A gundalow is a type of flat-bottom cargo vessel once common in Maine and New Hampshire rivers. They first appeared in the mid-1600s, reached maturity of design in the 1700 and 1800s, lingered into the early 1900s before vanishing as commercial watercraft. Up to 70 feet long, they characteristically employed tidal currents for propulsion, with a single huge lateen sail brailed to a heavy yard to harness favorable winds. Common cargoes were bricks, cattle and other bulk raw materials downriver, finished goods up. Gundalows were very active delivering cordwood to brickworks upriver to fire their kilns, picking up cargoes of finished bricks in return. A form of sailing barge similar to a scow, gundalows were fitted with a pivoting leeboard lieu of a fixed keel, giving them an exceptionally shallow draft and allowing them to "take the hard" both for loading and unloading cargoes and maintenance. A gundalow's yard was attached to a stump mast and counterweighted, pivoting down while still under sail to shoot under bridges while maintaining the boat's way.
Cannon-sporting gunboat style gundalows with fixed masts and square yards were built and deployed on Lake Champlain by both British and American forces during the American Revolutionary War, meeting in combat at the Battle of Valcour Island. A replica gundalow, the Piscataqua, is maintained by a Portsmouth, New Hampshire non-profit and employed extensively in both grade school educational programs and raising environmental awareness among neighboring New Hampshire and Maine seacoast communities. It's precursor, the Captain Edward Adams, built with traditional materials and methods in the 1980s, is preserved as a memorial in Dover, New Hampshire along the Cocheco River, one of the tidal headwaters of the Piscataqua River separating the states of Maine and New Hampshire. Noble train of artillery Battle of Valcour Island Cross-Grained & Wiley Waters: A Guide to the Piscataqua Maritime Region, Jeffrey W. Bolster, Editor. H. Customs District from the days of Queen Elizabeth and the planting of Strawberry Banke to the times of Abraham Lincoln and the waning of the American clipper, William G. Saltonstall, New York, Russell & Russell The Piscataqua Gundalow: Workhorse for a Tidal Basin Empire, Richard E. Winslow, III, Portsmouth, NH, Peter Randall, Publisher 2002 The Way of the Ship: America’s Maritime History Reenvisioned, 1600-2000, Alex Roland, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Alexander Keyssar, Wiley, NY, 2007 Description and drawings at The Gundalow Company web page: www.gundalow.org
Oyster River (New Hampshire)
The Oyster River is a 17-mile-long river in Strafford County, southeastern New Hampshire, United States. It rises in Barrington, flows southeast to Lee east-southeast in a serpentine course past Durham to meet the entrance of Great Bay into Little Bay; the bays are tidal inlets of the Atlantic Ocean, to which they are connected by a tidal estuary, the Piscataqua River. The freshwater portion of the river is 14.1 miles long, the tidal river extends 2.9 miles from Durham to Great Bay. The Oyster River reaches tidewater at the base of a dam in the center of Durham, just west of the river's crossing by NH Route 108. Due to siltation, the river is only accessible to motorized boats west of the Durham Water Plant for three hours on either side of high tide. Boaters have noticed the increasing effect of siltation on navigation since 1998; the Oyster River valley, like the rest of New England, was covered by ice during the last continental glaciation. Remnants from the Ice Age in the watershed include glacial erratics and kettle holes such as Spruce Hole Bog, 0.5 miles south of the river in Durham.
Since European settlers came to the Oyster River they have altered its flow and taken its resources. In the 1600s, before people had a major effect on the river, Great Bay, into which the Oyster River flows, was a port where sturdy oceangoing ships could anchor at a place called Durham Landing, but as time passed, settlers cleared the forests for farmland. As forests diminished, soil held in place by tree roots started to wash into the river, causing its waters to fill with silt. By the 1800s, oceangoing ships were unable to reach Durham Landing except at high tides; the Oyster River community was one of the three original Dover settlements, which included Hilton Point and the current Durham town center. The population of this settlement is said to have peaked at around 300 people in the mid 17th century. However, the population was reduced in 1694 after a Native American raid known as the Oyster River Massacre or the Raid on Oyster River. In total around 94 inhabitants were either killed or taken hostage by the Native Americans under French command.
The river passes over Mill Pond Dam, which dates to 1913 and is listed on the New Hampshire State Register of Historic Places, near NH Route 108 in Durham where the river reaches tidewater. Prior wooden dams provided power to gristmills dating back to the mid-1600s; as of February 2019, the dam is being considered for removal, due to the cost of potential repair work and water quality issues with the Mill Pond that the dam creates. The Oyster River is a significant source of drinking water for the town of Durham and the University of New Hampshire; the extent to which the Oyster River can be used as a resource is being stretched more and more as the population increases within the area. Residential water usage in the area is expected to increase by 54% before the year 2025, non-domestic usage, for example commercial, industrial and mining, is expected to increase 62%. Thus, the Oyster River is going to become an more essential resource to the community; the river crosses under heavily-traveled U.
S. Route 4 in three separate places in the town of Lee and passes within 1,000 feet of the busy Lee Traffic Circle, which poses an ecological threat if runoff from the road gets into the water. Along the river there remain stretches of untouched floodplain and forests that stretch on for 100 acres; these floodplain areas are useful in holding excess water during severe weather and help to reduce the damage done to the infrastructure elsewhere along the river. The floodplains house diverse ecological communities and are home to many diverse species of New Hampshire. One species, affected by the steady decline in the health of the Oyster River is the oyster itself. Due to siltation and water pollution in the river the population of oysters hit an all time low in 2000 at 6,174 US bushels. However, the rate rebounded to 10,044 US bushels just a couple years later. Another species that lives in the Oyster river is the American Brook Lamprey which only exists in this river in the entire state; the river as a whole is home to seven fish species of concern.
List of rivers of New Hampshire Brooks, Paul. The Natural Wonders of a New England River Valley A World Alive. University of New Hampshire Library: Yankee Books. Pp. 1–15 129–148
Spartina patens, the saltmeadow cordgrass known as salt hay, is a species of cordgrass native to the Atlantic coast of the Americas, from Newfoundland south along the eastern United States to the Caribbean and northeast Mexico. It has been reclassified as Sporobolus pumilus after a taxonomic revision in 2014, but Spartina patens is still in common usage, it can be found in marshlands in other areas of the world as an introduced species and a harmful noxious weed or invasive species. It is a hay-like grass found in the upper areas of brackish coastal salt marshes, it is a slender and wiry plant that grows in thick mats 30–60 cm high, green in spring and summer, turns light brown in late fall and winter. The stems are wispy and hollow, the leaves roll inward and appear round; because its stems are weak, the wind and water action can bend the grass, creating the appearance of a field of tufts and cowlicks. Like its relative smooth cordgrass S. alterniflora, saltmeadow cordgrass produces flowers and seeds on only one side of the stalk.
Flowers are turn brown in the winter months. Saltmeadow cordgrass is found in high marsh zones. Specialized cells are able to exclude salt from entering the roots, preventing the loss of fresh water; this grass is, less tolerant of saltwater than some other marsh grasses. It can grow on beaches and can recolonize an overwash zoneA healthy salt marsh depends on the presence of plants such as salt hay grass and smooth cordgrass; these grasses provide rich habitat for crustaceans and birds, serve as a major source of organic nutrients for the entire estuary. Mats of salt hay grass are inhabited by many small animals and are an important food source for ducks and seaside sparrows. Saltmeadow cordgrass marshes serve as pollution filters and as buffers against flooding and shoreline erosion. During the colonial era, towns scattered from Narragansett Bay to the Gulf of Maine were settled based on their proximity to salt marshes due to the importance of saltmeadow cordgrass for fodder, it was harvested for bedding and fodder for garden mulch.
Before hay was baled and stored under cover, it was used to top the hay stacks in the fields. Many of the salt marshes in Rhode Island have been affected by filling and road construction; these alterations restrict tidal flow having a severe ecological impact on the marsh. Because saltmeadow cordgrass requires a salty, wet habitat, restricted tidal flow dries out the marsh and encourages the growth of invasive freshwater plants. Saltmeadow and smooth cordgrasses are out-competed for space by common reed in areas where human activity has disturbed or altered the marsh. Common reed is not as beneficial to a salt marsh as cordgrass. While this Spartina is a key member of the salt marsh flora in its native habitat, it is known as a harmful invasive species in other parts of the world, it is a notorious pest in the San Francisco Bay Area, where it out-competes native plants such as the soft salty bird's beak Chloropyron molle ssp. molle and alters the habitat of rare animals such as the Ridgway's rail.
This cordgrass was introduced to the estuaries of Oregon with shipments of oysters and has been seen dominating and crowding out native vegetation there. It has appeared in marshes on the Iberian Peninsula. Adapted from The Uncommon Guide to Common Life on Narragansett Bay. Save The Bay, 1998
New Castle, New Hampshire
New Castle is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 968 at the 2010 census, it is the smallest and easternmost town in New Hampshire, the only one located on islands. It is home to Fort Constitution Historic Site, Fort Stark Historic Site, the New Castle Common, a 31-acre recreation area on the Atlantic Ocean. New Castle is home to a United States Coast Guard station, as well as the historic Wentworth by the Sea hotel; the main island on which the town sits is the largest of several at the mouth of the Piscataqua River and was called Great Island. Settled in 1623, an earthwork defense was built on Fort Point which would evolve into Fort William and Mary. Chartered in 1679 as a parish of Portsmouth, it was incorporated on May 30, 1693, was named "New Castle" after the fort; until 1719 it included Rye called "Sandy Beach", set off as a parish. The principal industries were tavern-keeping and fishing. There was agriculture, using the abundant seaweed as fertilizer.
Beginning on June 11, 1682, Great Island experienced a supernatural event—a Lithobolia, or "Stone-Throwing Devil," recorded in a 1698 London pamphlet by Richard Chamberlain. On a Sunday night at about 10 o'clock, the tavern home of George Walton, an early settler and planter, was showered with stones thrown "by an invisible hand." Windows were smashed, the spit in the fireplace leapt into the air came down with its point stuck in the back log. When a member of the household retrieved the spit, it flew out the window of its own accord; the gate outside was discovered off its hinges. Rev. Cotton Mather took an interest in the phenomenon, reporting that: "This disturbance continued from day to day. A man was much hurt by some of the stones, he was a Quaker, suspected that a woman, who charged him with injustice in detaining some land from her did, by witchcraft, occasion these preternatural occurrences. However, at last they came to an end."The "Stone-Throwing Devil" created quite a sensation on Great Island.
Hundreds of stones mysteriously rained down on George Walton's tavern, as well as onto him and others in the area over the entire summer. Yet, no one came forward who saw anyone throwing the stones. Many other mysterious events occurred at that time. Demonic voices were heard, items were flung about inside Walton's tavern. Prominent Boston minister Increase Mather described the strange events in his book Illustrious Providences. George Walton, in a property boundary dispute with his neighbor, accused her of witchcraft. She, in turn, accused him of being a wizard. Others in the area may have had reasons to throw stones at Walton, he was a Quaker. Quakers were looked upon with great suspicion by Puritans, just being a Quaker was a crime. Walton was a successful innkeeper and lumberman, became the largest landowner on the island. Walton was envied by his less industrious neighbors, he was involved in a number of lawsuits over property disputes. He had two Native American employees, which would have caused great concern so soon after war with the Indians and because of the uneasy peace that existed.
His tavern customers included a variety of rowdy outsiders, including "godless" fishermen, who were considered undesirables by others on the island. Regardless of what caused Walton and his inn to be the victim of a months-long rain of stones, it was the first major outbreak of apparent witchcraft in America. News of it traveled throughout England. Within a few years, accusations of witchcraft would occur in other New England towns, culminating in the famous witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts. Fort William and Mary was the site of one of the first acts of the American Revolution. On the afternoon of December 14, 1774, colonists raided the fort. Outnumbered, Captain John Cochran and the fort's five soldiers surrendered, whereupon the rebels loaded onto a boat 100 barrels of gunpowder; the boat was floated up the Piscataqua River and the powder offloaded for transport to inland towns, including Durham, where the ammunition was stored in the cellar of the Congregational church. The next day, the colonists returned to the fort and removed 16 of the lighter cannon and all small arms.
The gunpowder was used at the 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill. A new route to the island was created in 1821 when three bridges connected Frame Point in Portsmouth with the northwestern corner of Great Island. A bridge on the southwestern point had been the only way to reach New Castle without a boat; the community was an overlooked fishing village, which helped preserve its colonial architecture. However, in 1874 the Hotel Wentworth was built atop a hill with a view of Little Harbor and the ocean. After early financial difficulties, the establishment was purchased and elaborately refurbished in Second Empire style by Portsmouth alemaker and hotelier, Frank Jones, it became the area's most fashionable resort, growing in size. When President Theodore Roosevelt mediated the 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth to end the Russo-Japanese War, envoys from both countries stayed at the Wentworth by the Sea, ferried by launch to negotiations held at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard; the hotel was a setting for the 1999 movie, In Dreams.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.4 square miles, of which 0.8 sq mi is land and 1.5 sq mi is water, comprising 65.13% of the town. New Castle occupies an ar
Dover, New Hampshire
Dover is a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 29,987 at the 2010 census, the largest in the New Hampshire Seacoast region; the population was estimated at 31,398 in 2017. It is the county seat of Strafford County, home to Wentworth-Douglass Hospital, the Woodman Institute Museum, the Children's Museum of New Hampshire. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the town's Modern Welsh forms. The first known European to explore the region was Martin Pring from Bristol, England, in 1603. In 1623, William and Edward Hilton settled Cochecho Plantation, adopting its Abenaki name, making Dover the oldest permanent settlement in New Hampshire, seventh in the United States. One of the colony's four original townships, it included Durham, Newington, Lee and Rollinsford; the Hiltons' name survives at Hilton Park on Dover Point, where the brothers settled near the confluence of the Bellamy and Piscataqua rivers.
They were fishmongers sent from London by The Company of Laconia to establish a colony and fishery on the Piscataqua. In 1631, however, it contained only three houses. William Hilton built, he served as Deputy to the General Court. In 1633, Cochecho Plantation was bought by a group of English Puritans who planned to settle in New England, including Viscount Saye and Sele, Baron Brooke and John Pym, they promoted colonization in America, that year Hilton's Point received numerous immigrants, many from Bristol. They renamed the settlement Bristol. Atop the nearby hill they built a meetinghouse surrounded with a jail nearby; the town was called Dover in 1637 by Reverend George Burdett. It was named after Robert Dover, an English lawyer who resisted Puritanism. With the 1639 arrival of Thomas Larkham, however, it was renamed after Northam in Devon, where he had been preacher, but Lord Saye and Sele's group lost interest in their settlements, both here and at Saybrook, when their plan to establish a hereditary aristocracy in the colonies met disfavor in New England.
The plantation was sold in 1641 to Massachusetts and again named Dover. Settlers built fortified log houses called garrisons, inspiring Dover's nickname "The Garrison City." The population and business center shifted upriver from Dover Point to Cochecho Falls, its drop of 34 feet providing water power for industry On June 28, 1689, Dover suffered a devastating attack by Native Americans. It was revenge for an incident on September 7, 1676, when 400 Native Americans were duped by Major Richard Waldron into performing a "mock battle" near Cochecho Falls. After discharging their weapons, the Native American warriors were captured. Half were sent to Massachusetts for predations committed during King Philip's War either hanged or sold into slavery. Local Native Americans deemed innocent were released, but considered the deception a dishonorable breach of hospitality. Thirteen years passed; when colonists thought the episode forgotten, they struck. Fifty-two colonists, a quarter of the population, were either slain.
During Father Rale's War, in August and September 1723, there were Indian raids on Saco and Dover, New Hampshire. The following year Dover was raided again and Elizabeth Hanson wrote her captivity narrative. Located at the head of navigation, Cochecho Falls brought the Industrial Revolution to 19th-century Dover in a big way; the Dover Cotton Factory was incorporated in 1812 enlarged in 1823 to become the Dover Manufacturing Company. In 1827, the Cocheco Manufacturing Company was founded, which in 1829 purchased the Dover Manufacturing Company. Expansive brick mills, linked by railroad, were constructed downtown. Incorporated as a city in 1855, Dover for a time became a leading national producer of textiles; the mills were purchased in 1909 by the Pacific Mills of Lawrence, which closed the printery in 1913 but continued spinning and weaving. During the Great Depression, textile mills no longer dependent on New England water power began moving to southern states in search of cheaper operating conditions, or went out of business.
Dover's millyard shut in 1937 was bought at auction in 1940 by the city itself for $54,000. There were no other bids. Now called the Cocheco Falls Millworks, its tenants include technology and government services companies, plus a restaurant. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.0 square miles, of which 26.7 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water, comprising 7.96% of the city. Dover is drained by the Bellamy rivers. Long Hill, elevation greater than 300 feet above sea level and located 3 miles northwest of the city center, is the highest point in Dover. Garrison Hill, elevation 290 ft, is a prominent hill rising directly above the center city, with a park and lookout tower on top. Dover lies within the Piscataqua River watershed; the city is crossed by New Hampshire Route 4, New Hampshire Route 9, New Hampshire Route 16, New Hampshire Route 16B, New Hampshire Route 108, New Hampshire Route 155. It is bordered by the town of Newington to the south, Madbury to the southwest and Rochester to the northwest and Rollinsford to th
Aristotle Socrates Onassis called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a Greek shipping magnate who amassed the world's largest owned shipping fleet and was one of the world's richest and most famous men. He was known for his business success, his great wealth and his personal life, including his marriage to Athina Mary Livanos. Onassis was born in Smyrna and fled the city with his family to Greece in 1922 in the wake of the Greco-Turkish War, he moved to Argentina in 1923 and established himself as a tobacco trader and a shipping owner during the Second World War. Moving to Monaco, Onassis fought Prince Rainer III for economic control of the country through his ownership of SBM and its Monte Carlo Casino. In the mid 1950s he sought to secure an oil shipping arrangement with Saudi Arabia, engaged in whaling expeditions. In the 1960s Onassis attempted to establish a large investment contract, Project Omega, with the Greek military junta, sold Olympic Airways which he had founded in 1957. Onassis was affected by the death of his 24-year-old son, Alexander, in a plane crash in 1973, died two years later.
Onassis was born in Karataş, a suburb of the port city of Smyrna in Anatolia to Socrates Onassis and Penelope Dologou. Onassis had one full-sister and two half-sisters and Merope, by his father's second marriage following Penelope's death. Onassis became a successful shipping entrepreneur and was able to send his children to prestigious schools; when Onassis graduated from the local Evangelical Greek School at the age of 16, he spoke four languages: Greek, Turkish and English. Smyrna was administered by Greece in the aftermath of the Allied victory in World War I, but Smyrna was re-taken by Turkey during the Greco-Turkish War; the Onassis family's substantial property holdings were lost, causing them to become refugees fleeing to Greece after the Great Fire of Smyrna in 1922. During this period, Onassis lost three uncles, an aunt, her husband Chrysostomos Konialidis and their daughter, who were burned to death in a church in Thyatira where 500 Christians were seeking shelter from the Great Fire of Smyrna.
At age 17 in 1923, Onassis arrived in Buenos Aires, Argentina, by Nansen passport, got his first job as a telephone operator, with the British United River Plate Telephone Company, while following studies in commerce and port-duty administration at Aduanas Argentinas. He became an entrepreneur, creating an Argentine import-export company, going into business for himself and making a fortune importing English-Turkish tobacco to Argentina, he obtained Argentine citizenship in 1929. He established his first shipping trading company in Buenos Aires, Astilleros Onassis. After gaining his first fortune in Argentina, he expanded his shipping business worldwide and relocated to New York City, USA, where he built up his shipping businesses empire while keeping offices in Buenos Aires and Athens, his legacy in Buenos Aires was the creation of a shipping empire and a Hellenic Culture Fund providing youth scholarships and an academic international exchange program between Argentina, Greece and the United States.
Onassis built up a fleet of freighters and tankers that exceeded seventy vessels. The fleet operated under a flag of convenience, thereby bypassing laws and regulations of the owners’ country that would protect safety standards and the wages and working conditions of mariners. Onassis' fleet had Panamanian and Liberian flags and sailed tax-free while operating at low cost; because of this, Onassis could turn a profit in every transaction though he charged one of the lowest prices in the merchant navy market. Onassis made large profits when the Big Oil companies like Mobil and Texaco signed long-term contracts at fixed prices with him for the use of his fleet, while having trouble managing their own fleets, which operated under US flags and thus at high cost; the high profitability of the Onassis fleet has been attributed in large part to his disregard for standards that govern international shipping. For example, after his Liberian registered tanker SS Arrow ran aground and spilled oil into Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia in 1970, still the most significant oil spill off Canada’s East Coast, there was a Commission of Inquiry.
Led by Dr Patrick McTaggart-Cowan, executive director of the Science Council of Canada, the Commission found that the Arrow had been operating with none of its navigation equipment serviceable: "radar had ceased to function an hour before the ship struck. The officer on watch at the time of the accident, the ship's third officer, had no license" and none of the crew had any navigational skill except the master, "and there are doubts about his ability." Onassis arrived in the Mediterranean principality of Monaco in 1953 and began to purchase the shares of Monaco's Société des bains de mer de Monaco via the use of front companies in the tax haven of Panama, took control of the organisation in the summer of that year. Onassis moved his headquarters into the Old Sporting Club on Monaco'
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st