A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. The English word "canon" comes from the Greek κανών, meaning "rule" or "measuring stick". Christians became the first to use the term in reference to scripture, but Eugene Ulrich regards the idea as Jewish. Most of the canons listed below are considered by adherents "closed", reflecting a belief that public revelation has ended and thus some person or persons can gather approved inspired texts into a complete and authoritative canon, which scholar Bruce Metzger defines as "an authoritative collection of books". In contrast, an "open canon", which permits the addition of books through the process of continuous revelation, Metzger defines as "a collection of authoritative books"; these canons have developed through debate and agreement on the part of the religious authorities of their respective faiths and denominations. Believers consider canonical books as inspired by God or as expressive of the authoritative history of the relationship between God and his people.
Some books, such as the Jewish-Christian gospels, have been excluded from various canons altogether, but many disputed books—considered non-canonical or apocryphal by some—are considered to be Biblical apocrypha or deuterocanonical or canonical by others. Differences exist between the Jewish Tanakh and Christian biblical canons, although the Jewish Tanakh did form the basis for the Christian Old Testament, between the canons of different Christian denominations. In some cases where varying strata of scriptural inspiration have accumulated, it becomes prudent to discuss texts that only have an elevated status within a particular tradition; this becomes more complex when considering the open canons of the various Latter Day Saint sects—which are viewed as divergent from biblical Christianity —and the scriptural revelations purportedly given to several leaders over the years within that movement. Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the twenty-four books of the Masoretic Text called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible.
Evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BC and 200 AD, a popular position is that the Torah was canonized c. 400 BC, the Prophets c. 200 BC, the Writings c. 100 AD at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia—however, this position is criticised by modern scholars. According to Marc Zvi Brettler, the Jewish scriptures outside the Torah and the Prophets were fluid, different groups seeing authority in different books; the book of Deuteronomy includes a prohibition against adding or subtracting which might apply to the book itself or to the instruction received by Moses on Mt. Sinai; the book of 2 Maccabees, itself not a part of the Jewish canon, describes Nehemiah as having "founded a library and collected books about the kings and prophets, the writings of David, letters of kings about votive offerings". The Book of Nehemiah suggests that the priest-scribe Ezra brought the Torah back from Babylon to Jerusalem and the Second Temple around the same time period. Both I and II Maccabees suggest that Judas Maccabeus collected sacred books, indeed some scholars argue that the Jewish canon was fixed by the Hasmonean dynasty.
However, these primary sources do not suggest. The Great Assembly known as the Great Synagogue, according to Jewish tradition, an assembly of 120 scribes and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism, marking a transition from an era of prophets to an era of Rabbis, they lived in a period of about two centuries ending c. 70 AD. Among the developments in Judaism that are attributed to them are the fixing of the Jewish Biblical canon, including the books of Ezekiel, Daniel and the Twelve Minor Prophets. In addition to the Tanakh, mainstream Rabbinic Judaism considers the Talmud to be another central, authoritative text, it takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, philosophy and history. The Talmud has two components: the first written compendium of Judaism's oral Law. There are numerous citations of Sirach within the Talmud though the book was not accepted into the Hebrew canon; the Talmud is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is quoted in other rabbinic literature.
Certain groups of Jews, such as the Karaites, do not accept the oral Law as it is codified in the Talmud and only consider the Tanakh to be authoritative. Ethiopian Jews—also known as Beta Israel —possess a canon of scripture, distinct from Rabbinic Judaism. Mäṣḥafä Kedus is the name for the religious literature of these Jews, written in Ge'ez, their holiest book, the Orit, consists of the Pentateuch, as well as Joshua and Ruth. The rest of th
The Hussites were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation. The Hussite movement began in the Kingdom of Bohemia and spread throughout the remaining Lands of the Bohemian Crown, including Moravia and Silesia, it made inroads into the northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, but was rejected and gained infamy for the plundering behavior of the Hussite soldiers. There were very small temporary communities in Poland-Lithuania and Transylvania which moved to Bohemia after being confronted with religious intolerance, it was a regional movement. Hussites emerged as a majority Utraquist movement with a significant Taborite faction, smaller regional ones that included Adamites and Orphans. Major Hussite theologians included Petr Chelcicky, Jerome of Prague, others. A number of Czech national heroes were Hussite, including Jan Zizka, who led a fierce resistance to five consecutive crusades proclaimed on Hussite Bohemia by the Papacy.
Hussites were one of the most important forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. After the Council of Constance lured Jan Hus in with a letter of indemnity tried him for heresy and put him to death at the stake on 6 July 1415, the Hussites fought the Hussite Wars for their religious and political cause. After the Hussite Wars ended, the Catholic-supported Utraquist side came out victorious from conflict with the Taborites and became the most common representation of the Hussite faith in Bohemia. Catholics and Utraquists were emancipated in Bohemia after the religious peace of Kutná Hora in 1485. Bohemia and Moravia, or what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, remained majority Hussite for two centuries until Roman Catholicism was reimposed by the Holy Roman Emperor after the 1620 Battle of White Mountain during the Thirty Years' War. Due to this event and centuries of Habsburg persecution, Hussite traditions are represented in the Moravian Church, Unity of the Brethren, the refounded Czechoslovak Hussite churches among present-day Christians.
The arrest of Hus in 1414 caused considerable resentment in Czech lands. The authorities of both countries appealed urgently and to King Sigismund to release Jan Hus; when news of his death at the Council of Constance in 1415 arrived, disturbances broke out, directed against the clergy and against the monks. The Archbishop narrowly escaped from the effects of this popular anger; the treatment of Hus was felt to be a disgrace inflicted upon the whole country and his death was seen as a criminal act. King Wenceslaus, prompted by his grudge against Sigismund, at first gave free vent to his indignation at the course of events in Constance, his wife favoured the friends of Hus. Avowed Hussites stood at the head of the government. A league was formed by certain lords, who pledged themselves to protect the free preaching of the Gospel upon all their possessions and estates and to obey the power of the Bishops only where their orders accorded with the injunctions of the Bible; the university would arbitrate any disputed points.
The entire Hussite nobility joined the league. Other than verbal protest of the council's treatment of Hus, there was little evidence of any actions taken by the nobility until 1417. At that point several of the lesser nobility and some barons, signatories of the 1415 protest letter, removed Romanist priests from their parishes, replacing them with priests willing to give communion in both wine and bread; the chalice of wine became the central identifying symbol of the Hussite movement. If the king had joined, its resolutions would have received the sanction of the law; the prospect of a civil war began to emerge. Pope Martin V as Cardinal Otto of Colonna had attacked Hus with relentless severity, he energetically resumed the battle against Hus's teaching after the enactments of the Council of Constance. He wished to eradicate the doctrine of Hus, for which purpose the co-operation of King Wenceslaus had to be obtained. In 1418, Sigismund succeeded in winning his brother over to the standpoint of the council by pointing out the inevitability of a religious war if the heretics in Bohemia found further protection.
Hussite statesmen and army leaders had to leave the country and Roman Catholic priests were reinstated. These measures caused a general commotion which hastened the death of King Wenceslaus by a paralytic stroke in 1419, his heir was Sigismund. Hussitism organised itself during the years 1415–1419. From the beginning, there formed two parties, with a smaller number of people withdrawing from both parties around the pacifist Petr Chelčický, whose teachings would form the foundation of the Unitas Fratrum; the moderate party, who followed Hus more sought to conduct reform while leaving the whole hierarchical and liturgical order of the Church untouched. The more radical party identified itself more boldly with the doctrines of John Wycliffe, sharing his passionate hatred of the monastic clergy, his desire to return the Church to its supposed condition during the time of the apostles; this required the removal of the existing hierarchy and the secularisation of ecclesiastical possessions. The radicals preached the "sufficientia legis Christi"—the divine law is the sole rule and canon for human society, not only in the church, but in political and civi
History of Christianity in the United States
Christianity was introduced to North America as it was colonized by Europeans beginning in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish and British brought Roman Catholicism to the colonies of New Spain, New France and Maryland while Northern European peoples introduced Protestantism to Massachusetts Bay Colony, New Netherland, Virginia colony, Carolina Colony and Labrador, Lower Canada. Among Protestants, adherents to Anglicanism, the Baptist Church, Congregationalism, Lutheranism, Quakerism and Moravian Church were the first to settle in the US, spreading their faith in the new country. Notwithstanding this commonplace timeline, scholars of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints assert that Christianity was first introduced to the Americas 34 A. D. according to what is recorded in 3 Nephi Chapter 43, which chronicles the appearance of Jesus Christ to the Native Americans. Today most Christians in the United States are Evangelical, or Roman Catholic; because the Spanish were the first Europeans to establish settlements on the mainland of North America, such as St. Augustine, Florida in 1565, the earliest Christians in the territory which would become the United States were Roman Catholics.
However, the territory that would become the Thirteen Colonies in 1776 was populated by Protestants due to Protestant settlers seeking religious freedom from the Church of England. These settlers were Puritans from East Anglia just before the English Civil War; because of the predominance of Protestants among those coming from England, the English colonies became entirely Protestant by the time of the American Revolution. Catholicism first came to the territories now forming the United States just before the Protestant Reformation with the Spanish conquistadors and settlers in present-day Florida and the southwest; the first Christian worship service held in the current United States was a Catholic Mass celebrated in Pensacola, Florida. The Spanish spread Roman Catholicism through Spanish Florida by way of its mission system. Spain established missions in what are now Texas, New Mexico and California. Junípero Serra founded a series of missions in California which became important economic and religious institutions.
Overland routes were established from New Mexico that resulted in the colonization of San Francisco in 1776 and Los Angeles in 1781. In the French territories, Catholicism was ushered in with the establishment of colonies and forts in Detroit, St. Louis, Biloxi, Baton Rouge, New Orleans. In the late 17th century, French expeditions, which included sovereign and commercial aims, established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. With its first settlements, France lay claim to a vast region of North America and set out to establish a commercial empire and French nation stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada; the French colony of Louisiana claimed all the land on both sides of the Mississippi River and the lands that drained into it. The following present day states were part of the vast tract of Louisiana: Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota. Many of the British North American colonies that formed the United States of America were settled in the 17th century by men and women, who, in the face of European religious persecution, refused to compromise passionately held religious convictions and fled Europe.
The Church of England was established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, authorities in England sent in 22 Anglican clergyman by 1624. In practice, establishment meant that local taxes were funneled through the local parish to handle the needs of local government, such as roads and poor relief, in addition to the salary of the minister. There never was a bishop in colonial Virginia, in practice the local vestry consisted of laymen controlled the parish; as in England, the parish became a unit of local importance. It was led spiritually by a rector and governed by a committee of members respected in the community, known as the vestry). A typical parish contained three or four churches, as the parish churches needed to be close enough for people to travel to worship services, where attendance was expected of everyone. Parishes had a church farm to help support it financially; the colonists were inattentive and bored during church services, according to the ministers, who complained that the people were sleeping, ogling the fashionably dressed women, walking about and coming and going, or at best looking out the windows or staring blankly into space.
There were too few ministers for the scattered population, so ministers encouraged parishioners to become devout at home, using the Book of Common Prayer for private prayer and devotion. This allowed devout Anglicans to lead an active and sincere religious life apart from the unsatisfactory formal church services; the stress on personal piety opened the way for the First Great Awakening, which pulled people away from the established church. A group which became known as the Pilgrims settled the Plymouth Colony in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620, seeking refuge from conflicts in England which led up to the English Civil War; the Puritans, a much larger
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use rational analysis and argument. Theologians may undertake the study of Christian theology for a variety of reasons, such as in order to: help them better understand Christian tenets make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions defend Christianity against objections and criticism facilitate reforms in the Christian church assist in the propagation of Christianity draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or perceived needChristian theology has permeated much of Western culture in pre-modern Europe. Systematic theology as a discipline of Christian theology formulates an orderly and coherent account of Christian faith and beliefs. Systematic theology draws on the foundational sacred texts of Christianity, while investigating the development of Christian doctrine over the course of history through philosophical evolution.
Inherent to a system of theological thought is the development of a method: one which one can apply both broadly and particularly. Christian systematic theology will explore: God the attributes of God the Trinity as espoused by trinitarian Christians revelation biblical hermeneutics - the interpretation of Biblical texts the creation divine providence theodicy - accounting for a benign God's tolerance of evil philosophy hamartiology - the study of sin Christology - the study of the nature and person of Christ pneumatology - the study of the Holy Spirit soteriology - the study of salvation ecclesiology - the study of the Christian church missiology - the study of the Christian message and of missions spirituality and mysticism sacramental theology eschatology - the ultimate destiny of humankind moral theology Christian anthropology the afterlife Revelation is the revealing or disclosing, or making something obvious through active or passive communication with God, can originate directly from God, or through an agent, such as an angel.
One who has experienced such contact is called a prophet. Christianity considers the Bible as supernaturally revealed or inspired; such revelation does not always require the presence of an angel. For instance, in the concept called of interior locution by Catholics, supernatural revelation can include just an inner voice heard by the recipient. Thomas Aquinas first described in two types of revelation in Christianity as general revelation and special revelation. General revelation occurs through observation of the created order; such observations can logically lead to important conclusions, such as the existence of God and some of God's attributes. General revelation is an element of Christian apologetics. Certain specifics, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings in the Scriptures and can not otherwise be deduced except by special revelation; the Bible contains many passages in which the authors claim divine inspiration for their message or report the effects of such inspiration on others.
Besides the direct accounts of written revelation, such as Moses receiving the Ten Commandments, the Prophets of the Old Testament claimed that their message was of divine origin by prefacing the revelation using the following phrase: "Thus says the LORD". The Second Epistle of Peter claims that "no prophecy of Scripture... was produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit". The Second Epistle of Peter implies that Paul's writings are inspired. Many Christians cite a verse in Paul's letter to Timothy, 2 Timothy 3:16-17, as evidence that "all scripture is given by inspiration of God, is profitable..." Here St. Paul is referring to the Old Testament, since the scriptures have been known by Timothy from "infancy". Others offer an alternative reading for the passage. A similar translation appears in the New English Bible, in the Revised English Bible, in the New Revised Standard Version; the Latin Vulgate can be so read. Yet others defend the "traditional" interpretation.
Christianity regards the collections of books known as the Bible as authoritative and written by human authors under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Some Christians believe that the Bible is infallible. In addition, for some Christians, it may be inferred that the Bible cannot both refer to itself as being divinely inspired and be errant or fallible. For if the Bible were divinely inspired the source of inspiration being divine, would not be subject to fallibility or error in that, produced. For them, the doctrines of the divine inspiration and inerrancy, are inseparably tied together; the idea of biblical integrity is a further concept of infallibility, by suggesting that current biblical text is complete and without error, that the integrity of biblical text has never been corrupted or degraded. Historians note, or claim
Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects; the earliest Christian writings gave several titles to Jesus, such as Son of Man, Son of God and Kyrios, which were all derived from the Hebrew scriptures. These terms centered around two themes, namely "Jesus as a preexistent figure who becomes human and returns to God," and "Jesus as a creature elected and'adopted' by God."From the second to the fifth century, the relation of the human and divine nature of Christ was a major focus of debates in the early church and at the first seven ecumenical councils. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 issued a formulation of the hypostatic union of the two natures of Christ, one human and one divine, "united with neither confusion nor division". Most of the major branches of Western Christianity and Eastern Orthodoxy subscribe to this formulation, while many branches of Oriental Orthodox Churches reject it, subscribing to miaphysitism.
Christology "the understanding of Christ," is the study of the nature and work of Jesus Christ. It studies Jesus Christ's humanity and divinity, the relation between these two aspects. "Ontological Christology" analyzes the being of Jesus Christ. "Functional Christology" analyzes the works of Jesus Christ, while "soteriological Christology" analyzes the "salvific" standpoints of Christology. Several approaches can be distinguished within Christology; the term "Christology from above" or "high Christology" refers to approaches that include aspects of divinity, such as Lord and Son of God, the idea of the pre-existence of Christ as the Logos, as expressed in the prologue to the Gospel of John. These approaches interpret the works of Christ in terms of his divinity. According to Pannenberg, Christology from above "was far more common in the ancient Church, beginning with Ignatius of Antioch and the second century Apologists." The term "Christology from below" or "low Christology" refers to approaches that begin with the human aspects and the ministry of Jesus and move towards his divinity and the mystery of incarnation.
A basic Christological teaching is that the person of Jesus Christ is both divine. The human and divine natures of Jesus Christ form a duality, as they coexist within one person. There are no direct discussions in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human, since the early days of Christianity, theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures, at times resulting in ecumenical councils, schisms. Historical christological doctrines which gained broader support are Monophysitism, Miaphysitism and Monarchianism. Influential Christologies which were broadly condemned as heretical are Docetism and Nestorianism. In Christian theology, atonement is the method by which human beings can be reconciled to God through Christ's sacrificial suffering and death. Atonement is the forgiving or pardoning of sin in general and original sin in particular through the suffering and resurrection of Jesus, enabling the reconciliation between God and his creation.
Due to the influence of Gustaf Aulèn's Christus Victor, the various theories or paradigma's of atonement are grouped as "classical paradigm," "objective paradigm," and the "subjective paradigm": Classical paradigm:Ransom theory of atonement, which teaches that the death of Christ was a ransom sacrifice said to have been paid to Satan or to death itself, in some views paid to God the Father, in satisfaction for the bondage and debt on the souls of humanity as a result of inherited sin. Gustaf Aulén reinterpreted the ransom thory, calling it the Christus Victor doctrine, arguing that Christ's death was not a payment to the Devil, but defeated the powers of evil, which had held humankind in their dominion.. Theosis is a "corollary" of the recapitualtion. Objective paradigm: Satisfaction theory of atonement, developed by Anselm of Canterbury, which teaches that Jesus Christ suffered crucifixion as a substitute for human sin, satisfying God's just wrath against humankind's transgression due to Christ's infinite merit.
Penal substitution called "forensic theory" and "vicarious punishment,", a development by the Reformers of Anselm's satisfaction theory. Instead of considering sin as an affront to God's honour, it sees sin as the breaking of God's moral law. Penal substitution sees sinful man as being subject to God's wrath, with the essence of Jesus' saving work being his substitution in the sinner's place, bearing the curse in the place of man. Moral government theory, "which views God as both the loving creator and moral Governor of the universe." Subjective paradigm: Moral influence theory of atonement, developed, or most notably propagated, by Abelard, who argued that "Jesus died as the demonstration of God's love," a demonstration which can change the hearts and minds of the sinners, turning back to God. Moral example theory, developed by Faustus Socinus in his work De Jesu Christo servatore, who rejected the idea of "vicarious satisfaction." According to
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal and indivisibly united in one being, or essence. Certain religious groups that emerged during the Protestant Reformation have been known as antitrinitarian, but are not considered Protestant in popular discourse due to their nontrinitarian nature. According to churches that consider the decisions of ecumenical councils final, Trinitarianism was definitively declared to be Christian doctrine at the 4th-century ecumenical councils, that of the First Council of Nicaea, which declared the full divinity of the Son, the First Council of Constantinople, which declared the divinity of the Holy Spirit. In terms of number of adherents, nontrinitarian denominations comprise a minority of modern Christianity; the largest nontrinitarian Christian denominations are The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Oneness Pentecostals, Jehovah's Witnesses, La Luz del Mundo and the Iglesia ni Cristo, though there are a number of other smaller groups, including Christadelphians, Christian Scientists, Dawn Bible Students, Living Church of God, Assemblies of Yahweh, Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ, Members Church of God International, Unitarian Universalist Christians, The Way International, The Church of God International, the United Church of God.
Nontrinitarian views differ on the nature of God and the Holy Spirit. Various nontrinitarian philosophies, such as adoptionism and subordinationism existed prior to the establishment of the Trinity doctrine in AD 325, 381, 431, at the Councils of Nicaea and Ephesus. Nontrinitarianism was renewed by Cathars in the 11th through 13th centuries, in the Unitarian movement during the Protestant Reformation, in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, in some groups arising during the Second Great Awakening of the 19th century; the doctrine of the Trinity, as held in mainstream Christianity, is not present in the other major Abrahamic religions. Christian apologists and other Church Fathers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, having adopted and formulated the Logos Christology, considered the Son of God as the instrument used by the supreme God, the Father, to bring the creation into existence. Justin Martyr, Theophilus of Antioch, Hippolytus of Rome and Tertullian in particular state that the internal Logos of God —his impersonal divine reason—was begotten as Logos uttered, becoming a person to be used for the purpose of creation.
The Encyclopædia Britannica states: "to some Christians the doctrine of the Trinity appeared inconsistent with the unity of God.... They therefore denied it, accepted Jesus Christ, not as incarnate God, but as God's highest creature by whom all else was created.... View in the early Church long contended with the orthodox doctrine." Although the nontrinitarian view disappeared in the early Church and the Trinitarian view became an orthodox doctrine of modern Christianity, variations of the nontrinitarian view are still held by a small number of Christian groups and denominations. Various views exist regarding the relationships between the Father and Holy Spirit; those who believe that Jesus is not God, nor equal to God, but was either God's subordinate Son, a messenger from God, or prophet, or the perfect created human: Adoptionism holds that Jesus became divine at his baptism or at his resurrection. Arius' position was that the Son was brought forth as the first of God's creations, that the Father created all things through the Son.
Arius taught that in the creation of the universe, the Father was the ultimate creator, supplying all the materials and directing the design, while the Son worked the materials, making all things at the bidding and in the service of the Father, by which "through all things came into existence". Arianism became the dominant view in some regions in the time of the Roman Empire, notably the Visigoths until 589; the third Council of Sirmium in 357 was the high point of Arianism. The Seventh Arian Confession held that both homoousios and homoiousios were unbiblical and that the Father is greater than the Son: "But since many persons are disturbed by questions concerning what is called in Latin substantia, but in Greek ousia, that is, to make it understood more as to'coessential,' or what is called,'like-in-essence,' there ought to be no mention of any of these at all, nor exposition of them in the Church, for this reason and for this consideration, that in divine Scripture nothing is written about them, that they are above men's knowledge and above men's understanding".
They interpret verses such as John 1:1 to refer to God's "plan" existing in God's mind before Christ's birth.
History of Protestantism
Protestantism originated from the Protestation at Speyer in 1529, where the nobility protested against enforcement of the Edict of Worms which subjected advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all of their property. However, the theological underpinnings go back much further, as Protestant theologians of the time cited both Church Fathers and the Apostles to justify their choices and formulations; the earliest origin of Protestantism is controversial. Since 1600 major factors affecting Protestantism have been the Catholic Counter-Reformation which opposed it especially in France and Italy. Came an era of confessionalization followed by Rationalism and the Great Awakenings. Major movements today include Evangelicalism, mainline denominations, Pentecostalism. One of the early Reformers was John Wycliffe, an English theologian and early proponent of reform in the 14th century, his followers, known as Lollards, spread throughout England but soon were persecuted by both leaders in the Roman Catholic Church and government officials.
Wycliffe influenced Jan Hus, a Czech priest from Prague. After Hus was burned at the stake for heresy, his followers dominated the Kingdom of Bohemia spreading to Silesia and Moravia; some of his followers waged the Hussite Wars, with the Ultraquist faction defeating the papal backed forces and gaining recognition for their Rite, similar to how the Eastern Rite Catholics today mutually recognize the Roman Rite Catholics of the Latin Church. Another similar group were the Waldensians. Both Wycliffe and Hus preached against indulgences. Hus wrote his Six Errors, fixed to the door of his church, in which he criticized corruption of the clergy and touched on other topics which under the Luther became the key to Reformation. After the Battle of White Mountain, persecuted Hussites established minor churches such as the Unity of the Brethren; those early reformers influenced German monk Martin Luther. Luther intended to reform the Roman Catholic Church rather than break it up. Reformation in Germany diversified as did the earlier Hussites in Bohemian Crown, other reform impulses arose independently of Luther.
The spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in local languages. Similar to his predecessors, Martin Luther wrote Ninety-Five Theses on the sale of indulgences in 1517. Soon, the Reformed tradition began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli in 1519; the Reformation evolved into a large debate involving theologians throughout most of Europe. The political separation of the Church of England from Rome under Henry VIII brought England alongside this movement; the work and writings of John Calvin helped establish a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, the Netherlands, Hungary and elsewhere. Calvinism within the Reformed tradition separated into specific subgroups like the Continental Reformed, Congregationalism and a variety of English dissenters, including the Puritans. Other important movements that emerged during the Reformation include Anabaptism, the Baptist movement and Unitarianism. After excommunicating Luther in 1521 with the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem, Church leaders together with the Holy Roman Empire condemned his followers in the 1521 Edict of Worms.
This was the beginning of the Counter-Reformation. When the Lutherans gave the 1530 Augsburg Confession, the Catholics responded with the Confutatio Augustana; the Lutherans gained provisional tolerance for their faith with the Nuremberg Religious Peace, during which the reformer Phillip Melancthon in turn responded with the 1537 Apology of the Augsburg Confession. Although it was rejected by Charles V, there was no document written in response on the Catholic side, Luther submitted his 1537 Smalcald Articles for consideration to the German nobility, which he wrote in the hopes that the impending council would not misrepresent his positions if it were just going to condemn them. From 1545-1563, Roman Catholic officials met at the Council of Trent, as well as some Protestants, although they were not allowed to vote; the Lutheran response to this council in turn came from Martin Chemnitz, who published the Examination of the Council of Trent from 1565–1573. In order to refute him, Diogo de Payva de Andrada wrote the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei, shorter and published posthumously in 1578.
Lutherans never responded to this work. The Jesuit order was founded at the time of the Council of Trent in order to stop the Reformation, powerful monarchs like the Habsburgs were committed to the Counter-Reformation. Many Protestants became crypto-Protestants in areas under Habsburg control. In the course of this religious upheaval, the German Peasants' War of 1524–1525 swept through Bavaria and Swabia; the Nuremberg Religious Peace was breached at the start of the Schmalkaldic War in 1546. Their loss resulted in the imposition of Counter-Reformational measures during the Augsburg Interim which were intended to bring them closer to Roman Catholicism, but the terms of the 1555 Peace of Augsburg ended this by allowing rulers to chose the religion of their domains as either Catholic or Lutheran; the confessional division of the states of the Holy Roman Empire erupted in the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648, leaving the agglomeration weakened. France suffered its own religious wars; the Dutch people rebelled in the Eighty Years' War.
The War of the Three Kingdoms affected the British