipules, which can be rather inconspicuous. Leaf margins are entire or serrate. Both the leaves and the leaflets have wrinkled pulvini to permit nastic movements. In some species, leaflets have evolved into tendrils.
Many species have leaves with structures that attract ants that protect the plant from herbivore insects. Extrafloral nectaries are common among the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae, are found in some Faboideae. In some Acacia, the modified hollow stipules are known as domatia. Many Fabaceae host bacteria in their roots within structures called root nodules; these bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to a form of nitrogen, usable to the host plant. This process is called nitrogen fixation; the legume, acting as a host, rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiotic relationship. The flowers have five fused sepals and five free petals, they are hermaphrodite, have a short hypanthium cup shaped. There are ten stamens and one elongated superior ovary, with a curved style, they are arranged in indeterminate inflorescences. Fabaceae are entomophilous plants, the flowers are showy to attract pollinators. In the Caesalpinioideae, the flowers are zygomorphic, as in Cercis, or nearly symmetrical with five equal petals in Bauhinia.
The upper petal is the innermost one, unlike in the Faboideae. Some species, like some in the genus Senna, have asymmetric flowers, with one of the lower petals larger than the opposing one, the style bent to one side; the calyx, corolla, or stamens can be showy in this group. In the Mimosoideae, the flowers are actinomorphic and arranged in globose inflorescences; the petals are small and the stamens, which can be more than just 10, have long, coloured filaments, which are the showiest part of the flower. All of the flowers in an inflorescence open at once. In the Faboideae, the flowers are zygom
The unrelated scurvy-grass sorrel is sometimes called "scurvygrass". For the Roman era spoons see Cochlearia Scurvy-grass is a genus of about 30 species of annual and perennial herbs in the cabbage family Brassicaceae, they are distributed in temperate and arctic areas of the northern hemisphere, most found in coastal regions, on cliff-tops and salt marshes where their high tolerance of salt enables them to avoid competition from larger, but less salt-tolerant plants. They form low, rounded or creeping plants 5–20 cm tall; the leaves are smoothly rounded spoon-shaped, or in some species, lobed. The flowers are borne in short racemes. About 30 species are accepted. Cochlearia acutangula Cochlearia aestuaria – Estuarine scurvy-grass Cochlearia alatipes Cochlearia anglica – English scurvy-grass Cochlearia aragonensis Cochlearia changhuaensis Cochlearia cyclocarpa – Roundfruit scurvy-grass Cochlearia danica – Early or Danish scurvy-grass Cochlearia fenestrata – Arctic scurvy-grass Cochlearia formosana Cochlearia excelsa Cochlearia fumarioides Cochlearia furcatopilosa Cochlearia glastifolia Cochlearia groenlandica – Greenland scurvy-grass Cochlearia henryi Cochlearia hui Cochlearia lichuanensis Cochlearia longistyla Cochlearia megalosperma Cochlearia microcarpa Cochlearia oblongifolia – East Asian scurvy-grass Cochlearia officinalis – Common scurvy-grass Cochlearia paradoxa Cochlearia rivulorum Cochlearia rupicola Cochlearia sessilifolia – Sessile-leaved or Alaskan scurvy-grass Cochlearia sinuata Cochlearia tatrae Cochlearia tridactylites – Three-fingered scurvy-grass Cochlearia warburgiiTwo species included in the genus Cochlearia are now treated in separate genera: Horseradish Armoracia rusticana Wasabi Wasabia japonica Cook's scurvy grass, Lepidium oleraceum, was used by James Cook to prevent scurvy, but is now extinct.
In the first century A. D. Pliny the Elder writes in his Naturalis Historia, about a disease suffered by Roman soldiers in Germany, their symptoms resemble those of scurvy, Pliny recommends a Herba britannica, suggested to be scurvy-grass. Scurvy-grass was eaten in the past by sailors suffering from scurvy after returning from long voyages; the leaves are rich in vitamin C, which cures this deficiency disease resulting from a lack of fresh vegetables in the diet. The Rev. George Moore recorded the purchase of "a pint of scurvey-grasse" for 1 s in 1662, he "suffered much" from scurvy, purchasing scurvey-grasse in both bundled and bottled form. The book Cochlearia curiosa: or the curiosities of scurvygrass was published in English in 1676, Described as "both a learned and accurate work", it was well received, and brought scurvy-grass "into great repute" as a remedy. The book contained "not only a description of the several kinds of this plant, with its several names and time of growth and general vertues, but an enumeration of the uses, medicinal vertues and manner of applying each part of this plant."
In 1857, Cochlearia officinalis was described in The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics as "A gentle stimulant and diuretic. It has long been esteemed as an antiscorbutic, it has been used in visceral obstructions. It is eaten with bread and butter, like the water-cress."The leaves, which have a strong acrid, bitter, or peppery taste similar to the related horseradish and watercress, are sometimes used in salads or eaten with bread and butter. Scurvy-grass sorrel is an unrelated plant from southern South America and the Falkland Islands, used to treat scurvy; the advent of modern fast roads treated with salt in winter for ice clearance has resulted in the colonisation by scurvy-grass of many inland areas where it did not occur. The scurvy-grass seeds become trapped on car wheels, transported for a considerable distance, washed off, to grow in the salt-rich soil at the side of the road where other plants cannot survive. For the rapid colonisation of a British inland county between 1989–2002, see Cochlearia danica in Worcestershire.
Flora Europaea: Cochlearia Flora of China: Cochlearia species list. "Morphology and taxonomy of the genus Cochlearia in Northern Scandinavia". Doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.1990.tb01769.x
Goosegrass is a common name for several grasses and annual herbs. The origin of the name is due either to a plant's use as food for geese or plant parts that look like the foot of a goose. Goosegrass may refer to: Acrachne, genus of grass Carex eleusinoides, goosegrass sedge Carex lenticularis, goosegrass sedge Eleusine, genus of grass Eleusine indica, Indian goosegrass called wiregrass Galium aparine referred to as "cleavers" Galium murale, small goosegrass Puccinellia fasciculata, saltmarsh goosegrass Plants named Goosegrass
Sisyrinchium is a large genus of annual to perennial plants of the iris family, native to the New World, whose species are known as blue-eyed grasses. Several species in the eastern United States are endangered; these are not true grasses, but many species have the general appearance of grasses, as they are low-growing plants with long, thin leaves. They grow on grasslands. Many species resemble irises, to which they are more related. Most species grow as perennial plants, from a rhizome, though some are short-lived, some are annuals; the flowers are simple and grow in clusters. Many species the South American ones, are not blue, despite the common name; the genus includes species with blue, white and purple petals with a contrasting centre. Of the species in the United States, the Western Blue-eyed Grass, Sisyrinchium bellum, is sometimes found with white flowers, while the California Golden-eyed Grass, Sisyrinchium californicum, has yellow flowers; the genus was named based on the species Sisyrinchium bermudiana.
Sisyrinchíon is the Greek word, recorded by Pliny and Theophrastus, for the Barbary nut iris, refers to the way the corm tunics resemble a shaggy goat's-hair coat, sisýra. Authors as early as 1666 give the dubious etymology of Latin sūs "pig" and Greek rhynchos "nose", referring to pigs grubbing the roots; as Goldblatt and Manning explain, "the reason for applying the name to a genus of New World Iridaceae was arbitrary."The taxonomy of this genus is rather perplexing and confusing, as several of these species, such as Sisyrinchium angustifolium, form complexes with many variants named as species. More genetic research and cladistic analysis need to be performed to sort out the relationships between the species; some species, notably S. douglasii, have been transferred to the separate genus Olsynium. There are up to 200 species, including: Rudall, P. J. A. Y. Kenton, T. J. Lawrence. 1986 - An anatomical and chromosomal investigation of Sisyrinchium and allied genera. Bot. Gaz. 147: 466–477 Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
1984 - Wildflowers of Texas. Library of Congress: 84-50025 Flora of North America Sections of the genus