The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to c. 1830–37, named after the Hanoverian kings George I, George II, George III and George IV. The sub-period, the Regency era is defined by the regency of George IV as Prince of Wales during the illness of his father George III; the definition of the Georgian era is extended to include the short reign of William IV, which ended with his death in 1837. The term "Georgian" is used in the contexts of social and political history and architecture; the term "Augustan literature" is used for Augustan drama, Augustan poetry and Augustan prose in the period 1700–1740s. The term "Augustan" refers to the acknowledgement of the influence of Latin literature from the ancient Roman Republic. Georgian society and its preoccupations were well portrayed in the novels of writers such as Henry Fielding, Mary Shelley and Jane Austen, characterised by the architecture of Robert Adam, John Nash and James Wyatt and the emergence of the Gothic Revival style, which hearkened back to a supposed golden age of building design.
The flowering of the arts was most vividly shown in the emergence of the Romantic poets, principally through Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake, John Keats, Lord Byron and Robert Burns. Their work ushered in a new era of poetry, characterised by vivid and colourful language, evocative of elevating ideas and themes; the paintings of Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds and the young J. M. W. Turner and John Constable illustrated the changing world of the Georgian period – as did the work of designers like Capability Brown, the landscape designer. Fine examples of distinctive Georgian architecture are Edinburgh's New Town, Georgian Dublin, Grainger Town in Newcastle upon Tyne, the Georgian Quarter of Liverpool and much of Bristol and Bath; the music of John Field, Haydn, Johann Christian Bach, William Boyce, Mozart and Mendelssohn was some of the most popular in England at that time. It was a time of immense social change in Britain, with the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution which began the process of intensifying class divisions, the emergence of rival political parties like the Whigs and Tories.
In rural areas the Agricultural Revolution saw huge changes to the movement of people and the decline of small communities, the growth of the cities and the beginnings of an integrated transportation system but as rural towns and villages declined and work became scarce there was a huge increase in emigration to Canada, the North American colonies and other parts of the British Empire. The evangelical movement inside and outside the Church of England gained strength in the late 18th and early 19th century; the movement challenged the traditional religious sensibility that emphasized a code of honor for the upper-class, suitable behaviour for everyone else, together with faithful observances of rituals. John Wesley and his followers preached revivalist religion, trying to convert individuals to a personal relationship with Christ through Bible reading, regular prayer, the revival experience. Wesley himself preached 52,000 times, calling on men and women to "redeem the time" and save their souls.
Wesley always operated inside the Church of England, but at his death, it set up outside institutions that became the Methodist Church. It stood alongside the traditional nonconformist churches, Congregationalist, Baptists and Quakers; the nonconformist churches, were less influenced by revivalism. The Church of England remained dominant, but it had a growing evangelical, revivalist faction the "Low Church", its leaders included Hannah More. It reached the upper class through the Clapham Sect, it did not seek political reform, but rather the opportunity to save souls through political action by freeing slaves, abolishing the duel, prohibiting cruelty to children and animals, stopping gambling, avoiding frivolity on the Sabbath. All souls were equal in God's view, but not all bodies, so evangelicals did not challenge the hierarchical structure of English society; as R. J. Morris noted in his 1983 article "Voluntary Societies and British Urban Elites, 1780-1850," "id-eighteenth-century Britain was a stable society in the sense that those with material and ideological power were able to defend this power in an effective and dynamic manner," but "in the twenty years after 1780, this consensus structure was broken."
Anglican Evangelicalism thus, as historian Lisa Wood has argued in her book Modes of Discipline: Women and the Novel After the French Revolution, functioned as a tool of ruling-class social control, buffering the discontent that in France had inaugurated a revolution. The Georgian period saw continual warfare, including the Seven Years' War, known in America as the French and Indian War, the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolutionary Wars, the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the Napoleonic Wars; the British won most of the wars except for the American Revolution, where the combined weight of the United States, France and the Netherlands overwhelmed Britain, which stood alone without allies. The loss of some of the American Colonies in the American War of Independence was regarded as a national disaster and was seen by some foreign observers as heralding the end of Britain as a great power. In Europe, the wars with France dragged on for nearly a quarter of a century, 1793–1815. Victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Waterloo under
Department for Education
The Department for Education is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education and wider skills in England. A Department for Education existed between 1992, when the Department of Education and Science was renamed, 1995 when it was merged with the Department for Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment; the DfE was formed on 12 May 2010 by the incoming Cameron ministry, taking on the responsibilities and resources of the Department for Children and Families. In June 2012 the Department for Education committed a breach of the UK's Data Protection Act due to a security flaw on its website which made email addresses and comments of people responding to consultation documents available for download. In July 2016, the Department took over responsibilities for higher and further education and for apprenticeship from the dissolved Department for Business and Skills. Committee of the Privy Council on Education, 1839–1899 Education Department, 1856–1899 Board of Education, 1899–1944 Ministry of Education, 1944–1964 Department of Education and Science, 1964–1992 Department for Education, 1992–1995 Department for Education and Employment, 1995–2001 Department for Education and Skills, 2001–2007 Department for Children and Families, 2007–2010 The department is led by the Secretary of State for Education.
The Permanent Secretary is Jonathan Slater. DfE is responsible for education, children’s services and further education policy and wider skills in England, equalities; the predecessor department employed the equivalent of 2,695 staff as of April 2008 and as at June 2016, DfE had reduced its workforce to the equivalent of 2,301 staff. In 2015-16, the DfE has a budget of £58.2bn, which includes £53.6bn resource spending and £4.6bn of capital investments. The Department for Education's ministers are as follows: The management board is made up of: Permanent Secretary - Jonathan Slater Director-General, Social Care and Equalities - Indra Morris Director-General, Education Standards - Paul Kett Director-General and Funding - Andrew McCully Director-General and Further Education - Philippa Lloyd Chief Financial and Operating Officer, Insight and Transformation - Howard Orme Chief Executive, Education & Skills Funding Agency - Eileen MilnerNon-executive board members: Marion Plant OBE; the Education Funding Agency was responsible for distributing funding for state education in England for 3-19 year olds, as well as managing the estates of schools, colleges and the Skills Funding Agency was responsible for funding skills training for further education in England and running the National Apprenticeship Service and the National Careers Service.
The EFA was formed on 1 April 2012 by bringing together the functions of two non-departmental public bodies, the Young People's Learning Agency and Partnerships for Schools. The SFA was formed on 1 April 2010, following the closure of the Skills Council. Eileen Milner is the agency's Chief Executive; the National College for Teaching and Leadership is responsible for administering the training of new and existing teachers in England, as well as the regulation of the teaching profession and offers headteachers, school leaders and senior children's services leaders opportunities for professional development. It was established on 1 April 2013, when the Teaching Agency merged with the National College for School Leadership; the National College for Teaching and Leadership was replaced by the Department for Education and Teaching Regulation Agency in April 2018. The Standards and Testing Agency is responsible for developing and delivering all statutory assessments for school pupils in England, it was formed on 1 October 2011 and took over the functions of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency.
The STA is regulated by Ofqual. The DfE is supported by 10 public bodies: Education and children's policy is devolved elsewhere in the UK; the department's main devolved counterparts are as follows: Scotland Scottish Government – Learning and Justice DirectoratesNorthern Ireland Department of Education Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Wales Welsh Government – Department for Education and Skills The Department for Education released a new National Curriculum for schools in England for September 2014, which included'Computing'. Following Michael Gove's speech in 2012, the subject of Information Communication Technology has been disapplied and replaced by Computing. With the new curriculum, materials have been written by commercial companies, to support non-specialist teachers, for example,'100 Computing Lessons' by Scholastic; the Computing at Schools organisation has created a'Network of Teaching Excellence'to support schools with the new curriculum. In 2015, the Department announced a major restructuring of the
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills is a non-ministerial department of the UK government, reporting to Parliament. Ofsted is responsible for inspecting a range of educational institutions, including state schools and some independent schools, it inspects childcare and fostering agencies and initial teacher training, regulates a range of early years and children’s social care services. The Chief Inspector is appointed by an Order-in-Council and thus becomes an office holder under the Crown. Amanda Spielman has been HMCI since 2017. In 1833, Parliament agreed an annual grant to the National Society for Promoting Religious Education and the British and Foreign School Society, which provided Church of England and non-denominational elementary schools for poor children. To monitor the effectiveness of the grant, two inspectors of schools were appointed in 1837, Seymour Tremenheere and the Rev. John Allen. Dr. James Kay-Shuttleworth secretary of the Privy Council education committee, ensured that the inspectors were appointed by Order-in-Council to guard their independence.
The grant and inspection system was extended in 1847 to Roman Catholic elementary schools established by the Catholic Poor School Committee. Inspectors were organised on denominational lines, with the churches having a say in the choice of inspectors, until 1876, when inspectors were re-organised by area. After the Education Act 1902, inspections were expanded to state-funded secondary schools along similar lines. Over time, more inspections were carried out by inspectors based in local education authorities, with HMI focussing on reporting to the Secretary of State on education conditions across the country; the government of John Major, concerned about variable local inspection regimes, decided to introduce a national scheme of inspections though a reconstituted HMI, which became known as the Office for Standards in Education. Under the Education Act 1992, HMI would supervise the inspection of each state-funded school in the country, would publish its reports for the benefit of schools and government instead of reporting to the Secretary of State.
In September 2001, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools in England became responsible for registration and inspection of day care and childminding in England, the position was renamed Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Education, Children's Services and Skills. This was done by 150 local authorities, based on their implementation by 1992 of the Daycare Standards provisions of the 1989 Children Act. Schedule 11 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 changed the way in which Ofsted works without changing the provision. Since 2006 the structure of Ofsted has derived elements from business models, with a Chair, an executive board, regional officers, a formal annual report to Parliament in the light of concerns about schools, local authority children's services. In April 2007 the former Office for Standards in Education merged with the Adult Learning Inspectorate to provide an inspection service that includes all post-16 government funded education. At the same time it took on responsibility for the registration and inspection of social care services for children, the welfare inspection of independent and maintained boarding schools from the Commission for Social Care Inspection.
The services Ofsted inspects or regulates now include: local services, child day care, children's centres, children's social care, CAFCASS, state schools, independent schools and teacher training providers and learning and skills providers in England. It monitors the work of the Independent Schools Inspectorate. HMI are empowered and required to provide independent advice to the United Kingdom government and parliament on matters of policy and to publish an annual report to parliament on the quality of educational provision in England. Ofsted distributes its functions amongst its offices in London, Nottingham, Cambridge and Bristol. Ofsted only covers England; the current Chief Inspector is Amanda Spielman, appointed in January 2017 replacing Sir Michael Wilshaw. Ofsted directly employs Her Majesty's Inspectors; as of July 2009 there were 443 HMIs, of whom 82 were engaged in management, 245 in the inspection of schools, the rest in inspection of other areas for which Ofsted in responsible. All HMIs inspecting schools have teaching experience.
Most school inspections were carried out by Additional Inspectors employed by external companies known as Regional Inspection Service Providers. As of July 2009 there were 1,948 AIs. Although Ofsted claims that most of these have teaching experience, in 2012 it was forced to admit that it had done no quality control checks on these inspectors, that many of them – including lead inspectors – were not qualified teachers and many had no experience of working with children. A further scandal surrounded headteachers dismissed following poor OFSTED reports being hired as inspectors. In 2015, 40% of additional inspectors who wanted to continue working for OFSTED were not re-hired after a contractual change. Although OFSTED insisted that this was part of a quality control process and'should not be seen as an admi
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Inner London Education Authority
The Inner London Education Authority was an ad hoc local education authority for the City of London and the 12 Inner London boroughs from 1965 until its abolition in 1990. The authority was reconstituted as a directly elected body corporate on 1 April 1986; the Inner London Education Authority was established when the Greater London Council replaced the London County Council as the principal local authority for London in 1965. The LCC had taken over responsibility for education in Inner London from the London School Board in 1904. In what was to become Outer London, education was administered by the relevant county councils and county boroughs, with some functions delegated to second-tier councils in the area; the Herbert Commission report in 1960 recommended the establishment of the Greater London Council. It advocated a London-wide division of educational powers between the GLC and the London boroughs; the GLC would be responsible for strategic control of schools, the boroughs for routine management.
This part of the report was rejected by the government. Councils in the future Outer London area wanted greater control over education, preventing the creation of a London-wide LEA, there was strong opposition from teachers and other bodies to the idea of dividing up the LCC LEA; the London Government Act 1963 therefore created the ILEA to inherit the educational responsibilities of the LCC, gave Outer London boroughs LEA status. The ILEA was conceived as a provisional body whose status would be reviewed before 1970, but the Labour government made its status permanent in 1965; the ILEA did not cover the small area of North Woolwich, part of the County of London but was transferred to the new London Borough of Newham in outer London. The ILEA had a somewhat anomalous legal status. Technically the GLC itself was the education authority for inner London, but it was both administratively difficult and politically unjust to allow outer London members of the GLC to have an input. Therefore, the GLC delegated responsibility to the ILEA as a'special committee', consisting of the members of the GLC from the Inner London area, plus one member delegated from each of the inner London boroughs and the City of London.
Members of the GLC/ILEA tended to concentrate on one duty only, although they attended the meetings of both. It was possible for the ILEA to have a majority of Labour members when the GLC had a majority of Conservative members, this happened from 1970 to 1973 and 1977 to 1981. In addition, most of the important decisions taken by the ILEA were taken by its Education Committee, on which every member sat; the Education Committee could co-opt members with experience of education, some of them representing the teaching unions. The initial composition of the ILEA in 1964 was 43 Labour members to 9 Conservatives, with one Independent. After the 1967 election the Conservatives won a majority, Christopher Chataway became Leader. However, Labour won control in 1970 and Ashley Bramall began his long leadership, his term saw the ILEA go over to comprehensive education, the abolition of school corporal punishment. He retained power despite the Conservative election victory in the 1977 GLC elections; when the Left, under Ken Livingstone, won control of the GLC after the 1981 elections, Bramall lost his position in an internal Labour Party vote, being replaced by Bryn Davies.
Livingstone expressed regret for this decision and expressed his admiration for Bramall's leadership abilities. The remaining years of the ILEA saw a succession of left-wing leaderships, none of which lasted long or established a strong reputation. Frances Morrell an assistant to Tony Benn, led a feminist ILEA from 1983 to 1987 which threatened to defy its rate-capping in November 1984, before Neil Fletcher took over; the ILEA was formally created in 1964 and began operations in 1965, but the post of Leader did not exist until April 1967. For the period 1964–67 the de facto leadership was shared between the Chairman of the Education Committee, James Young, the Chairmen of the Authority, Harold Shearman and Ashley Bramall. From 1967 the Leaders of the ILEA were: Sir Christopher Chataway 1967–1969 Lena Townsend 1969–1970 Ashley Bramall 1970–1981 Bryn Davies 1981–1983 Frances Morrell 1983–1987 Neil Fletcher 1987–1990 The ILEA had its own schools broadcasting service, the Educational Television Service, based in the former Tennyson Secondary School, Thackeray Road, SW8.
The television centre had two functional television studios, a training studio, a master control and sound and vision mixing suites. At one stage this was believed to be the largest closed circuit television system in the world; the first transmission took place on 16 September 1969 and the Television Service ran until 1977. When the Post Office, whose cabling was used for the distribution, wanted to withdraw from its contract in the late 1970s, the programming was transferred to VHS tapes and the CCTV network closed down; the Cockpit Theatre, Marylebone in Gateforth Street, London, NW8, was built on the edge of the Lisson Green estate for ILEA in 1969-70. It was designed as a Theatre in the round by Edward Mendelsohn; the ILEA created the first Theatre in Education company to be housed within a Local Education Authority. It employed seven actor-teachers and a stage manager and focused its work on secondary schools and Further Education; as well as traditional T. I. E; the Cockpit team used the approach to develop shows analysing set texts.
When ILEA was abolished in 1990 ownership of the theatre transferred to the London Borough of Westminster. The ILEA ran a watersports centre at Greenland Dock in Bermondsey, the Centre For Life Studies, a training centre for biologists in secondary educa