The Great Belt Fixed Link is a multi-element fixed link crossing the Great Belt strait between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen. It consists of a road suspension bridge and a railway tunnel between Zealand and the small island Sprogø in the middle of the Great Belt, a box-girder bridge for both road and rail traffic between Sprogø and Funen; the total length is 18 kilometres. The "Great Belt Bridge" refers to the suspension bridge, although it may be used to mean the box-girder bridge or the link in its entirety. Named the East Bridge, the suspension bridge was designed by the Danish firms COWI and Ramboll, it has the world's fifth-longest main span, the longest outside Asia. At the time of the opening of the bridge it was the second longest, beaten by the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge opened a few months previously; the link replaced a ferry service, the primary means of crossing the Great Belt. After more than 50 years of debate, the Danish government decided in 1986 to construct a link. At an estimated cost of DKK 21.4 billion, the link is the largest construction project in Danish history.
It has reduced travel times significantly. This link and the Øresund Bridge have together enabled driving from mainland Europe to Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia through Denmark. Operation and maintenance are performed by A/S Storebælt under Bælt. Construction and maintenance are financed by tolls on trains. Cyclists are not permitted to use the bridge; the Great Belt ferries entered service between the coastal towns of Korsør and Nyborg in 1883, connecting the railway lines on either side of the Belt. In 1957, road traffic was moved to the Halsskov–Knudshoved route, about 1.5 kilometres to the north and close to the fixed link. Construction drafts for a fixed link were presented as early as the 1850s, with several suggestions appearing in the following decades; the Danish State Railways, responsible for the ferry service, presented plans for a bridge in 1934. The concepts of bridges over Øresund and Storebælt were calculated around 1936. In 1948, the Ministry for Public Works established a commission to investigate the implications of a fixed link.
The first law concerning a fixed link was enacted in 1973, but the project was put on hold in 1978 as the Venstre party demanded postponing public spending. Political agreement to restart work was reached in 1986, with a construction law being passed in 1987; the design was carried out by the engineering firms COWI and Ramboll together with Dissing+Weitling architecture practice. Construction of the link commenced in 1988. In 1991, Finland sued Denmark at the International Court of Justice, on the grounds that Finnish-built mobile offshore drilling units would be unable to pass beneath the bridge; the two countries negotiated a financial compensation of 90 million Danish kroner, Finland withdrew the lawsuit. The link is estimated to have created a value of 379 billion DKK after 50 years of use; the construction of the fixed link became the biggest building project in the history of Denmark. In order to connect Halsskov on Zealand with Knudshoved on Funen, 18 kilometres to its west, a two-track railway and a four-lane motorway had to be built, via the small island of Sprogø in the middle of the Great Belt.
The project comprised three different tasks: the East Bridge for road transport, the East Tunnel for rail transport and the West Bridge for road and rail transport combined. The construction work was carried out by Sundlink Contractors, a consortium of Skanska, Hochtief, Højgaard & Schultz and Monberg & Thorsen; the work of lifting and placing the elements was carried out by Ballast Nedam using a floating crane. Built between 1991 and 1998 at a cost of US$950 million, the East Bridge is a suspension bridge between Halsskov and Sprogø, it is 6,790 metres long with a free span of 1,624 metres, making it the world's third-longest suspension bridge span, surpassed only by the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge and Xihoumen Bridge. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge was opened two months earlier; the East Bridge had been planned to be completed in time to be the longest bridge, but it was delayed. The vertical clearance for ships is 65 metres, meaning the world's largest cruise ship, an Oasis-class cruise ship, just fits under with its smokestack folded.
At 254 metres above sea level, the two pylons of the East Bridge are the highest points on self-supporting structures in Denmark. Some radio masts, such as Tommerup transmitter, are taller. To keep the main cables tensioned, an anchorage structure on each side of the span is placed below the road deck. After 15 years, the cables have no rust, they were scheduled for a 15 million DKK paint job, but due to corroding cables on other bridges, the decision was made to instead install a 70 million DKK sealed de-humidifying system in the cables. Nineteen concrete pillars, 193 metres apart, carry the road deck outside the span; the West Bridge is a box girder bridge between Knudshoved. It is 6,611 metres long, has a vertical clearance for ships of 18 metres, it is two separate, adjacent bridges: the northern one carries rail traffic and the southern one road traffic. The pillars of the two bridges rest on commo
The organisation of a Conference of Specialised Ministers is a traditional working method of the Council of Europe. The purpose of such conferences is to define and pursue the goals of the Council of Europe’s intergovernmental activities in their particular fields of competence; these conferences have a quasi-legal identity of their own in international relations. The practice began in Vienna in 1959 with the first Conference of Ministers responsible for Family Affairs. However, the working methods for such conferences were only formalised in 1971 with the adoption of Committee of Ministers Resolution 44. Which gives a list of conferences with which the Council of Europe "has a special working relationship". In February 2008, in the interests of transparency and visibility, the Committee of Ministers decided that all of its ministerial conferences would henceforth include "Council of Europe" in the title. Several attempts to update this text came to fruition in June 2011 with the adoption of Resolution CM/Res7.
Several of the Conferences are prepared by a special committee of senior officials, which meets for that purpose. Others are prepared by the respective Council of Europe steering committee; the Committee of Ministers issues a regular information document "Forthcoming Conferences of Specialised Ministers", which gives the current state of preparation of these conferences. The Conferences traditionally use a 3-letter abbreviation by which they and their relevant reports and resolutions are identified. Although a few of these have changed over the years, most of them have remained remarkably consistent; the Committee of Ministers lists 14 conferences as operational: Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Migration Affairs Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Integration Policies for People with disabilities Council of Europe Conference of Health Ministers Council of Europe Conference of Ministers of Justice Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Spatial/Regional Planning Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Cultural Affairs Council of Europe Standing Conference of Ministers of Education Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Sport Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Local and Regional Government Council of Europe Ministerial Conference on the Media and New Communication Services Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Youth Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Family Affairs Council of Europe Ministerial Conference on Equality between Women and Men Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Social CohesionThe last of these, the Conference on Social Cohesion, is new, met for the first time in Moscow in February 2009.
There have been a number of other conferences in the past. Many of the conferences have undergone several name changes, they should be distinguished from European Union ministerial conferences. The European Union convenes ministers in certain sectors; such meetings are described as informal. Some of the more successful conferences have become virtual institutions in themselves; the Committee of Ministers approves the theme and the organisations and non-member states to be invited. Each conference makes a report to the Committee of Ministers after the conference, which examines the possible follow-up to the conference. Several conferences of specialised ministers have only been held once, with no plans for them to meet again, notably: Human rights Research Terrorism Movement of persons Four other ministerial conferences have been discontinued: Ministers of Cultural heritage, which last met in 1985, 1992, 1996 and 2001 Ministers of Environment, which last met in 1987 and 1990 Ministers of Labour, which last met in 1986, 1989 and 1993 Ministers of Social security, which last met in 1989, 1992, 1995, 1998 and 2002 The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe/ by Guy de Vel, 1994
No. 1 Snehatheeram Bangalore North is a 1995 Malayalam film, written by Fazil, directed by Sathyan Anthikkad, produced by Fazil, starring Mammootty and Priya Raman, supported by Innocent, Oduvil Unnikrishnan and Sukumari. Sudhi and Anu are siblings, their parents are separated and they never saw their mother, whom they always long to see. When they come on vacation to their father's home, they make an attempt to bring back their mother by going on a fast for an indefinite time. Though this attempt fails, Vijay is forced to give a brief description of the physical appearance of their mother, they know that their mother lives somewhere in Bangalore. When they hear the next day about their father's business trip to Bangalore, they forcefully accompany him. During their stay, they trick the caretakers and go on a search for their mother; when their father comes and finds that the children are missing, he gets a phone call from the children saying that they found their mother and they are at her house.
He goes there to find the children with a rich lady named Hema, mistaken by the kids as their mother due to the similarity to the description of their mother given earlier. Hema, who developed an instant liking to the children, pretended to be their mother so as to make an attempt to bring them to their original mother. Although furious with her actions, considering the children, he arrives at a decision to continue with the drama till the end of the vacation, she on the other hand, feeling that she did a great mistake to the children, agrees on the condition that Vijay solve the problems with his wife and give the children their mother back. She asks him not to enquire more about her, to which he agrees. Things get worse when on the journey back to school, they learn that the vacation is extended for one more week owing to the extreme weather in Ooty. Hema disagrees to continue with the drama and leaves the family, leading the children to believe that their parents are in a fight again; the children follow Hema pleading to her not to fight.
Shattered at the children's request, she continues the act as their mother. Things get twisted when Anu falls ill on the same night and Vijay watches the love and care that Hema have for his children, leading him to propose marriage to her. Hema, on the belief that she was separating the children from their real mother, gets irritated at the proposal and rejects him; the conversation leads Vijay to reveal his story. He reveals that their parents are both dead; the children belonged to his only sister Sindhu. He pretended to be their father and cooked up a story of a separated mother so as not to reveal the truth about the death of their parents. Hema reveals her story, she hails from a poor family. She has all three of them suffering from various diseases, she gave up the happiness in her life for them. She needs a change, she starts to feel the same for Vijay, but still does not accept the proposal. That night she decides to accept the proposal; the next morning she leaves to her home to ask for permission to marry.
When she arrives, she finds that Vijay revealed the truth to his surprise. The children still consider Vijay as their father. Vijay leaves with the children; the next morning, when the children leave for the school, they find Hema waiting for them on the way. She ask for permission to accompany them to the school; the children expecting this question from her, said that she can accompany only if she stays with them for the rest of their life. They accept her as their father's wife; the film ends with them driving together to school. Mammootty - Vijayabhaskar Priya Raman - Hema Sukumari - School principal Thilakan - Vijayabhaskars's father Chippy -Sindhu and Anu's real mother and Vijayabhaskar's sister Innocent - Kuriakkose Janardhanan - Kunjukkuttychayan Kaviyoor Ponnamma - Vijayabhaskar's mother Kalpana - Matilda, School Teacher Oduvil Unnikrishnan - Shivaraman Sankaradi - Danielkutty Kunjandi Kozhikode Santha Devi - Hema's blind mother Santhakumari-hema's helper All lyrics are written by Gireesh Puthenchery.
No. 1 Snehatheeram Bangalore North on IMDb