Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Edwards County, Illinois
Edwards County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,721, its county seat is Albion. It is located in the southern portion known locally as "Little Egypt". Edwards County was named for Ninian Edwards, the governor of the Illinois Territory, governor of Illinois. Edwards County is subdivided into "Road Districts", rather than "Townships" as in most Illinois counties. Pursuant to the Land Ordinance of 1785, the Northwest Territory was surveyed and organized into townships that are six miles square. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 223 square miles, of which 222 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Illinois by area; when Edwards County was formed in 1814, it comprised nearly half of the State of Illinois. New counties were formed from it until, in 1824, it assumed its present form from the creation of Wabash County; the two are the fifth smallest counties in Illinois.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Albion have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −20 °F was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 109 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.57 inches in January to 5.13 inches in April. Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 15 Illinois Route 130 Richland County Wabash County White County Wayne County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,721 people, 2,840 households, 1,926 families residing in the county; the population density was 30.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,187 housing units at an average density of 14.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.0% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.8% were German, 22.4% were English, 13.3% were American, 8.4% were Irish.
Of the 2,840 households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age was 42.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,430 and the median income for a family was $51,337. Males had a median income of $40,183 versus $27,295 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,113. About 10.6% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. Albion Grayville Bone Gap Browns West Salem Black Blood Ellery Samsville Albion Albion No. 1 Albion No. 2 Albion No. 3 Bone Gap Browns Dixon Ellery French Creek Salem Salem No. 1 Salem No. 2 Shelby Shelby No. 1 Shelby No. 2 Edwards County is one of the most Republican counties in the nation.
It has voted for the Republican candidate in all Presidential elections from 1856 to present, except in 1912 when the party was divided and Theodore Roosevelt won the county as the “Bull Moose” Progressive candidate. In the last five Presidential elections no Democratic candidate has reached 34 percent of the county's vote. Edwards County holds the distinction of having the lowest percentage of any Illinois county of votes for governor Pat Quinn, a Democrat, in his failed 2014 reelection bid. While Quinn lost 101 of the 102 counties in Illinois, Quinn captured only 13.7% of the vote in Edwards County, as was typical of the rural white South, Hillary Clinton fared worse in 2016 with only 13.1 percent of the county’s ballots. In other positions the county has been not been Republican for as long, but has been so for many years; the last Democratic Senatorial candidate it backed was Alan J. Dixon in 1986 and the last Democratic gubernatorial candidate it supported was Glenn Poshard, who carried all of Southern Illinois in his failed 1998 bid.
Most of the county is in Illinois's 19th congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+9 and has been represented by John Shimkus since 2003. The rest of the county is in Illinois's 15th congressional district, which has Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+6 and has been represented by Republican Tim Johnson since 2001. In more local positions the county is in the 109th district of the Illinois House of Representatives so is represented by Republican David Reis and is in the Illinois Senate it lies in the 55th district and is represented by Republican Dale Righter. Edwards County is a dry county, with multiple referendums to allow alcohol sales failing in the mid-1990s; the portion of Grayville, Illinois that lies within Edwards County does allow alcohol sales per Grayville city ordinance. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Edwards County precincts and their boundaries
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse. It is produced by a stream or river swinging from side to side as it flows across its floodplain or shifts its channel within a valley. A meander is produced by a stream or river as it erodes the sediments comprising an outer, concave bank and deposits this and other sediment downstream on an inner, convex bank, a point bar; the result of sediments being eroded from the outside concave bank and their deposition on an inside convex bank is the formation of a sinuous course as a channel migrates back and forth across the down-valley axis of a floodplain. The zone within which a meandering stream shifts its channel across either its floodplain or valley floor from time to time is known as a meander belt, it ranges from 15 to 18 times the width of the channel. Over time, meanders migrate downstream, sometimes in such a short time as to create civil engineering problems for local municipalities attempting to maintain stable roads and bridges.
The degree of meandering of the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse is measured by its sinuosity. The sinuosity of a watercourse is the ratio of the length of the channel to the straight line down-valley distance. Streams or rivers with a single channel and sinuosities of 1.5 or more are defined as meandering streams or rivers. The term derives from the Meander River located in present-day Turkey and known to the Ancient Greeks as Μαίανδρος Maiandros, characterised by a convoluted path along the lower reach; as a result in Classical Greece the name of the river had become a common noun meaning anything convoluted and winding, such as decorative patterns or speech and ideas, as well as the geomorphological feature. Strabo said: ‘…its course is so exceedingly winding that everything winding is called meandering.’The Meander River is south of Izmir, east of the ancient Greek town of Miletus, now Milet, Turkey. It flows through a graben in the Menderes Massif, but has a flood plain much wider than the meander zone in its lower reach.
Its modern Turkish name is the Büyük Menderes River. When a fluid is introduced to an straight channel which bends, the sidewalls induce a pressure gradient that causes the fluid to alter course and follow the bend. From here, two opposing processes occur: secondary flow. For a river to meander, secondary flow must dominate. Irrotational flow: From Bernoulli's equations, high pressure results in low velocity. Therefore, in the absence of secondary flow we would expect low fluid velocity at the outside bend and high fluid velocity at the inside bend; this classic fluid mechanics result is irrotational vortex flow. In the context of meandering rivers, its effects are dominated by those of secondary flow. Secondary flow: A force balance exists between pressure forces pointing to the inside bend of the river and centrifugal forces pointing to the outside bend of the river. In the context of meandering rivers, a boundary layer exists within the thin layer of fluid that interacts with the river bed. Inside that layer and following standard boundary-layer theory, the velocity of the fluid is zero.
Centrifugal force, which depends on velocity, is therefore zero. Pressure force, remains unaffected by the boundary layer. Therefore, within the boundary layer, pressure force dominates and fluid moves along the bottom of the river from the outside bend to the inside bend; this initiates helicoidal flow: Along the river bed, fluid follows the curve of the channel but is forced toward the inside bend. The downstream velocity of the fluid is convectively transported to the outside bend, resulting in higher velocities at the outside bend; this secondary flow effect dominates over that of irrotational flow: In real meandering rivers, we observe higher downstream fluid velocities at the outside bends. The higher velocities at the outside bend result in higher shear stresses and therefore results in erosion, thus meander bends erode at the outside bend, causing the river to becoming sinuous. Deposition at the inside bend occur such that for most natural meandering rivers, the river width remains nearly constant as the river evolves.
Where the is not forced to bend by a natural obstacle, Coriolis force of the earth can cause a small imbalance in velocity distribution such that velocity on one bank is higher than on the other. This can trigger deposition of sediment on the other; the technical description of a meandering watercourse is termed meander geometry or meander planform geometry. It is characterized as an irregular waveform. Ideal waveforms, such as a sine wave, are one line thick, but in the case of a stream the width must be taken into consideration; the bankfull width is the distance across the bed at an average cross-section at the full-stream level estimated by the line of lowest vegetation. As a waveform the meandering stream follows the down-valley axis, a straight line fitted to the curve such that the sum of all the amplitudes measured from it is zero; this axis represents the overall direction of the stream. At any cross-section the flow is following the centerline of the bed. Two consecutive crossing points of sinuous and down-valley axes define a meander loop.
The meander is two consecutive loops pointing in opposite transverse directions. The distance of one meander alo
White County, Illinois
White County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 14,665, its county seat is Carmi. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". White County was organized from Gallatin County in 1815, was named after Captain Leonard White, a Gallatin County legislator, credited with the idea of extending the Illinois-Wisconsin border a few miles north of the southern tip of Lake Michigan and was in charge of the salt works at Equality, he was killed in 1811 at the Battle of Tippecanoe. The county seat, was founded in 1814, incorporated in 1816; the first courthouse was in the log cabin of John Craw. The first white settlers came to White County between 1807 and 1809; the first settlements were near the Little Wabash River and Big Prairie, one of the numerous prairies in the county. These families—Hanna, Hay, Calvert, Holderby, Stewart, among others—typically had spent time in the Carolinas, Kentucky or Tennessee before moving into Illinois, most were of Scots-Irish descent.
Many came through the land office at Shawneetown, a port for flatboats which traveled the Ohio River. Other early settlements were Grayville, located at the mouth of Bonpas Creek and the Wabash River, settled by the Gray family around 1810. Old Sharon Church, located near the village of Sacramento, was organized around 1816, the village of Seven Mile Prairie was established a few miles north of the church in the 1830s; the parents of longtime Abraham Lincoln girlfriend Ann Rutledge were part of this group, along with families named McArthy, Miller, McClellan, Storey and Johnson. About 1839, a group of Irish immigrants began moving into the extreme western part of Enfield Township, led by Patrick Dolan, as well as members of the Mitchell and Dunn clans. Dolan was auctioneer in 1853 when the village of Enfield was platted, as Seven Mile moved west in anticipation of a railroad line, not built until 1872. German families moved into the middle portion of the county in the 1840s and onward from the Baden region, included the family names of Rebstock, Brown, Sailer and Drone.
The second half of the 19th century saw the establishment of the towns of Norris City, Mill Shoals, Herald, Burnt Prairie, Phillipstown, Concord and Rising Sun --the latter two villages are located on the Wabash and attracted several African-American families. A number of villages which no longer exist were formed: Trumbull, Middle Point, Stokes Station, Bungay, Calvin and Dolan Settlement. In 1925, White County was devastated by the Tri-State Tornado, the deadliest tornado in U. S. history. A good proportion of the 127 killed in Hamilton and White counties were in White County itself; the main town affected was Carmi. Agriculture was the primary industry of White County until the summer of 1939, when oil was discovered in the Storms and Stinson fields in the Wabash River Bottoms; the population of Carmi doubled within two years, from 2,700 to 5,400, with corresponding increases at Crossville and Grayville—in 1940 it was said one could walk between these two towns by walking from rig to rig. Many of these workers migrated from previous oil booms in Oklahoma.
As of 2013, fracking is underway near Carmi. The current population of White County is a little over 17,000, with 6,500 in the county seat of Carmi. There is a high number of retired people, many citizens work in the factories of Evansville or Mount Vernon, located 45 and 25 miles to the east, respectively. Besides oil and agriculture, industries include auto parts manufacturing, plastics, a convenience store distribution center and underground coal mining. White County, Illinois was the site of the ill-fated Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival known as the Bull Island Fest in 1972. Three county sheriffs were the only police force present at the festival. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 502 square miles, of which 495 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carmi have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 89 °F in July, although a record low of −20 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 103 °F was recorded in August 2007.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.61 inches in October to 5.00 inches in May. Interstate 64 U. S. Highway 45 Illinois Route 1 Illinois Route 14 Illinois Route 141 Edwards County Gibson County, Indiana Posey County, Indiana Gallatin County Saline County Hamilton County Wayne County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,665 people, 6,313 households, 4,142 families residing in the county; the population density was 29.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,181 housing units at an average density of 14.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.1% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population