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In Einstein's general theory of relativity, the gravitational redshift is the phenomenon that clocks deeper in a gravitational well tick slower when observed from outside the well. More the term refers to the shift of wavelength of a photon to longer wavelength when observed from a point at a higher gravitational potential. In the latter case the'clock' is the frequency of the photon and a lower frequency is the same as a longer wavelength; the gravitational redshift is a simple consequence of Einstein's equivalence principle and was found by Einstein eight years before the full theory of relativity. Observing the gravitational redshift in the solar system is one of the classical tests of general relativity. Gravitational redshifts are an important effect in satellite-based navigation systems such as GPS. If the effects of general relativity were not taken into account, such systems would not work at all. Einstein's theory of general relativity incorporates the equivalence principle, which can be stated in various different ways.

One such statement is that gravitational effects are locally undetectable for a free-falling observer. Therefore, in a laboratory experiment at the surface of the earth, all gravitational effects should be equivalent to the effects that would have been observed if the laboratory had been accelerating through outer space at g. One consequence is a gravitational Doppler effect. If a light pulse is emitted at the floor of the laboratory a free-falling observer says that by the time it reaches the ceiling, the ceiling has accelerated away from it, therefore when observed by a detector fixed to the ceiling, it will be observed to have been Doppler shifted toward the red end of the spectrum; this shift, which the free-falling observer considers to be a kinematical Doppler shift, is thought of by the laboratory observer as a gravitational redshift. Such an effect was verified in the 1959 Pound–Rebka experiment. In a case such as this, where the gravitational field is uniform, the change in wavelength is given by Δ λ λ ≈ g Δ y c 2, where Δ y is the change in height.

Since this prediction arises directly from the equivalence principle, it does not require any of the mathematical apparatus of general relativity, its verification does not support general relativity over any other theory that incorporates the equivalence principle. When the field is not uniform, the simplest and most useful case to consider is that of a spherically symmetric field. By Birkhoff's theorem, such a field is described in general relativity by the Schwarzschild metric, d τ 2 = d t 2 + …, where d τ is the clock time of an observer at distance R from the center, d t is the time measured by an observer at infinity, r S is the Schwarzschild radius 2 G M / c 2, "..." represents terms that vanish if the observer is at rest, G is Newton's gravitational constant, M the mass of the gravitating body, c the speed of light. The result is that frequencies and wavelengths are shifted according to the ratio λ ∞ λ e = − 1 2, where λ ∞ is the wavelength of the light as measured by the observer at infinity, λ e is the wavelength measured at the source of emission, R e radius at which the photon is emitted.

This can be related to the redshift parameter conventionally defined as z = λ ∞ / λ e − 1. In the case where neither the emitter nor the observer is at infinity, the transitivity of Doppler shifts allows us to generalize the result to λ 1 / λ 2 = 1 / 2; the redshift formula for the frequency

Mudiyanaya Puthran is a 1961 Malayalam-language film, directed by Ramu Kariat. It stars Sathyan, Ambika Sukumaran, Kottayam Chellappan, P. J. Antony, J. A. R. Anand, Miss Kumari, Adoor Bhavani, Kedamangalam Ali, PA Thomas, Kambisseri Karunakaran, Thoppil Krishna Pillai and Adoor Bhasi, it was the film adaptation of the popular stage play written by Thoppil Bhasi in 1957. The film was shot at Vauhini Studios, it is one of the best social movies in Malayalam, which told boldly the real life struggles of workers, projected social evils like untouchability etc. It won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Malayalam. Mudiyanaya Puthran is based on the Kerala Peoples Arts Club play of the same name. All lyrics are written by P. Bhaskaran except. National Film Awards1961: President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Malayalam Mudiyanaya Puthran on IMDb http://www.malayalachalachithram.com/movie.php?i=83

Arfordir Gogleddol Penmon is a Site of special scientific interest on the Island of Anglesey comprising about 103Ha of land along some 7 km of coastline at the south-east tip of the island. The site was designated in 2003 for a range of interests including botany, ornithology and its marine environment The geological interest is centred on the disused Tandinas quarry which provides the type locality for the Tandinas formation of the Carboniferous limestone. There are good exposures in the quarry and on the sea cliffs; the underlying limestone supports both calcareous dry heath and wet heath biological communities and includes a thriving population of Platanthera bifolia The shoreline is exposed to moderate degrees of wave exposure and is one the better examples of marine communities of such limestone shores in the area. This site is within the Anglesey Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty

Gambling Apocalypse: Kaiji is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Nobuyuki Fukumoto. It has been published by Kodansha in Weekly Young Magazine since February 1996; the story centers on a consummate gambler and his misadventures around gambling. The series has been divided into six parts; the current part Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji: 24 Oku Dasshutsu-hen started in 2017. The first part of the manga has been adapted by Madhouse into a 26-episode anime television series titled Kaiji: Ultimate Survivor, which aired on Nippon TV between October 2007 and April 2008. A second 26-episode season based on the second part of the manga titled Kaiji: Against All Rules aired from April to September 2011; the series has been adapted into a live-action film trilogy directed by Tōya Satō and starring Tatsuya Fujiwara as Kaiji Itō. The first film Kaiji was released in October 2009 in Japan, it was followed by a sequel Kaiji 2, released in November 2011. The third and final film Kaiji: Final Game was released in January 2020.

A more loosely adapted Chinese live-action film, titled Animal World, was released in June 2018 in China and other countries. In North America, the first part of the manga has been licensed by Denpa and being released in a six-volume omnibus edition; the first volume was published in December 2019. In 1998, the manga was the winner of the 22nd Kodansha Manga Award in the General category. Kaiji is a popular series in Japan and the manga had over 21.5 million copies in print as of January 2019. Japan, February 1996. 3 years after graduating from high school and moving to Tokyo to get a job, Kaiji Itō fails to find steady employment due to the country being mired in its first recession since World War II. Depressed, he festers in his apartment, biding his time with cheap pranks, gambling and cigarettes. Kaiji is always thinking about money and his perpetual poverty brings him to tears. Kaiji's unrelenting misery continues until he is paid an unexpected visit from a loan shark named Yūji Endō who wants to collect an outstanding debt that Kaiji has carelessly co-signed for his former co-worker.

Endō gives Kaiji two options – either spend ten years repaying this outstanding debt, or board the gambling ship Espoir for one night to clear the debt. Using a con, Endō pressures Kaiji into accepting the deal, believing he will never come back from the voyage. However, Kaiji survives the gamble and is invited to another gambling night, this time at Starside Hotel. Although wary about the offer, he is spurred by his acquaintance Sahara to go. After being the only survivor of the Human Derby, Kaiji decides to avenge his friends by competing in another gambling match the financing corporation known as Teiai Group has prepared: E-Card. Kaiji, despite losing an ear, defeats his opponent Yukio Tonegawa, the second highest ranking executive at Teiai, he goes all-in once again in a new game with Kazutaka Hyōdō, the president of Teiai, but this time loses both the money he had won in E-Card and four of his fingers. Though Kaiji survives the events at Starside Hotel he now has a debt of over 9.5 million yen.

He contacts Endō in hopes of being able to take part in another high-stakes gamble, though Endō betrays him and sends him to Teiai's underground labour camp where he will have to work off his debt for 15 years. In the labour camp Kaiji is paid 91,000 perica per month to dig an underground kingdom; this is reduced to 45,000 perica. However, Kaiji allies himself with other Forty-fivers to defeat Ōtsuki and win enough money for a one-day outside pass. Although Kaiji manages to get out of the labour camp with 800,000 yen on hand using multiple one-day outside passes, he only has 20 days to earn the 60 million yen he needs to buy his freedom and release the other Forty-fivers. Kaiji comes across Kōtarō Sakazaki, a man who tells him of a pachinko game known as the Bog in a high-stakes casino where Kaiji can win over 500 million yen. Kaiji agrees to help him beat the Bog. However, the casino is owned by Teiai, the Bog has been rigged in several ways by the manager of the casino, Seiya Ichijō, his men to ensure that it won't pay out.

Kaiji succeeds at beating the Bog after a long battle and Ichijō is sent to the underground labour camp working for 1050 years to pay back the 700 million yen from the Bog that Kaiji won. Months after the events and having cleared his debt, Kaiji has been living with Sakazaki and his family until he kicks Kaiji out with 3 million yen in cash. Kaiji agrees to help the former Forty-fivers Miyoshi and Maeda beat Takashi Muraoka, the president of a casino at his Minefield Mahjong game and win over 100 million yen. After losing sums of money during the game, Kaiji realizes that the game was rigged from the start in Muraoka's favor, with Maeda looking at Kaiji's tiles and giving information to Muraoka and Miyoshi sending false signals to Kaiji. Kazuya Hyōdō, the son of Kazutaka Hyōdō, in the same room with Kaiji and the rest, loans him money to continue gambling, after several matches, Kaiji is able to defeat Muraoka and wins 480 million yen through a pure stroke of luck. Kazuya offers Kaiji an opportunity to gamble with him, to which Kaiji follows him.

Kazuya reveals to Kaiji his twisted and bloodthirsty personality and how despicable he thinks human beings are. He decides to test his view on human nature with a life-or-death game called Salvation Game, with three friends indebted to him, Mario and Mitsuyama, see if their friendship is a true bond. Kaiji is an observer to this game and cheers on the three men to challenge Kazuya's corrupted views. However, after several

Nana is a 1934 American pre-Code film, produced by Samuel Goldwyn, released through United Artists, starring Anna Sten. and directed by Dorothy Arzner and George Fitzmaurice. This version of Émile Zola's heroine was to be the vehicle for Sten's triumph as Samuel Goldwyn's trained and promoted answer to Greta Garbo. Despite a record-breaking opening week at Radio City Music Hall, Sten was beautiful but disappointing. Goldwyn's tutoring of Sten is mentioned in Cole Porter's 1934 song "Anything Goes" from the musical of the same name: "If Sam Goldwyn can with great conviction / Instruct Anna Sten in diction / Then Anna shows / Anything goes." The film was a box office disappointment. Nana on IMDb Nana at AllMovie Nana at the TCM Movie Database

Raqibul Hasan is a Bangladeshi international cricketer who plays for Dhaka Division. He played in the 2006 U-19 Cricket World Cup in Sri Lanka and in 2007 became the first Bangladeshi cricketer to score a triple hundred in first-class cricket when Barisal played Sylhet Division in March 2007. Another notable achievement was a century on his first-class debut, for Bangladesh A against Zimbabwe A in February 2005, he made his One Day International debut for Bangladesh against South Africa in Chittagong in March 2008, where batting at number six in the order, he made 15 runs. In his second match against the same opponents, he scored 63 before hitting 89 against India in the Kitply Cup. Another half-century followed against Sri Lanka in the Asia Cup and after 14 ODIs, he had a respectable batting average of 30.61, only bettered by Shahriar Nafees and Shakib Al Hasan amongst Bangladesh's current players. He made his Test debut against South Africa in November 2008. On 10 March 2010, Raqibul announced his shock retirement from international cricket.