A clergy house is the residence, or former residence, of one or more priests or ministers of religion. Such residences are known by various names, including "rectory" and "parsonage". Clergy houses are owned and maintained by a church, as a benefit to its clergy; the practice exists in many denominations because of the tendency of clergy to be transferred from one church to another at frequent intervals. Catholic clergy houses in particular may be lived in by several priests from a parish. Clergy houses serve as the administrative office of the local parish as well as a residence; because of the general conservationism of churches, many clergy houses are of historic interest or importance. In the United Kingdom the 14th-century Alfriston Clergy House was the first property to be acquired by the National Trust, it was purchased in a state of near ruin in 1896 for £10, the vicarage having moved elsewhere long before. In some countries where the clergy houses were rather grand they have now been sold off by the churches, exchanged for more modest properties.
In England the "Old Vicarage" or "Old Rectory" is common in villages, as a comfortable home for the upper middle-classes, in Scotland the "Old Manse". Others used for various functions. There are a number of more specific terms whose use depends on the rank of the occupant, the denomination and the locality. Above the parish level, traditionally a bishop's house was called a Bishop's Palace, a dean lives in a deanery, a canon in a canonry or "canon's house". Other titles may have different names for their houses. A rectory is the residence, or former residence, of an ecclesiastical rector, although in some cases an academic rector or other person with that title. In North American Anglicanism a far greater proportion of parish clergy were and are titled rectors than in Britain, so the rectory is more common there; the names used for homes of the ordinary parish clergy vary and generalization is difficult: In the Anglican Communion vicarage or parsonage, rectory if appropriate. Roman Catholics use priory, clergy house, parochial house, chapel house and rectory if appropriate.
In the Philippines, the term convent is used, a direct calque of the Spanish convento. Manse is a Scottish term, used in Scottish Presbyterianism, general in other parts of the British Isles by Non-conformist Churches such as the Methodists and the United Reformed Church; this word is commonly used by Baptists in the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries. Pastorium is the usual term in the Southern United States among Baptists. Lutheran churches use parsonage. Parish house is used by many denominations Clergy housing allowance Alun-Jones, Deborah The Wry Romance of the Literary Rectory. London: Thames & Hudson ISBN 978-0-500-51677-5 Media related to Clergy residences at Wikimedia Commons
East Midlands Ambulance Service
East Midlands Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust provides emergency 999, urgent care and patient transport services for the 4.8 million people within the East Midlands region of the UK - covering Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire. In 2016/17 EMAS received over 938,837 emergency 999 calls with ambulance clinicians dispatched to 653,215 incidents. EMAS employs about 3,290 staff at more than 70 locations, including two control rooms at Nottingham and Lincoln - the largest staff group are those who provide accident and emergency responses to 999 calls. In 2013 EMAS took on 140 new emergency care assistants. In 2014 EMAS announced. In 2010 − 11 EMAS missed key performance targets after a cold spell brought ice. By June 2015 EMAS had failed to meet their category 1 response times for the fifth successive year. EMAS provided patient transport services until contracts worth £20 million per year were taken over in 2012 by two private sector companies. In 2012−13 EMAS had a budget of £148 million.
The Trust spent £4.3 million on voluntary and private ambulance services in 2013−14 for support in busy periods. In 2015 the service faced a drop in funding of around £6 million a year. In October 2014 the Trust decided to spend £88,000 on upgrading its computer equipment. In 2018 the trust said it would need an extra £20 million a year to meet the new ambulance performance standards. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Official website
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism relating to manorialism. It was a condition of debt bondage, which developed during the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century; as with slaves, serfs could be bought, sold, or traded, abused with no rights over their own bodies, could not leave the land they were bound to. Serfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the lord of the manor who owned that land. In return they were entitled to protection and the right to cultivate certain fields within the manor to maintain their own subsistence. Serfs were required not only to work on the lord's fields, but in his mines and forests and to labor to maintain roads; the manor formed the basic unit of feudal society, the lord of the manor and the villeins, to a certain extent serfs, were bound legally: by taxation in the case of the former, economically and in the latter. The decline of serfdom in Western Europe has sometimes been attributed to the widespread plague epidemic of the Black Death, which reached Europe in 1347 and caused massive fatalities, disrupting society.
The decline had begun before that date. Serfdom became rare in most of Western Europe after the medieval renaissance at the outset of the high Middle Ages. But, conversely it grew stronger in Central and Eastern Europe, where it had been less common. In Eastern Europe the institution persisted until the mid-19th century. In the Austrian Empire serfdom was abolished by the 1781 Serfdom Patent. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 1860s. In Finland and Sweden, feudalism was never established, serfdom did not exist. According to medievalist historian Joseph R. Strayer, the concept of feudalism can be applied to the societies of ancient Persia, ancient Mesopotamia, Muslim India and Japan during the Shogunate. James Lee and Cameron Campbell describe the Chinese Qing dynasty as maintaining a form of serfdom. Melvyn Goldstein described Tibet as having had serfdom until 1959, but whether or not the Tibetan form of peasant tenancy that qualified as serfdom was widespread is contested by other scholars.
Bhutan is described by Tashi Wangchuk, a Bhutanese civil servant, as having abolished serfdom by 1959, but he believes that less than or about 10% of poor peasants were in copyhold situations. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery prohibits serfdom as a practice similar to slavery; the word serf was derived from the Latin servus. In Late Antiquity and most of the Middle Ages, what are now called serfs were designated in Latin as coloni; as slavery disappeared and the legal status of servi became nearly identical to that of the coloni, the term changed meaning into the modern concept of "serf". Serfdom was coined in 1850. Serfs had a specific place in feudal society, as did barons and knights: in return for protection, a serf would reside upon and work a parcel of land within the manor of his lord, thus the manorial system exhibited a degree of reciprocity. One rationale held that a serf "worked for all" while a knight or baron "fought for all" and a churchman "prayed for all".
The serf was the worst fed and rewarded, but at least he had his place and, unlike slaves, had certain rights in land and property. A lord of the manor could not sell his serfs. On the other hand, if he chose to dispose of a parcel of land, the serfs associated with that land stayed with it to serve their new lord; this unified system preserved for the lord long-acquired knowledge of practices suited to the land. Further, a serf could not abandon his lands without permission, nor did he possess a saleable title in them. A freeman became a serf through force or necessity. Sometimes the greater physical and legal force of a local magnate intimidated freeholders or allodial owners into dependency. A few years of crop failure, a war, or brigandage might leave a person unable to make his own way. In such a case he could strike a bargain with a lord of a manor. In exchange for gaining protection, his service was required: in labour, produce, or cash, or a combination of all; these bargains became formalized in a ceremony known as "bondage", in which a serf placed his head in the lord's hands, akin to the ceremony of homage where a vassal placed his hands between those of his overlord.
These oaths bound the lord and his new serf in a feudal contract and defined the terms of their agreement. These bargains were severe. A 7th-century Anglo Saxon "Oath of Fealty" states: By the Lord before whom this sanctuary is holy, I will to N. be true and faithful, love all which he loves and shun all which he shuns, according to the laws of God and the order of the world. Nor will I with will or action, through word or deed, do anything, unpleasing to him, on condition that he will hold to me as I shall deserve it, that he will perform everything as it was in our agreement when I submitted myself to him and chose his will. To become a serf was a commitment
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Great Coates railway station
Great Coates railway station serves the village of Great Coates in North East Lincolnshire, England. It was built by the Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway in 1848; the station, all trains serving it, are operated by Northern. Monday to Saturdays there is a two-hourly service eastbound to Cleethorpes and westbound to Barton-on-Humber. One early morning Doncaster to Cleethorpes train stopped here prior to the May 2018 timetable change; the service is operated by a Class 153 train all day. Summer Sundays there are 4 trains in each direction but there is no service on Sundays in winter. Train times and station information for Great Coates railway station from National Rail
Healing is a village and civil parish in North East Lincolnshire, England. It is situated between Stallingborough and Great Coates, 3 miles west from Grimsby; the village dates from at least the early medieval period, but contracted to a few habitations. Healing railway station opened on 1 April 1881, in the late 1800s/early 1900s the village expanded; the parish was once known as the site of a healing spring. Outside the village there are no significant habitations in the parish. A large textile fibre plant was constructed by Courtaulds near the Humber bank in the late 1950s, near the boundary with Great Coates a large industrial estate, was established in the 1990s. Human activity in the area dates from at least the Roman Britain period: there is archaeological evidence south-west of the village of an Iron Age enclosure complex, showing multiple periods of use. Healing was a manor at the time of the Domesday Book, in which it is referenced three times, as "Hegelinge", "Hechelinge", "Heghelinge".
The medieval village is thought to have diminished in size at some period in its history. The parish church of St Peter and St Paul dates from the 13th century; the upper parts of the bell tower are in the Decorated Gothic ashlar faced. The church was rebuilt in 1840, underwent a Victorian restoration in 1876 by Fowler of Louth, who added a new roof and windows and rebuilt its south side. Within the churchyard is a listed 14th- or 15th-century cross base; the church is a Grade II listed building. Healing Manor was begun in the early 18th century, is thought to have been a replacement for an earlier manor house. Remains of the former manor exist as moats, one of, incorporated into the gardens of the modern Hall. Healing railway station and the Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway opened in 1848, north of the village. In the Victorian period two springs were known in the parish close by each other, one fresh water, the other chalybeate, which were said to be efficacious in curing skin disorders.
This led some to claim. The population of the parish in 1821 was 94, was 102 around 1872. In 1885 Kelly's Directory noted that the parish area was 1,296 acres, farmed on the four field system. Around 1887 the village consisted of the church, the Manor House, a rectory, three substantial detached dwellings and a few other buildings; the remainder of the parish was empty, enclosed fields, apart from Wadd Farm and Woad Farm north of the village, Healing Wells farm to the south-west. Parts of Healing Wells farm are now listed structures. By the beginning of the 20th century some linear housing development had begun, along the parallel Station Road and The Avenue which ran north towards the railway station. A Methodist chapel had been established, built 1906 in the Arts and Crafts style. Additionally watercress beds had been established near the station; the Grimsby and Immingham Electric Railway was built through the northern part of the parish in 1912. By 1930 further housing had been built, including side streets off Station Road and The Avenue, as well as west of the traditional village centre along Stallingborough Road.
Further housing expansion occurred in the second half of the 20th century, with an estate built to the east of'The Avenue'. After the Second World War, the south bank of the Humber Estuary was industrially developed; the A180 road was built in the 1970s, passes through the parish. In 1992 an extension of Ciba-Geigy's Grimsby plant resulted in the construction of a combined heat and power plant on the west of their site within Healing parish. In the north-east of the parish, on the A180/A1136, a large industrial park, was established by developers Wykeland. By 2013 46 acres remained to be developed, with 2000 people employed at the estate; as of 2014 the 110 acres development had 725,000 square feet of building space developed. The village was expanded west by a new housing estate in around 2001. In 2012 an estate of 42 houses was given planning permission. Healing is bounded by the civil parishes of Great Coates to the east, Aylesby to the south-east, Riby to the south-west, Stallingborough to the west, with the Oldfleet Drain forming much of the western boundary.
To the north-east the parish is bounded by the Humber Estuary. An industrial freight line to Immingham Docks, the A180 road, the Barton Line run through the parish parallel to the foreshore. Healing is served by Healing railway station on the northern edge of the village, connected to the road network by the B1210 to the south. Much of the parish is low-lying agricultural land drained by man-made drains. North of Healing village. In the north of the parish, adjacent to the river bank, are the Lenzing Tencel plant and the associated 48 MW Cofely-owned Humber Energy CHP plant. Healing's population at the 2001 Census was 2,606; the village has a number of shops. Transport connections include Healing railway station on the Barton-Cleethorpes Line, the B1210 road, a local bus service. Healing has two schools, Healing Primary School and Healing Comprehensive, as well as