Get out the vote
"Get out the vote" describes efforts aimed at increasing the voter turnout in elections. In countries that do not have or enforce compulsory voting, voter turnout can be low, sometimes below a third of the eligible voter pool. GOTV is not required for elections when there are effective compulsory voting systems in place, other than to register first time voters. There may be two types of political campaigns; the first is voter registration campaigns by electoral authorities or nonpartisan organizations that attempt to motivate potential voters to register and to vote. The second type is efforts made by political parties or politicians targeted at registered voters who are expected to vote in their favor. Campaigns attempt to register voters get them to vote, either by absentee ballot, early voting or election day voting. In contexts of the efforts of candidates, party activities and ballot measure campaigns, "get-out-the-vote" or "GOTV" is an adjective indicating having the effect of increasing the number of the campaign's supporters who will vote in the approaching election.
GOTV is a distinct phase of the overall campaign. Tactics used during GOTV include: telephoning or sending personalized audio messages to known supporters on the days leading up to an election, providing transport to and from polling stations for supporters, canvassing known supporters. Canvassing for the purpose of voter registration ceases when GOTV begins. Other activities include literature drops early on election day or the evening before and an active tracking of eligible voters who have voted; the importance of get out the vote efforts increases as the total percentage of the population voting decreases. For instance, with only two-thirds of the population voting in a Canadian election it is easier and more cost effective to ensure that a hundred supporters show up on polling day than it is to convince a hundred voters to switch support from one party to the other; this situation leads to polarized electoral politics. A 90% turnout from a party's radical base is better than a 50 percent turnout from both radical and moderate supporters.
GOTV can be important in high turn-out elections when the margin of victory is expected to be close. In many countries, the task of electoral authorities includes the promotion of and assisting in the registration of potential voters, in the exercise of the right to vote. However, such efforts are not uniformly successful, at times are partisan. A number of nonpartisan voter turnout organizations have formed in an effort to "get out the vote". In the United States, such voter turnout organizations include the League of Women Voters, Rock the Vote, The Voter Participation Center and Vote.org, which attempt to motivate potential voters to register and to vote in the belief that failure of any eligible voter to vote in any election is a loss to society. During 2016 Georgian parliamentary election President of Georgia Giorgi Margvelashvili supported an unprecedented Get out the vote campaign in Georgian history in terms of the scale of coverage and results - a nation-wide campaign initiated by the Europe-Georgia Institute to increase involvement of youth in the elections.
Shortly before the elections the Europe-Georgia Institute started the "Your Voice, Our Future" in the village of Bazaleti. President Margvelashvil and George Melashvili, the head of the Europe-Georgia Institute addressed participants. Shortly after summer schools on civic engagement, political culture and "Get out the vote" campaigns were held in 10 different regions of Georgia. Participants visited 20 cities and towns and held meetings with locals and explaining the importance of voting. Young people planned creative activities such as Flash mobs, theatre sketches and attracted media attention; the effort of these organizations is in getting people to vote and not to promote particular candidates or political view, a group is nonpartisan if it is not directing people how to vote. Nonpartisan groups do not distribute literature about candidates or causes when assisting potential voters to register to vote, do not focus GOTV efforts on voters who are most to agree with their personal views; the traditional GOTV method used in the UK is the Reading system, developed by the Reading Constituency Labour Party and its MP Ian Mikardo for the 1945 general election.
Once canvassing was performed to identify Labour voters, these were compiled onto'Reading pads' or'Mikardo sheets' featuring the names and addresses of supporters and pasted onto a large table or plank of wood. On election day these lists, with identical copies underneath, were torn off and given to GOTV campaigners. Lists of this type are sometimes referred to as Shuttleworths. At each polling station, tellers for each party will collect the unique poll numbers of voters from their polling cards; these numbers are collected from the polling stations and collated in a campaign headquarters for each ward referred to in the UK as a committee room.'Promised voters' who have voted are crossed off the list of voters canvassed as supporting Labour. This enables campaigners to focus more efficiently on the remainder of their supporters who have not voted. Computerisation has heralded further increases in efficiency, but nearly all subsequent methodologies can be traced back in some form to the Reading system.
The terminology reflects a distinction of GOTV from the complementary strategy of suppressing turnout among opposition voters. Political consultants are reputed to advise some candidates to "go negative", without any intent to
George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D. C, it was chartered in 1821 by an act of the United States Congress. The university is organized into 14 colleges and schools, including the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Elliott School of International Affairs, the GW School of Business, the School of Media and Public Affairs, the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration, the GW Law School and the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design. George Washington's main Foggy Bottom Campus is located in the heart of Washington, D. C. with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank located on campus and the White House and the U. S. Department of State within blocks of campus. GWU hosts numerous research centers and institutes, including the National Security Archive and the Institute for International Economic Policy. GWU has two satellite campuses: the Mount Vernon Campus, located in D. C.'s the Virginia Science and Technology Campus.
It is the largest institution of higher education in the District of Columbia. George Washington, the first President of the United States, advocated the establishment of a national university in the U. S. capital in his first State of the Union address in 1790 and continued to promote this idea throughout his career and until his death. In his will, Washington left shares in the Potomac Company to endow the university. However, due to the company's financial difficulties, funds were raised independently. On 9 February 1821, the university was founded by an Act of Congress, making it one of only five universities in the United States with a Congressional charter. George Washington offers degree programs in seventy-one disciplines, enrolling an average of 11,000 undergraduate and 15,500 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries; the Princeton Review ranked GWU 1st for Top Universities for Internship Opportunities. As of 2015, George Washington had over 1,100 active alumni in the U. S. Foreign Service, the nation's diplomatic corps.
GWU is ranked by The Princeton Review in the top "Most Politically Active" Schools. George Washington is home to extensive student life programs, as well as a strong Greek culture, over 450 other student organizations; the school's athletic teams, the George Washington Colonials, play in the Atlantic 10 Conference. GW is known for the numerous prominent events it holds yearly, from hosting U. S. presidential debates and academic symposiums to the being the host of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's Annual Meetings in DC, since 2013. George Washington alumni and affiliates include numerous prominent politicians, including the current U. S. Attorney General, heads of state and government, CEOs of major corporations, Nobel laureates, MacArthur fellows, Olympic athletes, Academy Award and Golden Globe winners and Time 100 notables. Historical records have shown that the first president of the United States, President George Washington, had made indications to Congress that he aspired to have a university established in the capital of the United States.
He included the subject in his last will and testament. Baptist missionary and leading minister Luther Rice raised funds to purchase a site in Washington, D. C. for a college to educate citizens from throughout the young nation. A large building was constructed on College Hill, now known as Meridian Hill, on February 9, 1821, President James Monroe approved the congressional charter creating the non-denominational Columbian College; the first commencement in 1824 was considered an important event for the young city of Washington, D. C. In attendance were President Monroe, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Marquis de Lafayette and other dignitaries; the George Washington University, like much of Washington, D. C. traces many of its origins back to the Freemasons. The Bible that the President of the George Washington University use to swear an oath on upon inauguration is the Bible of Freemason George Washington. Freemasonry symbols are prominently displayed throughout the campus including the foundation stones of many of the university buildings.
During the Civil War, most students left to join the Confederacy and the college's buildings were used as a hospital and barracks. Walt Whitman was among many of the volunteers to work on the campus. Following the war, in 1873, Columbian College became the Columbian University and moved to an urban downtown location centered on 15th and H streets, NW. In 1904, Columbian University changed its name to the George Washington University in an agreement with the George Washington Memorial Association to build a campus building in honor of the first U. S. President. Neither the university nor the association were able to raise enough funds for the proposed building near the National Mall; the university moved its principal operations to the D. C. neighborhood of Foggy Bottom in 1912. Many of the Colleges of the George Washington University stand out for their history; the Law School is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. The School of Medicine and Health Sciences is the 11th oldest medical school in the nation.
The Columbian College was founded in 1821, is the oldest unit of the university. The Elliott School of International Affairs was formalized in 1898; the majority of the present infrastructure and financial stability at GW is due to the tenures of GW Presidents Cloyd Heck Marvin, Lloyd Hartman Elliott and Stephen Joel Trachtenberg. In the 1930s, the university was a major center for theoretical physics; the cosmologist George Gamow produced critica
Campaign finance refers to all funds raised to promote candidates, political parties, or policy initiatives and referenda. Political parties, charitable organizations, political action committees are vehicles used in aggregating funds to keep campaigns alive. "Political finance" is popular terminology, is used internationally for its comprehensiveness. Campaign finance deals with "the costs of democracy", a term coined by G. Alexander Heard for his famous analysis of campaign finance in the U. S. Political campaigns have many expenditures, such as the cost of travel of candidates and staff, political consulting, the direct costs of communicating with voters via media outlets. Campaign spending depends on the region. For instance, in the United States, television advertising time must be purchased by campaigns, whereas in other countries, it is provided for free; the need to raise money to maintain expensive political campaigns diminishes ties to a representative democracy because of the influence large contributors have over politicians.
Although the political science literature indicates that most contributors give to support parties or candidates with whom they are in agreement, there is wide public perception that donors expect government favors in return. So some have come to equate campaign finance with political bribery; these views have led governments to reform campaign financing in the hope of eliminating big money influence. The causes and effects of campaign finance rules are studied in political science and public policy, among other disciplines; some countries rely on private donors to finance political campaigns. In these countries, fundraising is a significant activity for the campaign staff and the candidate in larger and more prominent campaigns. For example, one survey in the United States found that 23% of candidates for statewide office surveyed say that they spent more than half of their scheduled time raising money. Over half of all candidates surveyed spent at least 1/4 of their time on fundraising. One study finds that political donations gives donors greater access to policymakers.
The tactics used can include direct mail solicitation, attempts to encourage supporters to contribute via the Internet, direct solicitation from the candidate, events for the purpose of fundraising, or other activities. Most countries that rely on private donations to fund campaigns require extensive disclosure of contributions including information such as the name and address of donors; this is intended to allow for policing of undue donor influence by other campaigns or by good government groups, while preserving most benefits of private financing, including the right to make donations and to spend money for political speech, saving government the expense of funding campaigns, keeping government from funding partisan speech that some citizens may find odious. Supporters of private financing systems believe that, in addition to avoiding government limitations on speech, private financing fosters civic involvement, ensures that a diversity of views are heard, prevents government from tilting the scales to favor those in power or with political influence.
These kinds of donations can come from private individuals, as well as groups such as trade unions and for-profit corporations. However, critics of this system claim that it leads to votes being "bought" and producing large gaps between different parties in the money they have to campaign against. Other countries choose to use government funding to run campaigns. Funding campaigns from the government budget is widespread in South Europe; the mechanisms for this can be quite varied, ranging from direct subsidy of political parties to government matching funds for certain types of private donations to exemption from fees of government services and many other systems as well. Supporters of government financing believe that the system decreases corruption. Not all government subsidies take the form of money. Critics sometimes complain of the expense of the government financing systems. Conservative and libertarian critics of the system argue that government should not subsidize political speech. Other critics argue that government financing, with its emphasis on equalizing money resources exaggerates differences in non-monetary resources.
In many countries, such as Germany and the United States, campaigns can be funded by a combination of private and public money. In some electoral systems, candidates who win an election or secure a minimum number of ballots are allowed to apply for a rebate to the government; the candidate submits an audited report of the campaign expenses and the government issues a rebate to the candidate, subject to some caps such as the number of votes cast for the candidate or a blanket cap. For example, in the 2008 election, candidates for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong were entitled to a rebate up to HK$11 per vote; the concept of political finance can affect various parts of a society's institutions which support governmental and social success. Correct handling of political finance impacts a country's ability to maintain free and fair elections, effective governance, democratic government and regulation of corruption; the United Nations convention against Corruption, recognizing this, encouraged its members to "enhance transparency i
2008 Republican Party presidential primaries
The 2008 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2008 U. S. presidential election. Senator John McCain of Arizona was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 2008 Republican National Convention held from Monday, September 1, through Thursday, September 4, 2008, in St. Paul, Minnesota. President George W. Bush was ineligible to be elected to a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. In a crowded primary of several prominent Republicans eyeing the nomination, former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani was the early front runner. However, former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee won the Iowa Caucuses as he gained momentum just two months prior to the primary. Moderate U. S. Senator and former presidential candidate John McCain won the New Hampshire primary leading to Giuliani's fall, as the former mayor did not win a single primary.
McCain won the nomination after winning most of the primaries against Mike Huckabee and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney on Super Tuesday. Notes for the following table: Delegate counts is the final estimated delegate count; the vast majority of primaries were of the "winner-take-all" variety, convention rules meant that no one with less than five states in their "pockets" would be allowed to have their names placed in nomination. This guaranteed that the primary season would be short. McCain thus became unstoppable. Huckabee nearly won Missouri but he failed, ending the race. Candidates are listed by delegate counts. Republican candidates in the 2008 U. S. presidential election campaigned for the nomination of their party in a series of primary elections and caucus events. Unlike the Democratic Party, which mandates a proportional representation for delegate selection, the Republican Party has no such limitation. For states with primaries, some states choose to use the "winner-take-all" method to allocate delegates within a state, while others do winner-take-all within a specific congressional district, still others use the proportional process.
Unlike the Democratic Party, state party by-laws determine whether each delegate is pledged and for how long the delegate is pledged. In caucus states, most state parties use a two pronged process. A straw poll called a presidential preference poll, is conducted of the attendees at the caucus; the results are published on the state party website. Delegates are elected to the county conventions, it is at the county conventions that delegates are elected to state conventions, from the state convention to the national convention. At each level, delegates may be unbound to a candidate. If unbound, delegates are not obligated to follow the results of the presidential preference poll. Thus, all estimates of delegates from caucus states are dependent on state party by-laws. With Vice President Dick Cheney choosing not to seek the nomination and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice ruling herself out, the race for the 2008 presidential nomination was wide open, it began in March 2006 when John H. Cox became the first candidate to enter the 2008 race.
The Democratic takeover of both houses of Congress and President Bush's unpopularity were strong issues for the GOP field. At the beginning of 2007, the announced Republican field was former Governor of Wisconsin and Cabinet member Tommy Thompson, former Governor of Virginia Jim Gilmore, Senator of Kansas Sam Brownback. Former senator of Virginia George Allen was considered a top contender until his loss in the midterm elections, he announced on December 2006 that he would not seek the 2008 nomination. In early January former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney announced he was forming an exploratory committee. Afterwards several others announced they were running, including U. S. Congressman Ron Paul, Mike Huckabee of Arkansas, Rudy Giuliani of New York City, U. S. Senator John McCain, U. S. Congressman Duncan Hunter, U. S. Congressman Tom Tancredo. A poll released in early February had Giuliani leading with 32% and John McCain second with 18%. By early March, Giuliani had become the frontrunner. Alan Keyes and former Senator and actor Fred Thompson entered the race in September.
The first to drop out of the race was former Virginia Governor Jim Gilmore in July. After that Tommy Thompson dropped out in August after finishing sixth in the Ames Iowa straw poll. Pro-life advocate Sam Brownback dropped out of the race in October. In December, staunch illegal-immigration opponent Tom Tancredo and businessman John H. Cox left the race. On January 3, 2008, the Iowa caucuses began; the final averaged polling results from Real Clear Politics showed Mike Huckabee at 30%, Romney at 27%, McCain and Thompson tied at 12%, Paul at 7%, Giuliani at 6%. Among those surveyed in Exit Polling data, 45% cited themselves as conservative and voted for Huckabee 35% to Romney's 23% and Thompson's 22%. Among those who called themselves "somewhat conservative", Huckabee won 34% to Romney's 27% and McCain's 18%. Final Results showed Huckabee swept much of the state with the exception of the western and eastern portions of the state which included Davenport, Cedar Rapids, as well as Sioux City. Romney swept the western portions of the state and Paul took one southern county.
The final results in Iowa were Huckabee with 34%, Romney with 25%, Thompson and McCain each with 13%, Paul with 10% and Giuliani with 4%. In the New Hampshire Primary, both McCain and Romney had gambled much on the state. McCain had staked much on his grassroots efforts in the state he won in 2000, as well as the state with one of the mos
A smear campaign referred to as a smear tactic or a smear, is an effort to damage or call into question someone's reputation, by propounding negative propaganda. It can be applied to groups. Common targets are public officials, political candidates, activists and ex-spouses; the term applies in other contexts such as the workplace. The term smear campaign became popular around 1936. A smear campaign is an intentional, premeditated effort to undermine an individual's or group's reputation and character. Like negative campaigning, most smear campaigns target government officials, political candidates, other public figures. However, private persons or groups may become targets of smear campaigns perpetrated in companies, the legal system, other formal groups. Smear tactics differ from normal discourse or debate in that they do not bear upon the issues or arguments in question. A smear is a simple attempt to malign a group or an individual with the aim of undermining their credibility. Smears consist of ad hominem attacks in the form of unverifiable rumors and distortions, half-truths, or outright lies.
When the facts behind a smear campaign are demonstrated to lack proper foundation, the tactic is effective because the target's reputation is tarnished before the truth is known. Smears are effective in diverting attention away from the matter in question and onto a specific individual or group; the target of the smear must focus on correcting the false information rather than on the original issue. Deflection has been described as a wrap-up smear: "You make up something. You have the press write about it, and you say, everybody is writing about this charge". Smear tactics are considered by many to be a disingenuous form of discourse. Smear campaigns have been identified as a common weapon of psychopaths and narcissists. In many countries, the law recognizes the value of credibility. Both libel and slander are punishable by law and may result in imprisonment or compensation or fees for damages done. Smear tactics are used to undermine effective arguments or critiques. During the 1856 presidential election, John C.
Frémont was the target of a smear campaign alleging. The campaign was designed to undermine support for Fremont from those who were suspicious of Catholics. Ralph Nader was the victim of a smear campaign during the 1960s, when he was campaigning for car safety. In order to smear Nader and deflect public attention from his campaign, General Motors engaged private investigators to search for damaging or embarrassing incidents from his past. In early March 1966, several media outlets, including The New Republic and The New York Times, reported that GM had tried to discredit Nader, hiring private detectives to tap his phones and investigate his past and hiring prostitutes to trap him in compromising situations. Nader sued the company for invasion of privacy and settled the case for $284,000. Nader's lawsuit against GM was decided by the New York Court of Appeals, whose opinion in the case expanded tort law to cover "overzealous surveillance." Nader used the proceeds from the lawsuit to start the pro-consumer Center for Study of Responsive Law.
Gary Hart was the target of a smear campaign during the 1988 US presidential campaign. Smear campaigns are a campaign tactic associated with yellow journalism, a type of journalism that presents little well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines, scandal-mongering and sensationalism. For example, during Gary Hart's 1988 presidential campaign, the New York Post reported on its front page big, black block letters: "GARY: I'M NO WOMANIZER." Countries have used smear campaigns to attempt to discredit Western companies. In 2011, China launched a smear campaign against Apple, including TV and radio advertisements and articles in state-run papers; the campaign failed to turn the Chinese public against its products. Spiritual leader Sathya Sai Baba was accused of sexual abuse and other misconduct. Baba described the allegations as a "smear campaign", he never faced the critics were criticized for lacking any proof against him. The allegations against Julian Assange have been labelled by Australian journalist John Pilger as a smear campaign.
In 2016, Brad Pitt was the target of a smear campaign related to his child custody dispute. Pitt was alleged to have acted inappropriately during an argument with his 15-year-old son. Chris Bryant, a British parliamentarian, accused Russia in 2012 of orchestrating a smear campaign against him because of his criticism of Vladimir Putin. In 2017 he alleged. In January 2007, it was revealed that an anonymous website that attacked critics of Overstock.com, including media figures and private citizens on message boards, was operated by an official of Overstock.com. Countries those outside the Western hemisphere, have accused Western powers of smear campaigns to bring down their governments. Gambia accused the United States and Britain of backing "so-called Gambians to set up organisations and media facilities to spread nothing but lies against The Gambia by making false and unfounded statements about the state of human rights."In 2016, a Deutsche Welle journalist, Nemanja Rujević, published a text accusing Saša Radulović leader of the Enough is Enough party, of a tax debt of a few million dollars.
Since released, it has been used in
Myspace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, groups, photos and videos. Myspace was the largest social networking site in the world from 2005 to 2009, it is headquartered in California. Myspace was acquired by News Corporation in July 2005 for $580 million, in June 2006 surpassed Google as the most visited website in the United States. In April 2008, Myspace was overtaken by Facebook in the number of unique worldwide visitors and was surpassed in the number of unique U. S. visitors in May 2009, though Myspace generated $800 million in revenue during the 2008 fiscal year. Since the number of Myspace users has declined in spite of several redesigns; as of January 2018, Myspace was ranked 4,153 by total Web traffic, 1,657 in the United States. Myspace had a significant influence on pop culture and music and created a computer game platform that launched the successes of Zynga and RockYou, among others. Despite an overall decline, in 2015 Myspace still had 50.6 million unique monthly visitors and had a pool of nearly 1 billion active and inactive registered users.
In June 2009, Myspace employed 1,600 employees. In June 2011, Specific Media Group and Justin Timberlake jointly purchased the company for $35 million. On February 11, 2016, it was announced that Myspace and its parent company had been purchased by Time Inc. Time Inc. was in turn purchased by the Meredith Corporation on January 31, 2018. In August 2003, several eUniverse employees with Friendster accounts saw potential in its social networking features; the group decided to mimic the more popular features of the website. Within 10 days, the first version of Myspace was ready for launch, implemented using ColdFusion. A complete infrastructure of finance, human resources, technical expertise and server capacity was available for the site; the project was overseen by Brad Greenspan, who managed Chris DeWolfe, Josh Berman, Tom Anderson, a team of programmers and resources provided by eUniverse. The first Myspace users were eUniverse employees; the company held contests to see. EUniverse used its 20 million users and e-mail subscribers to breathe life into Myspace, move it to the head of the pack of social networking websites.
A key architect was tech expert Toan Nguyen who helped stabilize the Myspace platform when Brad Greenspan asked him to join the team. Co-founder and CTO Aber Whitcomb played an integral role in software architecture, utilizing the superior development speed of ColdFusion over other dynamic database driven server-side languages of the time. Despite over ten times the number of developers, developed in JavaServer Pages, could not keep up with the speed of development of Myspace and cfm; the MySpace.com domain was owned by YourZ.com, Inc. intended until 2002 for use as an online data storage and sharing site. By late 2003, it was transitioned from a file storage service to a social networking site. A friend, who worked in the data storage business, reminded Chris DeWolfe that he had earlier bought the domain MySpace.com. DeWolfe suggested. Brad Greenspan nixed the idea, believing that keeping Myspace free was necessary to make it a successful community. Myspace gained popularity among teenagers and young adults.
In February 2005, DeWolfe held talks with Mark Zuckerberg over acquiring Facebook but DeWolfe rejected Zuckerberg's $75 million offer. Some employees of Myspace, including DeWolfe and Berman, were able to purchase equity in the property before MySpace and its parent company eUniverse was bought. In July 2005, in one of the company's first major Internet purchases, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation purchased Myspace for US$580 million. News Corporation had beat out Viacom by offering a higher price for the website, the purchase was seen as a good investment at the time. Of the $580 million purchase price $327 million has been attributed to the value of Myspace according to the financial adviser fairness opinion. Within a year, Myspace had tripled in value from its purchase price. News Corporation saw the purchase as a way to capitalize on Internet advertising and drive traffic to other News Corporation properties. After losing the bidding war for Myspace, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone stunned the entertainment industry in September 2006 when he fired Tom Freston from the position of CEO. Redstone believed that the failure to acquire MySpace contributed to the 20% drop in Viacom's stock price in 2006 up to the date of Freston's ouster.
Freston's successor as CEO, Philippe Dauman, was quoted as saying "never let another competitor beat us to the trophy". Redstone told interviewer Charlie Rose that losing MySpace had been "humiliating", adding, "MySpace was sitting there for the taking for $500 million" In January 2006, Fox announced plans to launch a UK version of Myspace in a bid to "tap into the UK music scene", which they did, they launched similar versions in other countries. The 100 millionth account was created on August 2006, in the Netherlands. On November 1, 2007, Myspace and Bebo joined the Google-led OpenSocial alliance, which included Friendster, Hi5, LinkedIn, Plaxo and Six Apart. OpenSocial was to promote a common set of standards for software developers to write programs for social networks. Facebook remained independent. Google had been unsuccessful in build
In politics, campaign advertising is the use of an advertising campaign through the media to influence a political debate, voters. These ads are designed by political campaign staff. Many countries restrict the use of broadcast media to broadcast political messaging. In the European Union, many countries do not permit paid-for TV or radio advertising for fear that wealthy groups will gain control of airtime, making fair play impossible and distorting the political debate in the process. In both the United Kingdom and Ireland, paid advertisements are forbidden, though political parties are allowed a small number of party political broadcasts in the run up to election time; the United States has a free market for broadcast political messaging. Canada requires equitable access to the airwaves. Campaigns can include several different media; the time span over which political campaign advertising is possible varies from country to country, with campaigns in the United States lasting a year or more to places like the UK and Ireland where advertising is restricted by law to just a short period of weeks before the election.
Social media has become important in political messaging, making it possible to message larger groups of constituents with little physical effort or expense, but the totality of messaging through these channels is out of the hands of campaign managers. Political advertising has changed drastically over the last several decades. In his campaign for the United States presidential election, 1948, Harry S. Truman was proud of his accomplishment of shaking 500,000 hands and covering 31,000 miles of ground across the nation, but that accomplishment was soon to pale in comparison when in 1952, the United States presidential election, 1952 saw a major change in how candidates reached their potential audiences. With the advent of television, war hero and presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower, created forty twenty-second television spot commercials entitled, "Eisenhower Answers America" where he answered questions from "ordinary" citizens in an attempt to appear accessible to "the common man".
These questions were filmed in one day using visitors to Radio City Music Hall, who were filmed gazing up at Eisenhower as he answered questions about the Korean War, government corruption, the state of the economy. He did not have to travel the country extensively, he won the trust of the American people with his direct approach and subsequently the Presidential election. His vice president was Richard M. Nixon. In the United States presidential election, 1960, Vice President Nixon used a formal television address in his presidential campaign, designed to answer questions about The Cold War and government corruption, to show Americans that he was the stronger, more experienced candidate. On the other side of the fence, Catholic born John F. Kennedy created 200 commercials during his campaign, but there were two that made Nixon’s efforts futile; the first was a thirty-minute commercial created from a speech he delivered in Houston, where he called for religious tolerance in response to criticism that Catholicism was incompatible with a run for the Oval Office.
The second and more memorable was the first Kennedy-Nixon debate. In the first of four televised debates, Kennedy appeared tanned and confident in opposition to Nixon, who looked pale and uncomfortable in front of the camera. Seventy-five million viewers watched the debates, although Nixon was thought to be the natural successor to Eisenhower, the election results proved otherwise, Kennedy was declared the winner. In the United States presidential election, 1964, aggressive advertising paved the way for a landslide victory for Lyndon B. Johnson. One of the first negative and maybe the most controversial commercial of all time, was an advertisement dubbed "The Daisy Girl." The commercial showed a young girl picking the petals off a daisy. After she finishes counting, a voice off camera begins a countdown to a nuclear explosion; the ad ends with an appeal to vote Johnson, "because the stakes are too high for you to stay home." The commercial used fear and guilt, an effective advertising principle, to make people take action to protect the next generation.
The ad ran for under a minute and only aired once, but due to the right wing, pro-war views of Barry Goldwater, the Republican candidate, it resulted in a 44 to 6 state victory for Lyndon B. Johnson. Over the next decade, the United States saw the rise of the televised political attack ad. Richard M. Nixon was proficient at this form of advertising, his commercials proved to be successful in his reelection campaign during the United States presidential election, 1972, where he won handily with a 49 to 1 state victory. George McGovern ran a campaign free of political attack ads until the end of his campaign, when he tried to attack Nixon after he realized he was dipping lower in the polls, his attempt proved to be too late, but his neutral style of attack ads against Nixon, featuring white text scrolling across a black background, became what is now seen as a common method used in political and product advertising. Attack ads continued to become the norm in political advertising. Ronald Reagan used them against Jimmy Carter during the United States presidential election, 1980.
It was the first time that a family member was used to attack the opposing candidate. One particular advertisement showed Nancy Reagan accusing Carter of a weak foreign policy; this campaign saw the rise of campaign finance issues when Reagan used political action committees to solicit funds on h