In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Temple of Hercules Victor
The Temple of Hercules Victor or Hercules Olivarius is a Roman temple in Piazza Bocca della Verità, in the area of the Forum Boarium close to the Tiber in Rome, Italy. It is a tholos - a round temple of Greek'peripteral' design encircled by a colonnade; this layout caused it to be mistaken for a temple of Vesta until it was identified by Napoleon's Prefect of Rome, Camille de Tournon. Despite the Forum Boarium's role as the cattle-market for ancient Rome, the Temple of Hercules is the subject of a folk belief claiming that neither flies nor dogs will enter the holy place. Dating from the 2nd century BC, erected by L. Mummius Achaicus, conqueror of the Achaeans and destroyer of Corinth, the temple is 14.8 m in diameter and consists of a circular cella within a concentric ring of twenty Corinthian columns 10.66 m tall, resting on a tuff foundation. These elements supported an roof, which have disappeared; the original wall of the cella, built of travertine and marble blocks, nineteen of the twenty columns remain but the current tile roof was added later.
Palladio's published reconstruction suggested a dome, though this was erroneous. The temple is the earliest surviving marble building in Rome, its major literary sources are two identical passages, one in Servius' commentary on the Aeneid and the other in Macrobius' Saturnalia. Though Servius mentions that aedes duae sunt, "there are two sacred temples", the earliest Roman calendars mention but one festival, on 13 August, to Hercules Victor and Hercules Invictus interchangeably. By 1132 the temple had been converted to a church, known as Santo Stefano alle Carozze. Additional restorations were made in 1475. A plaque in the floor was dedicated by Sixtus IV. In the 17th century the church was rededicated to Santa Maria del Sole; the temple and the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli were an inspiration for Bramante's Tempietto and other High Renaissance churches of centralized plan. The temple was recognized as an ancient monument in 1935 and restored in 1996. Alberti, Leone Battista. Architecture, 1755, tr.
Leoni, James. Claridge, Amanda. Oxford Archaeological Guides - Rome. Oxford University Press, 1998 Coarelli, Filippo. Guida Archeologica di Roma. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milano, 1989. Salmon, Frank. "'Storming the Campo Vaccino': British Architects and the Antique Buildings of Rome after Waterloo". Architectural History. 38: 146–175. JSTOR 1568626. Woodward, Christopher; the Buildings of Europe - Rome. Page 30, Manchester University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-7190-4032-9 Ziolkowski, Adam. "Mummius' Temple of Hercules Victor and the Round Temple on the Tiber". Phoenix. 42: 309–333. JSTOR 1088657. Detailed photographs of the interior and features of the building High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Temple of Hercules | Art Atlas
The Forum Boarium was the cattle forum venalium of Ancient Rome. It was located on a level piece of land near the Tiber between the Capitoline, the Palatine and Aventine hills; as the site of the original docks of Rome, the Forum Boarium experienced intense commercial activity. The Forum Boarium was the site of the first gladiatorial contest at Rome which took place in 264 BC as part of aristocratic funerary ritual—a munus or funeral gift for the dead. Marcus and Decimus Junius Brutus Scaeva put on a gladiatorial combat in honor of their deceased father with three pairs of gladiators; the site was a religious centre housing the Temple of Hercules Victor, the Temple of Portunus, the massive 6th or 5th century BC Great Altar of Hercules. The Temple of Hercules Victor or Hercules Olivarius, is a circular peristyle building dating from the 2nd century BC, it consists of a colonnade of Corinthian columns arranged in a concentric ring around the cylindrical cella, resting on a tuff foundation. These elements supported an architrave and roof which have disappeared.
It is the earliest surviving marble building in Rome. For centuries, this was known as the Temple of Vesta; the Temple of Portunus is a rectangular building built between 100 and 80 BC. It consists of a tetrastyle cella mounted on a podium reached by a flight of steps; the four Ionic columns of the portico are free-standing, while the six columns on the long sides and four columns at the rear are engaged along the walls of the cella. It is built of travertine with a stucco surface; this temple was for centuries known as the Temple of Fortuna Virilis. Sources claim the Forum was the site for placement of a statue by the sculptor Myron, looted from Aegina. While the source mentions a cow, it may have been a statuary group of Theusus defeating the Minotaur, apt for a cattle market. On the late period of the Western Roman Empire, the area became overtaken with shops. Both temples were converted to Christian churches. Across the street is the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, housing the Bocca della Verità.
Beginning in the late 1990s, a partnership between the Soprintendenza speciale per i beni archeologici di Roma and World Monuments Fund resulted in the conservation of both temples in the Forum Boarium. The project included new landscaping for the site. However, the Arch of Janus is still unrestored. Lacus Curtius: Forum Boarium Virtual Tour and Pictures of Boarium Forum
In Roman mythology, Cacus was a fire-breathing giant and the son of Vulcan. He was killed by Hercules after terrorizing the Aventine Hill before the founding of Rome. Cacus lived in a cave in Italy on the future site of Rome. To the horror of nearby inhabitants, Cacus lived on human flesh and would nail the heads of victims to the doors of his cave, he was overcome by Hercules. According to Evander, Hercules stopped to pasture the cattle he had stolen from Geryon near Cacus' lair; as Hercules slept, the monster took a liking to the cattle and slyly stole eight of them - four bulls and four cows - by dragging them by their tails, so as to leave a trail in the wrong direction. When Hercules awoke and made to leave, the remaining herd made plaintive noises towards the cave, a single cow lowed in reply. Angered, Hercules stormed towards the cave. A terrified Cacus blocked the entrance with a vast, immoveable boulder forcing Hercules to tear at the top of the mountain to reach his adversary. Cacus attacked Hercules by spewing fire and smoke, while Hercules responded with tree branches and rocks the size of millstones.
Losing patience, Hercules leapt into the cave, aiming for the area where the smoke was heaviest. Hercules grabbed Cacus and strangled the monster, was praised throughout the land for his act. According to Virgil in Book VIII of the Aeneid, Hercules grasped Cacus so that Cacus' eyes popped out and there was no blood left in his throat: "et angit inhaerens elisos oculos et siccum sanguine guttur." Another version of the myth states that Cacus made the cattle walk backwards so they left a false trail. Hercules drove his remaining cattle past a cave, where Cacus was hiding the stolen ones, they began calling out to each other. Alternatively, Cacus' sister, told Hercules where he was. In the Roman tradition, Hercules founded an altar. In the Aeneid, the Arcadian King Evander recounts this story to Aeneas to explain the rites the people perform yearly to Hercules; this was the Ara Maxima, where the Forum Boarium, the cattle market of Rome, was held. Hercules had temples in the area, including the still extant Temple of Hercules Victor.
In the Inferno of the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, Cacus is depicted as a centaur with a fire-breathing dragon on his shoulders and snakes covering his equine back. He guards over the thieves in the Thieves section of Hell's Circle of Fraud. Miguel De Cervantes in his 1605 novel Don Quixote describes the inn keeper in the second chapter of part one "The First Sally from his Native Heath" as "No less a thief than Cacus himself, as full of tricks as a student or a page boy." In a second mention, Miguel De Cervantes mentions Cacus as a prototypical thief in a comparison in the sixth chapter of Don Quixote part one, "The Scrutiny of the Curate and the Barber" when the Curate says "Here we have Sir Rindaldo of Montalbán with his friends and companions, bigger thieves than Cacus, all of them..." The comparison is a slight against Rinaldo, as he had written a book The Mirror of Chivalry which the Curate and the Barber agree caused, in part, Don Quixote's descent into madness. In Letter to a Friend Sir Thomas Browne compares the reluctance with which old people go to the grave with the backwards movements of Cacus' oxen.
Cacus is described as a deformed outcast from an Italian village, able only to say "Cacus", in Steven Saylor's novel Roma, playing a direct role in the events of the main character of the era. Lavinia, in Ursula K. Le Guin's 2008 novel Lavinia, describes Cacus as a "fire lord, the chief man of a tribal settlement, who kept Vesta alight for the people of the neighborhood, with the help of his daughters." Lavinia comments that the Greeks' story of the beast-man "was more exciting than mine." Cacus appears as the main antagonist in Rick Riordan's short story in The Demigod Diaries titled "The Staff of Hermes." There were references to Cacus' fight with Hercules in that story. In the story, Cacus had stolen Hermes' Caduceus, he attacked Percy Jackson and Annabeth Chase. Annabeth hit Cacus with Percy killed Cacus with Hermes' Caduceus. In the second book of Gargantua and Pantagruel, Cacus has been said to be begat by Polyphemus the Cyclops. Plus Cacus is said to be the giant. In the Spanish language, the derived form renault captur is a colloquial word for "thief" and a disused word for a cowardly man.
March, J. Cassell's Dictionary Of Classical Mythology, London, 1999. ISBN 0-304-35161-X Coarelli, Guida Archeologica di Roma, Arnoldo Mondadori Editor, Milan, 1989
Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro was an ancient Roman scholar and writer. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus. Varro was born in or near Reate to a family thought to be of equestrian rank, always remained close to his roots in the area, owning a large farm in the Reatine plain, reported as near Lago di Ripa Sottile, until his old age, he supported Pompey, reaching the office of praetor, after having been tribune of the people and curule aedile. He was one of the commission of twenty that carried out the great agrarian scheme of Caesar for the resettlement of Capua and Campania. During the civil war he commanded one of Pompey's armies in the Ilerda campaign, he escaped the penalties of being on the losing side in the civil war through two pardons granted by Julius Caesar and after the Battle of Pharsalus. Caesar appointed him to oversee the public library of Rome in 47 BC, but following Caesar's death Mark Antony proscribed him, resulting in the loss of much of his property, including his library.
As the Republic gave way to Empire, Varro gained the favour of Augustus, under whose protection he found the security and quiet to devote himself to study and writing. Varro studied under the Roman philologist Lucius Aelius Stilo, at Athens under the Academic philosopher Antiochus of Ascalon. Varro proved to be a productive writer and turned out more than 74 Latin works on a variety of topics. Among his many works, two stand out for historians, his Nine Books of Disciplines became a model for encyclopedists Pliny the Elder. The most noteworthy portion of the Nine Books of Disciplines is its use of the liberal arts as organizing principles. Varro decided to focus on identifying nine of these arts: grammar, logic, geometry, musical theory and architecture. Using Varro's list, subsequent writers defined the seven classical "liberal arts of the medieval schools"; the compilation of the Varronian chronology was an attempt to determine an exact year-by-year timeline of Roman history up to his time. It is based on the traditional sequence of the consuls of the Roman Republic — supplemented, where necessary, by inserting "dictatorial" and "anarchic" years.
It has been demonstrated to be somewhat erroneous but has become the accepted standard chronology, in large part because it was inscribed on the arch of Augustus in Rome. Varro's literary output was prolific. Called "the most learned of the Romans" by Quintilian, Varro was recognized as an important source by many other ancient authors, among them Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Virgil in the Georgics, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius and Vitruvius, who credits him with a book on architecture, his only complete work extant, Rerum rusticarum libri tres, has been described as "the well digested system of an experienced and successful farmer who has seen and practised all that he records."One noteworthy aspect of the work is his anticipation of microbiology and epidemiology. Varro warned his contemporaries to avoid swamps and marshland, since in such areas there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, but which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and cause serious diseases.
De lingua latina libri XXV Rerum rusticarum libri III Saturarum Menippearum libri CL or Menippean Satires in 150 books Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum libri XLI Logistoricon libri LXXVI Hebdomades vel de imaginibus Disciplinarum libri IX De rebus urbanis libri III De gente populi Romani libri IIII De sua vita libri III De familiis troianis De Antiquitate Litterarum libri II De Origine Linguae Latinae libri III Περί Χαρακτήρων Quaestiones Plautinae libri V De Similitudine Verborum libri III De Utilitate Sermonis libri IIII De Sermone Latino libri V De philosophia Most of the extant fragments of these works can be found in the Goetz–Schoell edition of De Lingua Latina, pp. 199–242. Cardauns, B. Marcus Terentius Varro: Einführung in sein Werk. Heidelberger Studienhefte zur Altertumswissenschaft. Heidelberg, Germany: C. Winter, 2001. D’Alessandro, P. Varrone e la tradizione metrica antica. Spudasmata, Bd. 143. Hildesheim. Dahlmann, H. M. Terentius Varro. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Supplement 6, Abretten bis Thunudromon. Edited by Wilhelm Kroll, 1172–1277. Stut
Evander of Pallene
In Roman mythology, Evander was a culture hero from Arcadia, who brought the Greek pantheon and alphabet to Italy, where he founded the city of Pallantium on the future site of Rome, sixty years before the Trojan War. He instituted the festival of the Lupercalia. Evander was deified after his death and an altar was constructed to him on the Aventine Hill. In addition, mention that one of the stories about Rome is that it was an Arcadian colony and was founded by Evander. Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes that Evander was the son of Hermes and a local nymph of the Arcadians, called Themis, he mention that the writers of the early history of Rome called her, in their native language, Carmenta. Strabo writes that the Romans honour the mother of Evander, regarding her as one of the nymphs, have renamed her Carmenta. Evander wisdom was beyond that of all Arcadians, his son Pallas died childless. Dionysius of Halicarnassus mention that some writers, including Polybius of Megalopolis say that Lavinia was the daughter of Evander and had a son with Heracles, named Pallas.
Evander plays a major role in Virgil's Aeneid Books VIII-XII. Previous to the Trojan War, Evander gathered a group of natives to a city he founded in Italy near the Tiber river, which he named Pallantium. Virgil states that he named the city in honor of his Arcadian ancestor, although Pausanias and Dionysius of Halicarnassus say that Evander's birth city was Pallantium in Arcadia, after which he named the new city; the oldest tradition of its founding ascribes to Evander the erection of the Great Altar of Hercules in the Forum Boarium. In Aeneid, VIII, where Aeneas and his crew first come upon Evander and his people, they were venerating Hercules for dispatching the giant Cacus. Virgil's listeners would have related this scene to the same Great Altar of Hercules in the Forum Boarium of their own day, one detail among many in the Aeneid that Virgil used to link the heroic past of myth with the Age of Augustus. According to Virgil, Hercules was returning from Gades with Geryon's cattle when Evander entertained him.
Evander became the first to raise an altar to Hercules' heroism. This archaic altar was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, AD 64; because of their traditional ties, Evander aids Aeneas in his war against Turnus and the Rutuli: the Arcadian had known the father of Aeneas, before the Trojan War, shares a common ancestry through Atlas with Aeneas's family. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Evander". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world. One type of origin myth is the cosmogonic myth. However, many cultures have stories set after the cosmogonic myth, which describe the origin of natural phenomena and human institutions within a preexisting universe. In Western classical scholarship, the terms etiological myth and aition are sometimes used for a myth that explains an origin how an object or custom came into existence; every origin myth is a tale of creation: origin myths describe how some new reality came into existence. In many cases, origin myths justify the established order by explaining that it was established by sacred forces; the distinction between cosmogonic myths and origin myths is not clear-cut. A myth about the origin of some part of the world presupposes the existence of the world—which, for many cultures, presupposes a cosmogonic myth. In this sense, one can think of origin myths as building upon and extending their cultures' cosmogonic myths.
In fact, in traditional cultures, the recitation of an origin myth is prefaced with the recitation of the cosmogonic myth. In some academic circles, the term "myth" properly refers only to cosmogonic myths. For example, many folklorists reserve the label "myth" for stories about creation. Traditional stories that do not focus on origins fall into the categories of "legend" and "folk tale", which folklorists distinguish from myth. According to historian Mircea Eliade, for many traditional cultures, nearly every sacred story qualifies as an origin myth. Traditional humans tend to model their behavior after sacred events, seeing their life as an "eternal return" to the mythical age; because of this conception, nearly every sacred story describes events that established a new paradigm for human behavior, thus nearly every sacred story is a story about a creation. An origin myth functions to justify the current state of affairs. In traditional cultures, the entities and forces described in origin myths are considered sacred.
Thus, by attributing the state of the universe to the actions of these entities and forces, origin myths give the current order an aura of sacredness: "Myths reveal that the World and life have a supernatural origin and history, that this history is significant and exemplary." Many cultures instil the expectation that people take mythical gods and heroes as their role models, imitating their deeds and upholding the customs they established: When the missionary and ethnologist C. Strehlow asked the Australian Arunta why they performed certain ceremonies, the answer was always: "Because the ancestors so commanded it." The Kai of New Guinea refused to change their way of living and working, they explained: "It was thus that the Nemu did, we do likewise." Asked the reason for a particular detail in a ceremony, a Navaho chanter answered: "Because the Holy People did it that way in the first place." We find the same justification in the prayer that accompanies a primitive Tibetan ritual: "As it has been handed down from the beginning of the earth’s creation, so must we sacrifice.
… As our ancestors in ancient times did—so do we now." Founding myths unite people and tend to include mystical events along the way to make "founders" seem more desirable and heroic. Ruling monarchs or aristocracies may allege descent from mythical founders/gods/heroes in order to legitimate their control. For example: Julius Caesar and his relatives claimed Aeneas as an ancestor. A "founding myth" or etiological myth explains either: the origins of a ritual or of the founding of a city the ethnogenesis of a group presented as a genealogy with a founding father and thus of a nation the spiritual origins of a belief, discipline, or idea - presented as a narrativeA founding myth may serve as the primary exemplum, as the myth of Ixion was the original Greek example of a murderer rendered unclean by his crime, who needed cleansing of his impurity. Founding myths feature prominently in Greek mythology. "Ancient Greek rituals were bound to prominent local groups and hence to specific localities", Walter Burkert has observed.
"i.e. the sanctuaries and altars, set up for all time". Thus Greek and Hebrew founding myths established the special relationship between a deity and local people, who traced their origins from a hero and authenticated their ancestral rights through the founding myth. Greek founding myths embody a justification for the ancient overturning of an older, archaic order, reformulating a historical event anchored in the social and natural world to valorize current community practices, creating symbolic narratives of "collective importance" enriched with metaphor in order to account for traditional chronologies, constructing an etiology considered to be plausible among those with a cultural investment. In the Greek view, the mythic past had deep roots in historic time, its legends treated as facts, as Carlo Brillante has noted, its heroic protagonists seen as links between the "age of origins" and the mortal, everyday world that succeeded it. A modern translator of Apollonius' Argonautica has noted, of the many aitia embedded as digressions in that Hellenistic epic, that "crucial to social stability had to be the function of myths in providing explanations, authorization or empowerment for the present in terms of origins: this could apply, not only to foundations or charter myths and genealogical trees but to personal moral choices."
In the period after A