Haverford College is a private liberal arts college in Haverford, Pennsylvania. All students of the college are undergraduates and nearly all reside on campus; the college was founded in 1833 by area members of the Orthodox Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends to ensure an education grounded in Quaker values for young Quaker men. Although the college no longer has a formal religious affiliation, Quaker philosophy still influences campus life. An all-male institution, Haverford began admitting female transfer students in the 1970s and became co-educational in 1980. More than half of Haverford's students are women. For most of the 20th century, Haverford's total enrollment was kept below 300, but the school went through two periods of expansion during and after the 1970s, its enrollment, as of 2018, is 1,353 students. Today Haverford offers its students a wide range of educational choices and considerable flexibility in choosing their areas of study or specialisation.
The college offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 31 majors across humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. Haverford College is a member of the Tri-College Consortium, which allows students to register for courses at both Bryn Mawr College and Swarthmore College, it is a member of the Quaker Consortium which allows students to cross-register at the University of Pennsylvania. The college has produced, among others, 5 Nobel Prize Recipients, 6 Pulitzer Prize Recipients, 20 Rhodes Scholars, 104 Fulbright Scholars. In 1897, the students and faculty of Haverford voted to adopt an Honor Code to govern academic affairs. Since 1963, every student has been allowed to schedule her own final exams. Take-home examinations are common at Haverford; these exams may include strict instructions such as time limits, prohibitions on using assigned texts or personal notes, calculator usage. All students are bound to follow these instructions by the Code. Conceived as a code of academic honesty, the Honor Code had expanded by the 1970s to govern social interactions.
The code does not list specific rules of behavior, but rather emphasizes a philosophy of mutual trust and respect, as well as genuine engagement, that students are expected to follow. A student who feels that another has broken the Code, is encouraged not to look the other way but rather to confront and engage in a dialogue with the potential offender, before taking matters to an Honor Council which can help mediate the dispute. Student government officers administer the Code, all academic matters are heard by student juries. More severe matters are addressed by administrators. Abstracts from cases heard by students and joint administrative-student panels are distributed to all students by several means, including as print-outs in mailboxes; the trial abstracts are made anonymous by the use of pseudonyms who are characters from entertainment or history. Every student is required to sign a pledge agreeing to the Honor Code prior to matriculation; the Haverford Honor Code is student-run. The Code originated with a body of students who felt it necessary, current Haverford students administer and amend it every year.
Haverford offers Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 31 majors across humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. All departments require a senior thesis, project or research for graduation, many departments have junior-level seminar or year-long project such as in biology and chemistry; the college maintains a distribution requirement, spreading course work in all three areas of humanities, social sciences and natural sciences, in addition to major course works. In addition to majors and minors, Haverford offers concentrations in Africana studies, biophysics, computer science, East Asian studies, education and gender studies and society, Latin American and Iberian studies, mathematical economics and behavioral sciences, peace and human rights. Students may pursue pre-law or pre-business intentions through any major. Music students enjoy close proximity to Philadelphia's music tradition: the Philadelphia Orchestra and The Curtis Institute of Music, where students can receive discounted concert tickets and take on extra instrument or voice lessons.
Haverford's consortium relationship with Bryn Mawr and the University of Pennsylvania expands its course offerings. Haverford and Bryn Mawr have a close relationship, with over 2,000 students cross-registering between the two schools; the campuses are only 1 mile apart and a shuttle called the Blue Bus runs back and forth. Some departments, such as Religion and Music, are housed at Haverford, while others like Theatre and Growth and Structure of Cities are at Bryn Mawr. Students can major in these departments from both colleges. U. S. News deemed Haverford's admissions "most selective," with the class of 2022 acceptance rate being 18.7%. Applying for admission to the class of 2022 were 4,682 applicants. Of those admitted submitting such data, 96% were in the top 10% of their high school class; the median SAT scores were 760 for math. The median ACT composite score was 34. Of those admitted to the class of 2022, 50.1% identified as persons of color, 16% of those admitted were international students.
Haverford is tied for 11th among liberal arts colleges in the 2019 ranking by U. S News & World Report. Washington Monthly's ranking of colleges "based on their contribution to the public go
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy known as West Point, Army West Point, The Academy, or The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles north of New York City, it is one of the five U. S. service academies. The Academy traces its roots to 1801, when President Thomas Jefferson directed, shortly after his inauguration, that plans be set in motion to establish the United States Military Academy at West Point; the entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites and monuments. The majority of the campus's Norman-style buildings are constructed from black granite; the campus is a popular tourist destination, with a visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination from a member of Congress or Delegate/Resident Commissioner in the case of Washington, D.
C. Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands. Other nomination sources include the Vice President of the United States. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as "cadets" or collectively as the "United States Corps of Cadets". Tuition for cadets is funded by the Army in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July, with about 1,000 cadets graduating. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades cadets' performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Cadets are required to adhere to the Cadet Honor Code, which states that "a cadet will not lie, steal, or tolerate those who do." The academy bases a cadet's leadership experience as a development of all three pillars of performance: academics and military. Most graduates are commissioned as second lieutenants in the Army. Foreign cadets are commissioned into the armies of their home countries.
Since 1959, cadets have been eligible for an interservice commission, a commission in one of the other armed services, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Most years, a small number of cadets do this; the academy's traditions have influenced other institutions because of unique mission. It was the first American college to have an accredited civil-engineering program and the first to have class rings, its technical curriculum was a model for engineering schools. West Point's student body has lexicon. All cadets dine together en masse on weekdays for breakfast and lunch; the academy fields fifteen men's and nine women's National Collegiate Athletic Association sports teams. Cadets compete in one sport every fall and spring season at the intramural, club, or intercollegiate level, its football team was a national power in the early and mid-20th century, winning three national championships. Its alumni and students are collectively referred to as "The Long Gray Line" and its ranks include two Presidents of the United States, presidents of Costa Rica and the Philippines, numerous famous generals, seventy-six Medal of Honor recipients.
The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778, it is the oldest continuously operating Army post in the United States. Between 1778 and 1780, the Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kościuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison defenses; the Great Hudson River Chain and high ground above the narrow "S" curve in the river enabled the Continental Army to prevent British Royal Navy ships from sailing upriver and thus dividing the Colonies. While the fortifications at West Point were known as Fort Arnold during the war, as commander, Benedict Arnold committed his act of treason, attempting to sell the fort to the British. After Arnold betrayed the patriot cause, the Army changed the name of the fortifications at West Point, New York, to Fort Clinton. With the peace after the American Revolutionary War, various ordnance and military stores were left deposited at West Point. After the Continental Army was disbanded 1783, West Point was the only place in the newly formed United States to have active military personel, 80 in total, until Legion of the United States was established in 1792."Cadets" underwent training in artillery and engineering studies at the garrison since 1794.
In 1801, shortly after his inauguration as president, Thomas Jefferson directed that plans be set in motion to establish at West Point the United States Military Academy. He selected Jonathan Williams to serve as its first superintendent. Congress formally authorized the establishment and funding of the school with the Military Peace Establishment Act of 1802, which Jefferson signed on 16 March; the academy commenced operations on 4 July 1802. The academy graduated Joseph Gardner Swift, its first official graduate, in October 1802, he returned as Superintendent from 1812 to 1814. In its tumultuous early years, the academy featured few standards for length of study. Cadets attended between 6 months to 6 years; the impending War of 1812 caused the United States Congress to authorize a more formal system of education at the academy and increased the size of the Corps of Cadets to 250. In 1817, Colonel Sylvanus Thayer became the Superintendent and established the curriculum, elements of which are still in use as of 2015.
Thayer instilled strict disciplinary
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Repeal of Prohibition in the United States
The repeal of Prohibition in the United States was accomplished with the passage of the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 5, 1933. In 1919, the requisite number of state legislatures ratified the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, enabling national prohibition one year later. Many women, notably members of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, were pivotal in bringing about national Prohibition in the United States, believing it would protect families and children from the effects of alcohol abuse. Around 1820, "the typical adult white American male consumed nearly a half pint of whiskey a day". Historian W. J. Rorabaugh, writing on the factors that brought about the start of the temperance movement, Prohibition in the United States, states: As whiskey consumption rose after the American Revolution, it attracted attention. Medical doctors were among the first to notice the increase. More patients were having the shakes from involuntary withdrawal from alcohol, delirium tremens nightmares and psychoses were on the rise, solo drinking of massive quantities in binges that ended with the drinker passing out became the new drinking pattern.
Doctors such as Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and onetime chief physician of the Continental Army, who had first warned against the overuse of whiskey and other distilled spirits during the Revolution, became alarmed. Experts recognized that over time, drinkers needed to increase their use of alcohol to gain the same sense of euphoric satisfaction from drinking. Down that road was chronic drunkenness or what would be called alcoholism. Medical schools included warnings to students, but most physicians in the early 1800s believed that alcohol was an important medicine. Physicians favored laudanum, opium dissolved in alcohol. Laudanum miraculously ended the craving for alcohol. Children's nurses used laudanum to quiet babies. To Rush, the issue was not just about health, he published many newspaper pamphlets hostile to distilled spirits. His best known work, An Inquiry into the Effects of Spirituous Liquors, went through at least twenty-one editions and had sold 170,000 copies by 1850.
The Philadelphia doctor argued that democracy would be perverted and destroyed if voters were drunken sots. Public safety in a republic required an electorate capable of wise judgment about political matters. Drunkenness made for bad voters. Rush and others worried about how distilled spirits damaged society in terms of crime and family violence. Many serious crimes, including murder, were committed under the influence of alcohol; the unemployed or unemployable drunkard abandoned his family s that the wife and children sometimes faced starvation while the husband and father debauched himself. Liquor use was associated with gambling and prostitution, which brought financial ruin and sexually transmitted diseases. Drunkenness led to wife beating and child abuse. To many Americans, it appeared that the United States could not be a successful republic unless alcoholic passions were curbed; the proponents of National Prohibition believed that banning alcoholic beverages would reduce or eliminate many social problems drunkenness, domestic violence, mental illness, secondary poverty.
Some scholarly literature regarding the effect of prohibition has held that popular claim that prohibition was a failure is false. Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkennness, rates of absenteeism. Mark H. Moore, a professor at Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, with respect to the effects of prohibition: Alcohol consumption declined during Prohibition. Cirrhosis death rates for men were 29.5 per 100,000 in 1911 and 10.7 in 1929. Admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis declined from 10.1 per 100,000 in 1919 to 4.7 in 1928. Arrests for public drunkenness and disorderly conduct declined 50 percent between 1916 and 1922. For the population as a whole, the best estimates are that consumption of alcohol declined by 30 percent to 50 percent. "rates for cirrhosis of the liver fell by 50 percent early in Prohibition and recovered promptly after Repeal in 1933."
Moore found that contrary to popular opinion, "violent crime did not increase during Prohibition" and that organized crime "existed before and after" Prohibition. The historian Jack S. Blocker Jr. stated that "Death rates from cirrhosis and alcoholism, alcoholic psychosis hospital admissions, drunkenness arrests all declined steeply during the latter years of the 1910s, when both the cultural and the legal climate were inhospitable to drink, in the early years after National Prohibition went into effect." In addition, "once Prohibition became the law of the land, many citizens decided to obey it". During the Prohibition era, rates of absenteeism decreased from 10% to 3%. In Michigan, the Ford Motor Company documented "a decrease in absenteeism from 2,620 in April 1918 to 1,628 in May 1918." Journalist H. L. Mencken, writing in 1925, believed the opposite to be true:Five years of Prohibition have had, at least, this one benign effect: they have disposed of all the favorite arguments of the Prohibitionists.
None of the great boons and usufructs that were to follow the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment has come to pass. There is not more. There is not more. There is not more; the cost of government is not vastly greater. Respect for law has not increased, but diminishe
Smedley Darlington Butler was a United States Marine Corps major general, the highest rank authorized at that time, at the time of his death the most decorated Marine in U. S. history. During his 34-year career as a Marine, he participated in military actions in the Philippines, China, in Central America and the Caribbean during the Banana Wars, France in World War I. Butler became an outspoken critic of U. S. wars and their consequences. He exposed an alleged plan to overthrow the U. S. government. By the end of his career, Butler had received five for heroism, he is one of 19 men to receive the Medal of Honor twice, one of three to be awarded both the Marine Corps Brevet Medal and the Medal of Honor, the only Marine to be awarded the Brevet Medal and two Medals of Honor, all for separate actions. In 1933, he became involved in a controversy known as the Business Plot, when he told a congressional committee that a group of wealthy industrialists were planning a military coup to overthrow Franklin D. Roosevelt, with Butler selected to lead a march of veterans to become dictator, similar to Fascist regimes at that time.
The individuals involved all denied the existence of a plot and the media ridiculed the allegations, but a final report by a special House of Representatives Committee confirmed some of Butler's testimony. In 1935, Butler wrote a book titled War Is a Racket, where he described and criticized the workings of the United States in its foreign actions and wars, such as those he was a part of, including the American corporations and other imperialist motivations behind them. After retiring from service, he became a popular activist, speaking at meetings organized by veterans and church groups in the 1930s. Smedley Butler was born July 30, 1881, in West Chester, the eldest of three sons, his parents and Maud Butler, were descended from local Quaker families. Both of his parents were of English ancestry, all of whom had been in what is now the United States since the 1600s, his father was a lawyer, a judge and, for 31 years, a congressman and chair of the House Naval Affairs Committee during the Harding and Coolidge administrations.
His maternal grandfather was Smedley Darlington, a Republican congressman from 1887 to 1891. Butler attended the West Chester Friends Graded High School, followed by The Haverford School, a secondary school popular with sons of upper-class Philadelphia families. A Haverford athlete, he became quarterback of its football team. Against the wishes of his father, he left school 38 days before his seventeenth birthday to enlist in the Marine Corps during the Spanish–American War. Haverford awarded him his high school diploma on June 6, 1898, before the end of his final year, his transcript stated that he completed the scientific course "with Credit". In the Spanish war fervor of 1898, Butler lied about his age to receive a direct commission as a Marine second lieutenant, he trained in Washington, DC, at the Marine Barracks on the corner of 8th and I Streets SE. In July 1898 he went to Guantánamo Bay, arriving shortly after its invasion and capture, his company soon returned to the U. S. and after a short break he was assigned to the armored cruiser USS New York for four months.
He came home to be mustered out of service in February 1899, but on 8 April 1899 he accepted a commission as a first lieutenant in the Marine Corps. The Marine Corps sent him to Philippines. On garrison duty with little to do, Butler turned to alcohol to relieve the boredom, he once became drunk and was temporarily relieved of command after an unspecified incident in his room. In October 1899, he saw his first combat action when he led 300 Marines to take the town of Noveleta from Filipino rebels known as Insurrectos. In the initial moments of the assault his first sergeant was wounded. Butler panicked, but regained his composure and led his Marines in pursuit of the fleeing enemy. By noon the Marines had taken the town. One Marine had been killed and ten were wounded. Another 50 Marines had been incapacitated by the humid tropical heat. After the excitement of this combat, garrison duty again became routine. Butler had a large Eagle and Anchor tattoo made which started at his throat and extended to his waist.
He met Littleton Waller, a fellow Marine with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. When Waller received command of a company in Guam, he was allowed to select five officers to take with him, he chose Butler. Before they had departed, their orders were changed and they were sent to China aboard the USS Solace to help put down the Boxer Rebellion. Once in China, Butler was deployed at Tientsin, he took part in the Battle of Tientsin on July 13, 1900, in the subsequent Gaselee Expedition, during which he saw the mutilated remains of Japanese soldiers. When he saw another Marine officer fall wounded, he climbed out of a trench to rescue him. Butler was himself shot in the thigh. Another Marine helped him get to safety, but was shot. Despite his leg wound, Butler assisted the wounded officer to the rear. Four enlisted. Butler's commanding officer, Maj. Littleton W. T. Waller commended him and wrote that "for such reward as you may deem proper the following officers: Lieutenant Smedley D. Butler, for the admirable control of his men in all the fights of the week, for saving a wounded man at the risk of his own life, under a severe fire."
Commissioned officers were not eligible to receive the Medal of Honor, Butler instead received a promotion to captain by brevet while he recovered in the hosp