Dort Motor Car Company
The Dort Motor Car Company of Flint, built automobiles from 1915–1924. Dort used Lycoming-built engines to power their vehicles. Dort Motor Car Company grew from Durant-Dort Carriage Company founded in 1886 by William C. Durant and J. Dallas Dort, they remained business partners until about 1915. Durant-Dort Carriage Company was dissolved in 1924, it may have continued to own the buildings machinery used by Dort Motor Car. Dort and the remaining stockholders took over the carriage business, they incorporated Dort Motor Car Company and began to use some of the same plant to manufacture Dort cars buying in engines from Lycoming. Carriage production ended in 1917. Dort shipped 9,000 cars in its first year. By 1917, Dort was offering four models: a closed sedan at $1,065, a convertible sedan at $815, a five-place open tourer at $695, a Fleur-de-Lys roadster at $695. By contrast, Ford Model Ts were selling for $440 in 1915. By 1920 Dort was the country's 13th largest automobile producer but in 1924 Dort decided to retire and he liquidated Dort Motor Car Company.
He sold the factory building to AC Spark Plug. J Dallas Dort died the following year. G. N. Georgano, G. N.. "Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930". London, UK: Grange-Universal. Naldrett, Alan. Lost Car Companies of Detroit. Charleston, SC: History Press. Gray-Dort Motors Ltd
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930. Such enthusiasts have categorization schemes for ages of cars that enforce distinctions between antique cars, vintage cars, classic cars, so on; the classification criteria vary, but consensus within any country is maintained by major car clubs, for example the Vintage Sports-Car Club in the UK. The vintage era in the automotive world was a time of transition; the car started off in 1919 as still something of a rarity, ended up, in 1930, well on the way towards ubiquity. In fact, automobile production at the end of this period was not matched again until the 1950s. In the intervening years, most industrialized countries built nationwide road systems with the result that, towards the end of the period, the ability to negotiate unpaved roads was no longer a prime consideration of automotive design. Cars became much more practical and comfortable during this period.
Car heating was introduced. Four-wheel braking from a common foot pedal was introduced, as was the use of hydraulically actuated brakes. Towards the end of the vintage era, the system of octane rating of fuel was introduced, allowing comparison between fuels. In 1923 the gasoline additive Ethyl made its debut at the Indy 500 that resulted in a boost in octane from the 1950s to the 1980s In the United States drive-in restaurants were introduced as well as suburban shopping centers and motels. Alfred P. Sloan and Harley Earl of General Motors, Walter P. Chrysler capitalized on advertising the automobile's role in the life of the consumer for more than just the utilitarian value compared with the horse; the stock market crash of 1929 started the layoff of automotive workers and many new companies went bankrupt but over two million cars were still produced in 1929 and 1930. The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 was the first federal highway act. War and lack of funding hampered any positive results of this act.
The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 started a 50/50 matching fund to states for road building and resulted in the creation of new and improved roads. During this period as well as the car adapting to society, there were better roads, society began to adapt to the car. Dwight D. Eisenhower participated in the publicized Transcontinental Motor Convoy in 1919 and after becoming President the experience influenced the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 that included 41,000 miles of highways; the end of World War I brought about the "Depression of 1920-21" with an inflation rate of over 20 percent, a 7 percent Federal Bank discount loan rate, an 11.7 percent unemployment rate, that resulted in many companies going bankrupt and the automotive industry was decimated. From 1919 to 1929, many dramatic changes took place. General Motors went into a financial crisis that lasted until after Alfred Sloan became president in 1923. Hudson produced the Essex in 1919 that, by 1925, had propelled the company to third in total sales behind Ford and Chevrolet.
Ford was in the process of building a new plant, buying back stock, began an 18-month process of tooling-up to replace the Model T with the Model A in 1927. In 1921 Maxwell failed and Walter P. Chrysler of General Motors, was brought in to reorganize it and, in 1925, the Chrysler Corporation was formed. With Ford out for a period, Chrysler was able to produce and market the low-priced Plymouth in 1928, bought out the Dodge Brothers in 1928, resulting in "The Big Three" more known as the "Detroit Three". There were other automakers that made it past the 1920-1921 depression only to fail during the Great Depression. During the Great Depression, in Britain many small companies started in the post World War I boom failed or merged leaving six major manufacturers: Morris, Standard, Ford of Britain, General Motors Vauxhall. A similar boom-and-bust cycle was seen in mainland Europe. Antique automobiles and early to middle era classic cars do not have the safety features that are standard on modern cars.
The most rudimentary of safety features, front wheel brakes and hydraulic brakes, began appearing on cars in the 1920s and 1930s respectively. For the average person car collecting is a hobby. A person can have a fascination with a certain vehicle, make or a history with one so seeks a particular make or model. Finding such a car at an affordable price is not always hard but the price will depend on the condition or the desired end result; the less work required on a vehicle equates to a higher price, the more work required means a cheaper initial cost, but more in the long run, a person's level of restoration experience plays an important part. Comedian and avid car collector Jay Leno stated, "Any car can be a collector car, if you collect it." Car collecting as an investment can be rewarding but most serious investment collectors seek rare or exotic cars and original unmodified cars hold a more stable price. Collecting as an investment requires expertise beyond enthusiast collecting and the standard of quality is far higher as well as a need for investment protection such as storage and maintenance.
A short-term investment collector must be able to find a vehicle that has market value, expected to rise in the foreseeable near future. A long-term investment collector would be less interested in any short-term value seeking to capitalize on an expected value rise over a period of years and a vehicle must have certain intrinsic values that are common to other investors or collectors of both short and long term. Cars that were made in small numbers or have a higher value
Flint is the largest city and seat of Genesee County, United States. Located along the Flint River, 66 miles northwest of Detroit, it is a principal city within the region known as Mid Michigan. According to the 2010 census, Flint has a population of 102,434, making it the seventh largest city in Michigan; the Flint metropolitan area is located within Genesee County. It is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Michigan with a population of 425,790 in 2010; the city was incorporated in 1855. Flint was founded as a village by fur trader Jacob Smith in 1819 and became a major lumbering area on the historic Saginaw Trail during the 19th century. From the late 19th century to the mid 20th century, the city was a leading manufacturer of carriages and automobiles, earning it the nickname "Vehicle City". General Motors was founded in Flint in 1908, the city grew into an automobile manufacturing powerhouse for GM's Buick and Chevrolet divisions after World War II up until the early 1980s recession. Flint was the home of the Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1936–37 that played a vital role in the formation of the United Automobile Workers.
Since the late 1960s, Flint has faced several crises. The city sank into a deep economic depression after GM downsized its workforce in the area from a 1978 high of 80,000 to under 8,000 by 2010. From 1960 to 2010, the population of the city nearly halved from 196,940 to 102,434. In the mid-2000s, Flint became known for its high crime rates and has been ranked among the most dangerous cities in the United States; the city was under a state of financial emergency from 2002–2004 and again from 2011–2015. Since 2014, the city has faced a major public health emergency due to lead contamination in the local water supply that has affected thousands of residents, as well as an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease due to tainted water; the Saginaw Valley the vicinity of Flint, is considered by some to be the oldest continually inhabited area of Michigan. Regardless of the validity of this claim, the region was home to several Ojibwa tribes at the start of the 19th century, with a significant community established near present-day Montrose.
The Flint River had several convenient fords which became points of contention among rival tribes, as attested by the presence of arrowheads and burial mounds near it. Some of the city resides atop ancient Ojibwa burial grounds. In 1819, Jacob Smith, a fur trader on cordial terms with both the local Ojibwas and the territorial government founded a trading post at the Grand Traverse of the Flint River. On several occasions, Smith negotiated land exchanges with the Ojibwas on behalf of the U. S. government, he was regarded on both sides. Smith apportioned many of his holdings to his children; as the ideal stopover on the overland route between Detroit and Saginaw, Flint grew into a small but prosperous village, incorporated in 1855. The 1860 U. S. census indicated that Genesee County had a population of 22,498 of Michigan's 750,000. In the latter half of the 19th century, Flint became a center of the Michigan lumber industry. Revenue from lumber funded the establishment of a local carriage-making industry.
As horse-drawn carriages gave way to the automobiles, Flint naturally grew into a major player in the nascent auto industry. Buick Motor Company, after a rudimentary start in Detroit, soon moved to Flint. AC Spark Plug originated in Flint; these were followed by several now-defunct automobile marques such as the Dort, Little and Mason brands. Chevrolet's first manufacturing facility was in Flint, although the Chevrolet headquarters were in Detroit. For a brief period, all Chevrolets and Buicks were built in Flint. In 1904, local entrepreneur William C. Durant was brought in to manage Buick, which became the largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1908. In 1908, Durant founded General Motors, filing incorporation papers in New Jersey, with headquarters in Flint. GM moved its headquarters to Detroit in the mid-1920s. Durant lost control of GM twice during his lifetime. On the first occasion, he befriended Louis Chevrolet and founded Chevrolet, a runaway success, he used the capital from this success to buy back share control.
He lost decisive control again, permanently. Durant experienced financial ruin in the stock market crash of 1929 and subsequently ran a bowling alley in Flint until the time of his death in 1947; the city's mayors were targeted for recall twice, Mayor David Cuthbertson in 1924 and Mayor William H. McKeighan in 1927. Recall supporters in both cases were jailed by the police. Cuthbertson had angered the KKK by the appointment of a Catholic police chief; the KKK supported Judson Transue, Cutbertson's elected successor. Transue however did not remove the police chief. McKeighan survived his recall only to face conspiracy charges in 1928. McKeighan was under investigation for a multitude of crimes which angered city leaders enough to push for changes in the city charter. In 1928, the city adopted a new city charter with a council-manager form of government. Subsequently, McKeighan ran the "Green Slate" of candidates who won in 1931 and 1932 and he was select as mayor in 1931. In 1935, the city residents approved a charter amendment establishing the Civil Service Commission.
For the last century, Flint's history has been dominated by both car culture. During the Sit-Down Strike of 1936–1937, the fledgling United Automobile Workers triumphed over General Motors, inaugurating the era of labor unions; the successful mediation of the strike by Governor Frank Murphy, culminating in a one-page agreement recognizing the Union, began an era of successful organizing by the UAW. The
Walkerville, Ontario is a former town in Canada, today a heritage precinct of Windsor, Ontario. Incorporated in 1890, the town was founded by Hiram Walker and producer of Canadian Club Whisky. Walker planned it as a ` model town' that would be the envy of the continent, he established a distillery on the Detroit River, diversifying the business by growing grain, milling flour, raising cattle and hogs. The town supported other major industries, notably automotive manufacturing. Walker established homes for his workers, a church dedicated to his late wife, a school; the town, which developed outwards from the distillery, included buildings designed by Albert Kahn, notably Willistead Manor, the home of Walker's second son, Edward Chandler Walker. Upon Walkerville’s eventual amalgamation with Windsor, the Manor became heritage-protected property of the city, being used as an art gallery and a function venue; the neighbourhood is characterized by wide streets and abundant greenery. A three-story high school, carrying the name'Walkerville', stands next to Willistead Manor.
Other structures include former Prime Minister Paul Martin’s home, Kahn-designed houses, the distillery and the Via Rail station. The Tivoli Theatre, is of 1920s art-deco design by C. Howard Crane. A large performance stage, ornate fixtures and grating-lattice hint at the community's grandeur in those days. Divided into three sub-precincts, Walkerville was an amalgam of business and residential land use, at times all nestled together; this cohesive character gave the community its uniqueness as compared to surrounding cities. Walker acted as self-appointed overseer of everything, including the police and church facilities. During the period of Prohibition in the United States, Walkerville became a principal source of cross-border alcohol exportation. Hiram Walker favoured diversification and Walkerville welcomed many industries including the automotive industry; the Ford Motor Company of Canada opened its factory there in 1904, followed by the E-M-F Company whose plant was acquired by Studebaker in 1910 and which became the assembly line for right-hand-drive vehicles exported to the UK and British Empire.
In 1929, the Financial Post reported that 500 of the town's families were supported by Studebaker, "only one of its activities being the manufacture of motor cars. During the world war, great quantities of war material was produced for the Canadian and Imperial governments. Today, manufactures a line of 59 models of six- and eight-cylinder passenger motor cars, trucks and funeral coaches". Chrysler, General Motors and Seagrave were other manufacturers with plants in Walkerville. Walkerville Collegiate Institute Walkerville Times 2007 14mB pdf download containing historical articles and photographs WalkervilleTimes.com Southwestern Ontario Digital Archive: Walkerville
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle