In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical quantum of gravity, an elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity. There is no complete quantum field theory of gravitons due to an outstanding mathematical problem with renormalization in general relativity. In string theory, believed to be a consistent theory of quantum gravity, the graviton is a massless state of a fundamental string. If it exists, the graviton is expected to be massless because the gravitational force is long range and appears to propagate at the speed of light; the graviton must be a spin-2 boson because the source of gravitation is the stress–energy tensor, a second-order tensor. Additionally, it can be shown that any massless spin-2 field would give rise to a force indistinguishable from gravitation, because a massless spin-2 field would couple to the stress–energy tensor in the same way that gravitational interactions do; this result suggests. It is hypothesized that gravitational interactions are mediated by an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, dubbed the graviton.
The three other known forces of nature are mediated by elementary particles: electromagnetism by the photon, the strong interaction by gluons, the weak interaction by the W and Z bosons. All three of these forces appear to be described by the standard model of particle physics. In the classical limit, a successful theory of gravitons would reduce to general relativity, which itself reduces to Newton's law of gravitation in the weak-field limit; the term graviton was coined in 1934 by Soviet physicists Dmitrii Blokhintsev and F. M. Gal'perin; when describing graviton interactions, the classical theory of Feynman diagrams, semiclassical corrections such as one-loop diagrams behave normally. However, Feynman diagrams with at least two loops lead to ultraviolet divergences; these infinite results cannot be removed because quantized general relativity is not perturbatively renormalizable, unlike quantum electrodynamics and models such as the Yang–Mills theory. Therefore, incalculable answers are found from the perturbation method by which physicists calculate the probability of a particle to emit or absorb gravitons, the theory loses predictive veracity.
Those problems and the complementary approximation framework are grounds to show that a theory more unified than quantized general relativity is required to describe the behavior near the Planck scale. Like the force carriers of the other forces, gravitation plays a role in general relativity, in defining the spacetime in which events take place. In some descriptions energy modifies the "shape" of spacetime itself, gravity is a result of this shape, an idea which at first glance may appear hard to match with the idea of a force acting between particles; because the diffeomorphism invariance of the theory does not allow any particular space-time background to be singled out as the "true" space-time background, general relativity is said to be background-independent. In contrast, the Standard Model is not background-independent, with Minkowski space enjoying a special status as the fixed background space-time. A theory of quantum gravity is needed in order to reconcile these differences. Whether this theory should be background-independent is an open question.
The answer to this question will determine our understanding of what specific role gravitation plays in the fate of the universe. String theory predicts the existence of their well-defined interactions. A graviton in perturbative string theory is a closed string in a particular low-energy vibrational state; the scattering of gravitons in string theory can be computed from the correlation functions in conformal field theory, as dictated by the AdS/CFT correspondence, or from matrix theory. A feature of gravitons in string theory is that, as closed strings without endpoints, they would not be bound to branes and could move between them. If we live on a brane, this "leakage" of gravitons from the brane into higher-dimensional space could explain why gravitation is such a weak force, gravitons from other branes adjacent to our own could provide a potential explanation for dark matter. However, if gravitons were to move freely between branes, this would dilute gravity too much, causing a violation of Newton's inverse-square law.
To combat this, Lisa Randall found that a three-brane would have a gravitational pull of its own, preventing gravitons from drifting possibly resulting in the diluted gravity we observe, while maintaining Newton's inverse square law. See brane cosmology. A theory by Ahmed Farag Ali and Saurya Das adds quantum mechanical corrections to general relativistic geodesics. If gravitons are given a small but non-zero mass, it could explain the cosmological constant without need for dark energy and solve the smallness problem; the theory received an Honorable Mention in the 2014 Essay Competition of the Gravity Research Foundation for explaining the smallness of cosmological constant. The theory received an Honorable Mention in the 2015 Essay Competition of the Gravity Research Foundation for explaining the observed large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the universe due to the proposed quantum corrections. While gravitons are presumed to be massless, they would still carry energy, as does any other quantum particle.
Vale of the Vole is a fantasy novel by American writer Piers Anthony, the tenth book of the Xanth series. It begins a trilogy including Heaven Man from Mundania; the novel was written as a satirical jab at the canalization of the Kissimmee River in Anthony's native state of Florida as a result of the effects of the 1947 Atlantic hurricane season. The protagonist of this story is Eskil "Esk" Ogre, only son of Smash Ogre, his talent is to protest. Those he directs this talent at stop what they have intended to do. Esk goes to ask Good Magician Humfrey how to get rid of the Demoness Metria, who has threatened his family. Humphrey has gone missing. On his way to the Good Magician's castle, Esk meets Chex, the winged centaur daughter of Xap Hippogryph and Chem Centaur. Despite having wings, Chex is unable to fly due to her solid equine weight; the two of them meet up with Volney Vole, who always replaces S's with V's during speech. Volney has a demon problem of his own, as his home by the Kiss-Me River has become unbearably infested with bugs since the demons decided to straighten out the river's undulating curves.
When they discover the Good Magician is missing, they decide to look for him. On the way, they go through a Hypnogourd. Esk meets Bria Brassie, a heavy brass woman, they fall in love; the team discovers that Chex can make items temporarily light when she flicks them with her tail, which provides a solution to her problem of how to fly. Eskil Volney Chex Bria Metria
Robert Presnell, Jr. was an American writer and the husband of the actress Marsha Hunt. He was an activist who participated in several humanitarian initiatives together with his wife, he became the director of radio shows such as I Love The Orson Welles Show. Some of Presnell's notable films include Man in the Attic and Conspiracy of Hearts, nominated at the 18th Golden Globe Awards for Best Film Promoting International Understanding. Presnell wrote several memorable episodes of The Twilight Zone. Presnell was born in Chicago, the son of Robert Presnell, Sr. and his wife, Cecilia. Aside from being a producer, Presnell Sr. was a screenwriter making his son a second-generation writer. He started his writing career as a reporter for the Milwaukee Journal. After this stint, Presnell became a freelance writer of short stories for magazines, he moved to New York City in the late 1930s, where he established a career writing and producing radio programs. In the mid-1940s, Presnell relocated to Los Angeles, where he first started working on radio with Orson Welles and as a writer of films and television dramas such as the I Love a Mystery series and Cuban Pete.
He co-wrote Hollywood Fights Back, the 1947 radio broadcast in which 60 famous actors and filmmakers spoke out against the Hollywood blacklist. Hunt, in an interview, said that their involvement in this radio broadcast was held against them on and that despite the existence of a caveat that would have given them an out from being blacklisted, they refused to renounce their position. In the 1950s, he wrote the screenplays for the movies Man in the Attic, A Life in the Balance, Screaming Eagles, The Rawhide Years, Under the Sahara Sun, he wrote episodes for TV series such as The George Sanders Mystery Theater, Lux Video Theatre, Studio One, The Twilight Zone. Presnell was credited with the screenplay of the 1960 British film Conspiracy of Hearts, directed by Ralph Thomas, it starred Lilli Palmer, Sylvia Syms, Yvonne Mitchell, Ronald Lewis, was nominated for a Golden Globe Award. According to one source, Presnell served as a “front” for his fellow screenwriter Dalton Trumbo, unable to write films under his own name because he was included in the Hollywood blacklist.
It is not clear whether Trumbo did contribute to the script since this issue is further complicated by the fact that the film is based on the teleplay by Dale Pitt and that Presnell was announced as the screenwriter in August 1956 for $20,000. The screenplay was completed in April 1957, the same year The Green-Eyed Blonde was released; this film was credited to Sally Stubblefield, who served as his front. Presnell wrote his wife Marsha Hunt’s 1960 documentary A Call From, about the international refugee crisis. In the 1960s, he wrote the films Let No Man Write My Epitaph, 13 West Street, The Third Day. In the 1970s, he wrote the scripts of the so-called TV Movies such as The Secret Night Caller and Smash-Up on Highway 5 as well as two episodes of the miniseries Rich Man, Poor Man – Book II. Presnell served on the board of directors of the Writers Guild of America/West as well as in its arbitration committee, he was able to complete a novel called Edgell’s Island, published by Dial Press in 1951.
He supported Amnesty International and the anti-nuclear organization SANE. In 1947, he and Hunt became members of the Committee for the First Amendment along with other Hollywood figures such as John Huston, William Wyler, Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall; the group was founded as a way of supporting the Hollywood Ten, a group of writers and directors who refused to tell the House Committee on Un-American Activities whether they were or had been Communist Party members. In 1955, Presnell and Hunt traveled overseas to support the United Nations' initiatives in Third World countries such as those addressing hunger and promoting world peace. Presnell was first married to Kay Brown. On February 10, 1946, he married the actress Marsha Hunt, to whom he remained married until his death. Presnell met Hunt at a birthday party for Orson Welles; the Presnells adopted Chon Kai Yin, an orphan from Hong Kong. He died on June 14, 1986, at the age of 71, at his home in Sherman Oaks, California after suffering heart ailments for many years
The Surdna Foundation was established as a charitable foundation in 1917 by John Emory Andrus to pursue a range of philanthropic purposes. A devoted family man with nine children, Andrus founded the Julia Dyckman Andrus Memorial in 1928 as a tribute to his beloved wife, she had been orphaned as a child, in her honor Andrus bought a farm in Westchester County, New York in order to establish an orphanage. The Memorial changed its name to the Surdna Foundation, with "Surdna" being the backward spelling of the family name Andrus. In 1953 Andrus' youngest child, Helen Benedict, was serving as the chairman of Surdna; that year the foundation built the John E. Andrus Memorial, a retirement home for 200 elderly residents on land adjacent to the Julia Dyckman Andrus Memorial, she and the Foundation thereby completed his expressed wish that his legacy provide "opportunity for youth and rest for old age." In the early 1970s, the board of the Julia Dyckman Andrus Memorial shifted its programmatic emphasis to serve as a residential treatment, special education and diagnostic center for disabled children.
Family stewardship of Surdna over the years has been informed by Andrus's values: thrift, modesty, excellence and an appreciation for direct service to those in need. These values have been applied both to oversight of the two Memorials and to more general grant programs. In 1989, the third and fourth generations of the Andrus family on the Surdna board established programs in Environment and Community Revitalization and decided to enlarge the professional staff to broaden the Foundation's effectiveness. In 1994, programs in Effective Citizenry and the Arts were added; the Nonprofit Sector Support Program was added in 1997 to address crosscutting issues affecting the sector. In 2019 some descendants of John Emory Andrus questioned whether the foundation had deviated from Andrus's original goals and stated that the foundation was planning on focusing all its efforts on racial equity; the Comprehensive Community Revitalization Program was a $10 million effort by 21 foundations and corporations.
Its goal was to materially boost the quality of life in a large swath of the South Bronx, to support a group of CDCs by buying into their agenda for doing so, to create an institution that could live on vigorously and independently after the program formally concluded in 1998. Youth activism Civic engagement Surdna Foundation website. Financial Reports Surdna Foundation Julia Dyckman Andrus Memorial website. Andrus Family Fund website. Andrus on Hudson website. Helen Andrus Benedict Foundation website
St Paul's Church, Hasland is a Grade II listed parish church in the Church of England in Hasland, Derbyshire. The church was built by the contractor Rollinson and Heath of Chesterfield in 1850 to the designs of the architect Thomas Chambers Hine, it opened on 24 September 1850. The church was enlarged in 1867 by Samuel Rollinson with the addition of a new aisle and re-opened on 3 October 1867; the organ was installed in 1983. It was built in 1842 by J. C. Bishop and installed in the Church of the Holy Name, in St James the Apostle's Church, Normanton. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register
"Monday Morning Church" is a song written by Brent Baxter and Erin Enderlin, recorded by American country music artist Alan Jackson. It was released in October 2004 as the second single from his album, it peaked at number 5 on the United States Billboard Hot Country Tracks. It features background vocals from Patty Loveless. Jackson told Billboard that the song was recorded by Lee Ann Womack but he's glad he got it instead. "It's about trying to survive after you've lost a loved one and just how every little thing you touch or see stirs up the memories and makes it hard," Jackson says. Brent Baxter, one of the writers of the song, was inspired by the song after reading a poem that his mother wrote that included the line, "Empty as a church on Monday morning." He stated that the line had "such religious overtones that had to come up with something heavy to fit around it." He went on to say that it was fascinating to explore what someone might go through when they lose a loved one. After writing the lyrics, Baxter gave them to Erin Enderlin, a music student at Middle Tennessee State University.
Enderlin stated that she related to the lyrics because she had just lost a friend in a car accident, proceeded to write "a sad, beautiful melody", before circulating the song in Nashville. After hearing the song, Jackson decided to record it; the song follows the story of a man grasping for faith after the death of his wife. A preacher stops by to tell him that Jesus loves him but he doubts if he deserves it because he no longer has any faith, he believes that his wife has made it to heaven but that without her, he can't bring himself to believe in God. Deborah Evans Price, of Billboard magazine reviewed the song favorably, calling it "one of the most potent ballads in country music since George Jones"He Stopped Loving Her Today'. In 2014, Rolling Stone named the song number 39 on its "40 Saddest Country Songs of All Time"; the music video was directed by Kristin Barlowe, features a man who's struggling through his house, running to a church, struggling from a lost lover. "Monday Morning Church" debuted at number 47 on the U.
S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of October 16, 2004. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics