Happiness is used in the context of mental or emotional states, including positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. It is used in the context of life satisfaction, subjective well-being, eudaimonia and well-being. Since the 1960s, happiness research has been conducted in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including gerontology, social psychology and medical research and happiness economics.'Happiness' is the subject of debate on usage and meaning, on possible differences in understanding by culture. The word is used in several related areas: current experience, including the feeling of an emotion such as pleasure or joy, or a more general sense of'emotional condition as a whole'. For instance Daniel Kahneman has defined happiness as "what I experience here and now"; this usage is prevalent in dictionary definitions of happiness. Appraisal of life satisfaction, such as of quality of life. For instance Ruut Veenhoven has defined happiness as "overall appreciation of one's life as-a-whole."
Subjective well-being, which includes measures of life satisfaction. For instance Sonja Lyubomirsky has described happiness as “the experience of joy, contentment, or positive well-being, combined with a sense that one's life is good and worthwhile.” Eudaimonia, sometimes translated as flourishing. These uses can give different results. For instance the correlation of income levels has been shown to be substantial with life satisfaction measures, but to be far weaker, at least above a certain threshold, with affect measures; the implied meaning of the word may vary depending on context, qualifying happiness as a polyseme and a fuzzy concept. Some users continue to use the word because of its convening power. In the Nicomachean Ethics, written in 350 BCE, Aristotle stated that happiness is the only thing that humans desire for their own sake, unlike riches, health or friendship, he observed that men sought riches, or honour, or health not only for their own sake but in order to be happy. Note that eudaimonia, the term we translate as "happiness", is for Aristotle an activity rather than an emotion or a state.
Thus understood, the happy life is the good life, that is, a life in which a person fulfills human nature in an excellent way. Aristotle argues that the good life is the life of excellent rational activity, he arrives at this claim with the Function Argument. If it's right, every living thing has a function, that which it uniquely does. For humans, Aristotle contends, our function is to reason, since it is that alone that we uniquely do, and performing one's function well, or excellently, is good. Thus, according to Aristotle, the life of excellent rational activity is the happy life. Aristotle does not leave it at that, however, he argues. This second best life is the life of moral virtue. Many ethicists make arguments for how humans should behave, either individually or collectively, based on the resulting happiness of such behavior. Utilitarians, such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, advocated the greatest happiness principle as a guide for ethical behavior. Friedrich Nietzsche savagely critiqued the English Utilitarians' focus on attaining the greatest happiness, stating that "Man does not strive for happiness, only the Englishman does."
Nietzsche meant that making happiness one's ultimate goal and the aim of one's existence, in his words "makes one contemptible." Nietzsche instead yearned for a culture that would set higher, more difficult goals than "mere happiness." He introduced the quasi-dystopic figure of the "last man" as a kind of thought experiment against the utilitarians and happiness-seekers. These small, "last men" who seek after only their own pleasure and health, avoiding all danger, difficulty, struggle are meant to seem contemptible to Nietzsche's reader. Nietzsche instead wants us to consider the value of what is difficult, what can only be earned through struggle, difficulty and thus to come to see the affirmative value suffering and unhappiness play in creating everything of great worth in life, including all the highest achievements of human culture, not least of all philosophy. Darrin McMahon claims that there has been a transition over time from emphasis on the happiness of virtue to the virtue of happiness.
Happiness may be said to be a relative concept. Not all cultures seek to maximise happiness, some cultures are averse to happiness. Happiness forms a central theme of Buddhist teachings. For ultimate freedom from suffering, the Noble Eightfold Path leads its practitioner to Nirvana, a state of everlasting peace. Ultimate happiness is only achieved by overcoming craving in all forms. More mundane forms of happiness, such as acquiring wealth and maintaining good friendships, are recognized as worthy goals for lay people. Buddhism encourages the generation of loving kindness and compassion, the desire for the happiness and welfare of all beings. In Advaita Vedanta, the ultimate goal of life is happiness, in the sense that duality between Atman and Brahman is transcended and one realizes oneself to be the Self in all. Patanjali, author of the Yoga Sutras, wrote quite exhaustively on the psychological and ontological roots of bliss; the Chinese Confucian thinker Mencius, who had sought to give advice to ruthless political leaders during China's Warring States period, was convinced that the mind played a mediating role between the "lesser self" and the "greater self", that getting the pr
The grayling is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae. It is the only species of the genus Thymallus native to Europe, where it is widespread from the United Kingdom and France to the Ural Mountains in Russia, but does not occur in the southern parts of the continent, it was introduced to Morocco in 1948. The grayling grows to a maximum recorded weight of 6.7 kg. Of typical Thymallus appearance, the grayling proper is distinguished from the similar Arctic grayling by the presence of 5–8 dorsal and 3–4 anal spines, which are absent in the other species. Individuals of the species have been recorded as reaching an age of 14 years; the grayling prefers cold, running riverine waters, but occurs in lakes and, exceptionally, in brackish waters around the Baltic Sea. Omnivorous, the fish feeds on vegetable matter, as well as crustaceans and spiders, molluskss and smaller fishes, such as Eurasian minnows. Grayling are prey for larger fish, including the huchen. With the Arctic grayling, T. thymallus is one of the economically important Thymallus species, being raised commercially and fished for sport.
The grayling is a protected species listed in Appendix III of the Bern Convention. It has become critically endangered in the Baltic Sea; the term "grayling" is used to refer generically to the Thymallus species, T. thymallus is sometimes called the European grayling for clarity. There are many obsolete synonyms for the species; the generic name Thymallus derives from the Greek θύμαλλος, "thyme smell", a name derived from the fragrance of wild thyme that freshly caught graylings are believed to smell similar to. Thymallus thymallus is the type species of its genus; the grayling is known as the'lady of the stream'. They used to be persecuted by anglers for the false perception that they stopped trout colonizing stretches of rivers and streams. However, research has shown that grayling and trout feed on different prey items and prefer different microhabitats within rivers and streams but do occupy similar niches to smaller, less-predatory trout. In England and Wales, they can be fished for throughout the coarse fishing season, providing thrilling sport on the fly when the trout season is closed.
There is no closed season for grayling in Scotland. There are no grayling in Ireland. Well-known grayling flies include the grayling witch, various nymphs and'red tags', along with other trout patterns. Flies tied to resemble small pink shrimps have been found to be useful. A method known as'Czech-nymphing' has been known to be helpful to anglers where grayling shoal up in colder periods; the method involves moving a series of Czech nymphs under the tip of the fly rod with the flow of the river and the nymphs should entice the grayling to take one. Fly-anglers may wade in the river to perform this method. Wading does not spook the grayling as they are less cautious than trout and are not as put off by human presence. In France, the season is limited depending upon several factors; the Allier River is one of the rare places in Southern Europe where the common grayling occurs in a natural habitat. Arctic grayling Grayling Day Australian grayling "Grayling". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. 1880. P. 78. "Grayling".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. 1911. P. 395. World Conservation Monitoring Centre. "Thymallus thymallus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 May 2006. Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Thymallus thymallus" in FishBase. October 2004 version. "Thymallus thymallus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 11 December 2004
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su