Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences. Sociologists identify two basic forms of social control: Informal means of control – Internalization of norms and values by a process known as socialization, "the process by which an individual, born with behavioral potentialities of enormously wide range, is led to develop actual behavior, confined to the narrower range of what is acceptable for him by the group standards." Formal means of social control – External sanctions enforced by government to prevent the establishment of chaos or anomie in society. Some theorists, such as Émile Durkheim, refer to this form of control as regulation; as defined above, the means to enforce social control can be either informal or formal. Sociologist Edward A. Ross argues that belief systems exert a greater control on human behavior than laws imposed by government, no matter what form the beliefs take. Social control is considered one of the foundations of order within society. Roodenburg identifies the concept of social control as a classical concept.
While the concept of social control has been around since the formation of organized sociology, the meaning has been altered over time. The concept referred to society's ability to regulate itself. However, in the 1930s, the term took on its more modern meaning of an individual's conversion to conformity. Academics began to study Social control theory as a separate field in the early 20th century; the concept of social control is related to the notion of social order, a concept identified as existing in the following areas of society: Social values present in individuals are products of informal social control, exercised implicitly by a society through particular customs and mores. Individuals internalize the values of their society. Traditional society relies on informal social control embedded in its customary culture to socialize its members. Informal sanctions may include shame, sarcasm and disapproval, which can cause an individual to stray towards the social norms of the society. In extreme cases sanctions may include social exclusion.
Informal social control has more effect on individuals because the social values become internalized, thus becoming an aspect of the individual's personality. Informal sanctions check'deviant' behavior. An example of a negative sanction comes from a scene in the Pink Floyd film The Wall, whereby the young protagonist is ridiculed and verbally abused by a high school teacher for writing poetry in a mathematics class. Another example from the movie About a Boy, when a young boy hesitates to jump from a high springboard and is ridiculed for his fear. Though he jumps, his behavior is controlled by shame. Informal controls reward or punish acceptable or unacceptable behavior and are varied from individual to individual, group to group, society to society. For example, at a Women's Institute meeting, a disapproving look might convey the message that it is inappropriate to flirt with the minister. In a criminal gang, on the other hand, a stronger sanction applies in the case of someone threatening to inform to the police of illegal activity.
Theorists such as Noam Chomsky have argued. The marketing and public relations industries have thus been said to utilize mass communications to aid the interests of certain political and business elites. Powerful ideological and religious lobbyists have used school systems and centralized electronic communications to influence public opinion. Social control developed together with civilization, as a rational measure against the uncontrollable forces of nature, which tribal organisations were at prey to, within archaic tribal societies. Rulers have legitimately used torture as a means of mind control as well as murder and exile to remove from public space anyone the state authorities deemed undesirable. In the Age of Enlightenment, harsh penalties for crimes and civil disobedience were criticized by philosophers such as Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, whose work inspired reform movements; these movements led to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, which informs most western jurisdictions and the similar Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam in 1990.
The word crime became part of the vocabulary of the English language via Old French, during the Middle Ages, within the Middle English of the language. In history, religion provided a moral influence on the community and each person, providing an internal locus of control oriented toward a morality, so that each person was empowered to have a degree of control over themselves within society; as Auguste Comte instituted sociology certain thinkers predicted the discontinuation of a perceived false consciousness intrinsic to religious belief. Within the twentieth century, social scientists presumed that religion was still a principal factor of social control. Comte, those who preceded him, were breathing the air of a revolution in the latter part of the eighteenth century to bring about a so-called enlightened way of being in society, which brought about a new liberty for the individual, without the constraints of an over-seeing aristocracy. In the context social control through penal and correctional services, the rehabilatative ideal is a key idea that formed within the 20th century—the first principle of, that behavior is first caused by things that happened before.
The idea was thought to have less relevancy to the philosophy and exaction or execution of correct
Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on an atomic and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers; this definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.
Because of the variety of potential applications, governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Through 2012, the USA has invested $3.7 billion using its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the European Union has invested $1.2 billion, Japan has invested $750 million. Nanotechnology as defined by size is very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, molecular engineering, etc; the associated research and applications are diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale. Scientists debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, biomaterials energy production, consumer products.
On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted; the concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not known. Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control.
In 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications. Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. Since the popularity spike in the 1980s, most of nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of a small number of atoms. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era. First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, was used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989; the microscope's developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.
Binnig and Gerber invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year. Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. C60 was not described as nanotechnology. In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003. Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging; these products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U. S
The Elysium Commission
The Elysium Commission is a science fiction novel by American writer L. E. Modesitt, Jr. published in 2007. Set in the far future, the novel follows private investigator Blaine Donne as he investigates several different cases. Reviews of The Elysium Commission were mixed. Kirkus Reviews said that the novel had "some brisk action closes the proceedings, but otherwise, mediocre problems and solutions--our hero has little idea how to Google for information and spends most of his time asking his friends for gossip." Publishers Weekly said "Modesitt cleverly weaves together disparate threads of information to form a complete tapestry." Jackie Cassada reviewing for the Library Journal said "Prolific sf author Modesitt creates a far-future tale of intrigue and mystery featuring a tough but admirable sleuth." Throughout the book, Modesitt makes tongue-in-cheek references to a number of other science fiction and fantasy authors. These are in the form of statements or thoughts by a character, jumble the order of the authors names or of their novels.
Examples include "Jordan Robert" and "The Lictor's Sword". Other references are made to Ursula K. Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness. Another author given a nod is Paula Volsky
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Spaceflight is ballistic flight into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft without humans on board. Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union was the first human to conduct a spaceflight. Examples of human spaceflight include the U. S. Apollo Moon landing and Space Shuttle programs and the Russian Soyuz program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station. Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth, such as communications satellites; these operate either by telerobotic control or are autonomous. Spaceflight is used in space exploration, in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications. Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories, reconnaissance satellites and other Earth observation satellites. A spaceflight begins with a rocket launch, which provides the initial thrust to overcome the force of gravity and propels the spacecraft from the surface of the Earth.
Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft – both when unpropelled and when under propulsion – is covered by the area of study called astrodynamics. Some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during atmospheric reentry, others reach a planetary or lunar surface for landing or impact; the first theoretical proposal of space travel using rockets was published by Scottish astronomer and mathematician William Leitch, in an 1861 essay "A Journey Through Space". More well-known is Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's work, "Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами", published in 1903. Spaceflight became an engineering possibility with the work of Robert H. Goddard's publication in 1919 of his paper A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes, his application of the de Laval nozzle to liquid fuel rockets improved efficiency enough for interplanetary travel to become possible. He proved in the laboratory that rockets would work in the vacuum of space, his attempt to secure an Army contract for a rocket-propelled weapon in the first World War was defeated by the November 11, 1918 armistice with Germany.
Nonetheless, Goddard's paper was influential on Hermann Oberth, who in turn influenced Wernher von Braun. Von Braun became the first to produce modern rockets as guided weapons, employed by Adolf Hitler. Von Braun's V-2 was the first rocket to reach space, at an altitude of 189 kilometers on a June 1944 test flight. Tsiolkovsky's rocketry work was not appreciated in his lifetime, but he influenced Sergey Korolev, who became the Soviet Union's chief rocket designer under Joseph Stalin, to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles to carry nuclear weapons as a counter measure to United States bomber planes. Derivatives of Korolev's R-7 Semyorka missiles were used to launch the world's first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957, the first human to orbit the Earth, Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1, on April 12, 1961. At the end of World War II, von Braun and most of his rocket team surrendered to the United States, were expatriated to work on American missiles at what became the Army Ballistic Missile Agency.
This work on missiles such as Juno I and Atlas enabled launch of the first US satellite Explorer 1 on February 1, 1958, the first American in orbit, John Glenn in Friendship 7 on February 20, 1962. As director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, Von Braun oversaw development of a larger class of rocket called Saturn, which allowed the US to send the first two humans, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, to the Moon and back on Apollo 11 in July 1969. Over the same period, the Soviet Union secretly tried but failed to develop the N1 rocket to give them the capability to land one person on the Moon. Rockets are the only means capable of reaching orbit or beyond. Other non-rocket spacelaunch technologies have yet to remain short of orbital speeds. A rocket launch for a spaceflight starts from a spaceport, which may be equipped with launch complexes and launch pads for vertical rocket launches, runways for takeoff and landing of carrier airplanes and winged spacecraft. Spaceports are situated well away from human habitation for safety reasons.
ICBMs have various special launching facilities. A launch is restricted to certain launch windows; these windows depend upon the position of celestial orbits relative to the launch site. The biggest influence is the rotation of the Earth itself. Once launched, orbits are located within constant flat planes at a fixed angle to the axis of the Earth, the Earth rotates within this orbit. A launch pad is a fixed structure designed to dispatch airborne vehicles, it consists of a launch tower and flame trench. It is surrounded by equipment used to erect and maintain launch vehicles; the most used definition of outer space is everything beyond the Kármán line, 100 kilometers above the Earth's surface. The United States sometimes defines outer space as everything beyond 50 miles in altitude. Rockets are the only practical means of reaching space. Conventional airplane engines cannot reach space due to the lack of oxygen. Rocket engines expel propellant to provide forward thrust that generates enough delta-v to reach orbit.
For manned launch systems launch escape systems are fitted to allow astronauts to escape in the case of emergency. Many ways to reach space other than rockets have been proposed. Ideas such as the space elevator, momentum exchange tethers li
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
L. E. Modesitt Jr.
L. E. Modesitt Jr. is an American science fiction and fantasy author who has written over 70 novels. He is best known for the fantasy series The Saga of Recluce. By 2015 the 18 novels in the Recluce series had sold nearly three million copies. In addition to his novels, Modesitt has published technical studies and articles, poetry, a number of science fiction stories, his first short story, "The Great American Economy", was published in 1973 in Analog Science Fiction and Science Fact. In 2008, he published his first collection of Viewpoints Critical: Selected Stories. Modesitt was born in Colorado, he graduated from Williams College in Massachusetts and lived in Washington, D. C. for 20 years while working as a political writer. He has worked as a Navy pilot, delivery boy, unpaid radio disc jockey, real estate agent, market research analyst, director of research for a political campaign, legislative assistant for a Congressman, Director of Legislation and Congressional Relations for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, a consultant on environmental and communications issues, a college lecturer and writer in residence.
Modesitt has stated, “When all the research, all the writing group support, all the cheerleading, all the angst fade away, they should, the bottom line is simple: As a writer, you first must entertain your readers. To keep them beyond a quick and final read, you have to do more than that, whether it’s to educate them, make them feel, anger them by challenging their preconceptions—or all of that and more, but if you don’t entertain first, none of what else you do matters, because they won’t stay around.” Major seriesThe Saga of Recluce Spellsong Cycle The Forever Hero The Corean Chronicles The Imager Portfolio He met his current wife, Carol A. Modesitt, after moving to New Hampshire in 1989. Carol now acts as a professor at Southern Utah University, they relocated to Cedar City, Utah in 1993. He has been married three times, has six daughters and two sons. Recluce, The Official L. E. Modesitt, Jr. Fan Site L. E. Modesitt, Jr. – Official Website L. E. Modesitt, Jr. at Tor Books Official forum at IBDoF Interview with L. E. Modesitt, Jr. at SFFWorld.com The Worlds of L.
E. Modesitt at the Wayback Machine L. E. Modesitt, Jr. at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Recluce Wiki fictional universes of L. E. Modesitt Jr. Essay about Antiagon Fire – The Antiagon Fire That Almost Wasn’t at Upcoming4.me Essay by L E Modesitt Jr about The One-Eyed Man at Upcoming4.me The story behind Cyador's Heirs - Online Essay by L. E. Modesitt at Upcoming4.me The Immense Costs and a Shred of Optimism: A Conversation with L. E. Modesitt, Jr. at Clarkesworld Magazine Interview with L. E. Modesitt, Jr. at Boomtron.com