Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Afro-Brazilians are Brazilians who have African ancestry. The term does not have widespread use in Brazil, where social constructs and classifications have been based on appearance. Many members of another group of people, multiracial Brazilians or pardos have a range of degree of African ancestry. Preto and pardo are among five color categories used by the Brazilian Census, along with branco and indígena. In 2010, 7.6% of the Brazilian population, some 15 million people, identified as preto, while 43% identified as pardo. Pretos tend to be predominantly African in ancestry, while pardos tend to have a lesser percentage of African ancestry. On average pardos are predominantly European, with Native American ancestries. Since the early 21st century, Brazilian government agencies such as the Special Secretariat for Policies to Promote Racial Equality and the Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, have considered combining the categories preto and pardo, as a single category called negro, because both groups show socioeconomic indications of discrimination.
They suggest doing. This decision has caused much controversy because there is no consensus about it in Brazilian society. Brazilians use the American-style phrase "African Brazilian" as a term of ethnic identity and never in informal discourse: the IBGE's July 1998 PME shows that, of Black Brazilians, only about 10% identify as being of "African origin". In the July 1998 PME, the categories Afro-Brasileiro and Africano Brasileiro were not chosen at all. In the 1976 National Household Sample, none of these terms was used once. Brazilian geneticist Sérgio Pena has criticised American scholar Edward Telles for lumping pretos and pardos in the same category. According to him, "the autosomal genetic analysis that we have performed in non-related individuals from Rio de Janeiro shows that it does not make any sense to put pretos and pardos in the same category"; as many pardos are of European ancestry, Pena questioned studying them together with pretos, who are of African ancestry. For example, an autosomal genetic study of students in a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro found that the pardos among the students were found to be on average more than 80% European in ancestry.
Before testing, the students identified as 1/3 1/3 African and 1/3 Native American. According to Edward Telles, three different systems related to "racial classification" along the White-Black continuum are used in Brazil; the first is the Census System, which distinguishes three categories: branco and preto. The second is the popular social system that uses many different categories, including the ambiguous term moreno; the third is the Black movement, which distinguishes only two categories, summing up pardos and pretos as negros, putting all others as "whites". More the term afrodescendente has been adopted for use, but it is restricted to formal discourse, such as governmental or academic discussions, being viewed by some as a cultural imposition from the "politically correct speech" common in the United States; the first system referred by Telles is that of the Brazilian Institute of Statistics. In the Census, respondents may identify their ethnicity or color from five categories: branca, preta, amarela or indígena.
The term parda needs further explanation. In that census, people were asked for their "colour or race"; these slashes were summed up in the category pardo. In practice this means answers such as pardo, mulato, caboclo etc. all indicating mixed race. In the following censuses, pardo was added as a category on its own, included Amerindians; the latter were defined as a separate category only in 1991. It is a term for people of color who are lighter than blacks, does not imply a black-white mixture, as there are some indigenous persons. Telles' second system is that of popular classification. Two IBGE surveys made more than 20 years apart (the 1976 National Household Sample Survey and the July 1998 Monthly Employment Survey have been analyzed to assess how Brazilians think of themselves in racial terms; the IBGE thought. Data Folha has conducted research on this subject; the results of these surveys seem to coincide in some fundamental aspects. First, a great number of racial terms are in use in Brazil, indicating a flexibility in thinking about the topic.
The 1976 PNAD found that people responded with a total of 136 different terms to the question about race. However, most of these terms are used by small numbers of people. Telles notes that 95% of the population used one of 6 different terms for people of color and at le
South Region, Brazil
The South Region of Brazil is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 square kilometres, being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 6.76% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller in Southeast Brazil, for example, it is a great tourist and cultural pole. It borders Uruguay and Paraguay as well as the Centre-West Region, the Southeast Region and the Atlantic Ocean; the region is considered the safest in Brazil to visit, having a lower crime rate than other regions in the country. Despite the high standard of living and safety the unemployment rate in the region is medium to high. By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting and gathering. European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Spanish Jesuits, they converted them to Catholicism.
Colonists from São Paulo arrived in the same period. For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region. Due to this conflict, the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived, they composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century. The first Germans came to Brazil soon after independence from Portugal in 1822. Settlers from Germany were brought to work as small farmers because there were many land holdings without workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region; the first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of Sao Leopoldo, over the next four decades, another 27,256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country. By 1904, it is estimated. In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the Americas, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society.
These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants, many of which developed into large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina. Considerable numbers of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the civil war, most of them coming from Santa Catarina or Volga Germans from Russia; the Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845; this conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque, suffered the hard competition of charque from Uruguay and Argentina, which had free access to the Brazilian market while the gaúchos had to pay high taxes inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul.
After many conflicts, in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war. Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875, they were peasants from the Veneto in Northern Italy attracted to Southern Brazil to get their own lands and populate the South. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100,000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná. In 1898, there were 300,000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul, 50,000 in Santa Catarina and 30,000 in Paraná. Nowadays, their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9.7 million and comprise 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population. The region received large numbers of European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture; the main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese, German, Luxembourger, Ukrainian, Spaniard and Russian.
Smaller numbers that follow are French, Swedish, Black, Croat, Lebanese and Latvian, Japanese and Estonian, Slovene, Ashkenazi Jew, British, Slovak and Hungarian Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12°C and 22°C, it snows in the mountain ranges. The region is urbanized and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá, both in Paraná State, it has a high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859, the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region has a 98.3% literacy rate. Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are spoken; the predominant dialects are Venetian. In Rio Grande do Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are some Japanese speakers. In the region around Ponta Grossa there are some Dutch speakers.
There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well. Rio Grande do Sul has a gre
The Chevrolet Celta known as Suzuki Fun in Argentina, was a low cost supermini car produced by Chevrolet for the Latin American market since 2000 until 2015. A sedan version is marketed as the Chevrolet Prisma. 600,000 Celtas have been built in more than one hundred thousand per year. It was released in 2000 in Brazil as a three-door hatchback with a 60 PS 1.0 L gasoline engine, based on the Corsa B and with design features similar to those of the Vectra. In 2002 a five-door version was made available, the engine power was increased to 70 metric horsepower at 6,400 rpm, the same VHC technology used in the Latin American Corsa C. A 85 PS 1.4 L gasoline engine was added in 2003. An "Off-Road" accessories kit was for sale for both old and new Celtas in 2005, the 1.0 L was converted into a gasoline-ethanol flexible fuel engine. In 2006 the Celta underwent a facelift, which provided for a more modern look and an enhancement of build quality; the new front makes it closer to new Chevrolet models the new Brazilian Vectra.
A sedan version, named Chevrolet Prisma was released in early 2007. It wasn't meant to replace Classic neither the Corsa Sedan, but to fill a market gap between them instead; the only available engine option is a 1.4 L Econo. Flex gasoline/ethanol flexible fuel engine, its high compression rate gives as a result a maximum output of 97 PS when running on ethanol and 95 hp when running on gasoline. In early 2009 was released Prisma 1.0 liter and the new engine VHC-E for Prisma and Celta. In early 2012; the Chevrolet Celta has been rated as unsafe by Latin NCAP in 2011, scoring only one star for adult occupants and two stars for children. Important to mention that when Celta was developed there was no Latin NCAP protocol available and that all regulatory safety items were met for the countries were Celta was sold; the 1.0 L gasoline engine has a high power to displacement ratio. However, this power is only available at 6400 rpm, the maximum torque is 8.6 kgf·m at 3000 rpm. Today, the Celta is sold only with the 1.0 FlexPower.
In 2002 GM changed the 1.0 MPFI engine to a 1.0 VHC, in 2005 to VHC FlexPower, in 2009 to VHCE FlexPower. The total weight is 850 kg. In Uruguay, Celta 1.4 MPFI are available since 2009 as the'new' Celta with the new front lights and all facelift add-ons. This model continues on sell in 2012 and manufacturing dates of the units are from 2011. In 2012, General Motors announced the new Chevrolet Onix to succeed part of versions of Celta. Opel Corsa Chevrolet Celta official site
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief. In an narrower sense, atheism is the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists; the etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος, meaning "without god". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods, or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods; the term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope.
The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason; the French Revolution can be described as the first period where atheism became implemented politically. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified, the argument from nonbelief. Nonbelievers contend that atheism is a more parsimonious position than theism and that everyone is born without beliefs in deities. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult.
According to global Win-Gallup International studies, 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists" in 2012, 11% were "convinced atheists" in 2015, in 2017, 9% were "convinced atheists". However, other researchers have advised caution with WIN/Gallup figures since other surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have a bigger sample size have reached lower figures. An older survey by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61 % of people in China reported; the figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force". Writers disagree on how best to define and classify atheism, contesting what supernatural entities are considered gods, whether it is a philosophic position in its own right or the absence of one, whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection.
Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism, has been contrasted with it. A variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism; some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of God and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability; the ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. This view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity. With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. Definitions of atheism vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist.
Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas; as far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said. George H. Smith suggested that: "The man, unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god; this category would include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but, still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist." Implicit atheism is "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism is the conscious rejection of belief. For the purposes of his paper on "philosophical atheism", Ernest Nagel contested including mere absence of theistic belief as a type of atheism. Graham Oppy classifies as innocents those who never considered the question because they lack any understanding of what a god is. According to Oppy, these could be one-month-old babies, humans with severe traumatic brain injuries, or patients with advanced dementia.
Philosophers such as Antony Flew and Michael Martin have contrasted positive (st
General Motors Company referred to as General Motors, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company; the company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. General Motors manufactures vehicles in 37 countries, it owns or holds controlling interest in foreign brands such as Holden, Wuling and Jiefang. Annual worldwide sales volume reached a milestone of 10 million vehicles in 2016. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea, it has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling and FAW-GM in China, GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia, GM Uzbekistan, General Motors India, General Motors Egypt, Isuzu Truck South Africa.
General Motors does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into four business segments: GM North America, GM International Operations, GM Cruze, GM Financial; the company operates a mobility division called Maven, which operates car-sharing services in the United States, is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership. GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, in 2012 was among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China through 10 joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety and information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.
In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering, one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, returned to profitability that year. General Motors Company was formed with an escrow account set up by R S McLaughlin for 15 years of Buick Motors in 1907 on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant, owner of Buick. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were fewer than 8,000 automobiles in the U. S. and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint helped by his purchase of the Carriage Gear patent from the McLaughlin family in Canada, in the 1880s and 1890s, before making his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the fledgling Buick Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation in 1918. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder in The USA, spent his life with his Mott Foundation, which has benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home.
GM acquired Oldsmobile that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore and several others. In 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant, along with R. S. McLaughlin, lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers who held the Escrow account' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales; the next year, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in the U. S. and in Canada in 1915, through this, he and McLaughlin in Canada secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant regained control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in U. S. business history. Durant reorganized General Motors Holding Company into General Motors Company in 1916, merging Chevrolet with GM and allying General Motors of Canada Limited in 1918 after McLaughlin Traded his Outstanding Stocks for GM stocks to allow the Corporation in the USA.
Shortly thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation, led it to its post-war global dominance when the seven manufacturing facilities operated by Chevrolet before Chevrolet acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations; these facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive to Cadillac, Oldsmobile and other companies acquired by the corporation. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants in the USA. On July 10, 2009, General Motors emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC.
The shares in Ally were sold on December 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue. In 2009 General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands
Largest cities in Rio Grande do Sul by population
Largest cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by population, in descending order: "Cidades@", Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Accessed on 2007-03-20