Ludovico Giovanni Manin was a Venetian politician, a Patrician of Venice and the last Doge of Venice. He governed Venetian Republic from 9 March 1789 until 1797, when he was forced to abdicate by Napoleon Bonaparte. Lodovico Manin was the eldest of five sons of Lodovico III Alvise and Lucrezia Maria Basadonna, the great-granddaughter of cardinal Pietro Basadonna, he attended the University of Bologna and was a boarder at the noble College of St. Xavier: there he printed some propositions of natural law, which he incurred in this period; when he began public life, was noticed for his generosity, his honesty, his kindness and above all his wealth. He married Elisabetta Grimani on 14 September 1748. Elisabetta was in poor health since childhood, she gave birth to no children. At twenty-six he was elected captain of Vicenza to Verona where he had to cope with the flood of 1757 Brescia. In 1764 he was appointed procurator de ultra of Saint Mark's. Fond of religious meditations, in 1769 he asked and obtained permission to not hold an office because of ill health and bad hearing.
In 1787 he was chosen to honor Pope Pius VI as he crossed the possessions of Venice and the Pope rewarded him by a knighthood and awarded him a number of spiritual privileges. As the eldest son he owned Villa Manin di Passariano, inherited by his nephew, Lodovico Leonardo I the son of his brother Giovanni and Caterina, the heiress of a wealthy noble Israelite family who claimed to descend from Cyrus the Great. Lodovico was elected Doge of Venice on 9 March 1789 four months before the start of the French Revolution, on the first ballot, his traditional coronation ceremony required him to throw coins to the Venetians, which cost more than 458,197 Lira, less than a quarter of, paid from the funds of the Republic of Venice, the rest coming out of his own pocket. By the year 1792, he had allowed the once great Venetian merchant fleet to decline to a mere 309 merchantmen; when Napoleon invaded Italy, along with the Republic of Genoa, did not join the coalition of Italian states formed in 1795, instead maintaining neutrality.
On 15 April 1797, French general Jean-Andoche Junot gave the Doge an ultimatum, not accepted. A secret addition to the Treaty of Leoben, signed on 17 April 1797, gave Venice—as well as Istria and Dalmatia— to Austria. On 25 April 1797, the French fleet arrived at the Lido. Venetian cannons sank one of the ships, but did not succeed in repelling the invasion since the Venetian war fleet numbered only 4 galleys and 7 galliots; the Doge left the Doge's Palace two days later. On 16 May French troops entered Piazza San Marco and the surrender contract was signed, submitting Venice to French rule. After his abdication, Lodovico Manin refused an offer to become the interim head of the municipality and withdrew from society, living in near seclusion in the Palazzo Dolfin Manin refusing to answer his door to friends, he returned the ducal insignia alongside the " Golden Book" that served as a register of the oligarchical families of the republic to the Piazza San Marco where they were hidden by the new city authorities.
Due to health reasons he was forced to walk a lot and on these occasions was sometimes made the object of insults from former citizens who lamented Venice's changed fortunes and were angered by his decision to avoid bloodshed by surrendering the freedom of the ancient republic to the French. He wanted to end his days in a monastery but this proved impossible, he died in his house of dropsy and heart problems on 24 October 1802. His will ordered that his funeral should take place "with the least possible pomp", he left 110,000 ducats to the Manin Foundation for the benefit of the city's lunatics and girls from poor families needing a dowry. His remains were interred in the chapel of the Church of the Scalzi in Venice near the present railway station of Venice Saint Lucia in the family tomb of Manin where his late wife lay; the tomb slab bears the simple inscription Manini Cineres. He left his memoirs which were collected and published by his grandson Louis Joseph Manin; the son of Louis Joseph, namely Louis Leonardo Manin had no legitimate children.
Lodovico Manin. Memorie del dogado and notes by Attilio Sarfatti, Venice, 1886
Kingdom of the Morea
The Kingdom of the Morea or Realm of the Morea was the official name the Republic of Venice gave to the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece when it was conquered from the Ottoman Empire during the Morean War in 1684–99. The Venetians tried, with considerable success, to repopulate the country and reinvigorate its agriculture and economy, but were unable to gain the allegiance of the bulk of the population, nor to secure their new possession militarily; as a result, it was lost again to the Ottomans in a brief campaign in June–September 1715. Venice had a long history of interaction with the Morea, dating back to the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, when the Republic acquired control of the coastal fortresses of Modon and Coron and Argos; these they held after the remainder of the peninsula was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1460, but they were lost in the first and third Ottoman–Venetian Wars. In successive conflicts, the Ottomans pried away the other remaining Venetian overseas possessions, including Cyprus and Crete, the latter after a prolonged struggle that ended in 1669.
In 1684, following the Ottoman defeat at the second Siege of Vienna, Venice joined the Holy League and declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Under the leadership of Francesco Morosini, who had led the defence of Candia, the capital of Crete, the Venetians took advantage of the Ottoman weakness and took over the island of Lefkada in 1684. In the next year, Morosini landed on the Peloponnese, within two years, aided by the local Greek population, took control of the peninsula and its fortresses. A subsequent Venetian campaign into eastern Continental Greece succeeded in capturing Athens, but failed before the walls of Chalkis. Thereafter the conflict degenerated into a stalemate, with raids and counter-raids on both sides, until the signature of the Treaty of Karlowitz between the Ottomans and the Holy League, which in Greece left the Morea and the island of Aegina in Venetian hands. In 1688, with their control of the country complete, the Venetians appointed Giacomo Corner as the governor-general of the Morea to administer their new territory.
The task he faced was daunting, as the population had fled from the coming of war: 656 out of 2,115 villages were deserted all the Muslim population had abandoned the peninsula for lands still in Ottoman hands, while towns like Patras, which numbered 25,000 inhabitants before the war, now had 1,615 left. Apart from the region of Corinthia and the autonomous Mani Peninsula, the Venetians counted only 86,468 inhabitants in 1688, out of an estimated pre-war population of 200,000. Other sources, like the Englishman Bernard Randolph, who lived in Greece in 1671–1679, assessed the population of the Morea at the time at 120,000, of which one quarter Muslim and the rest Christian; this is commensurate with the attested demographic decline across the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century, the demands made by the Ottoman government on the peninsula's resources during the long Cretan War. Under Corner's oversight, a committee of three senators was sent to the Morea to reorganize the provincial administration, revive local authorities, compile a cadaster and settle land disputes.
The peninsula was divided into four provinces: Romania, in the northeastern Peloponnese, with capital at Nafplio, the districts of Argos, Corinth and Hagios Petros in Tsakonia Laconia, in the southeast, with capital at Monemvasia, the districts of Mystras, Kelefa and Zarnata Messenia, in the southwest, with capital at Navarino, the districts of Modon, Androusa, Leontari, Fanari and Navarino Achaia, in the northwest, with capital at Patras, the districts of Vostitsa, Kalavryta and PatrasEach province and district was headed by a provveditore, who combined civil and military authority, was aided by a rector in charge of justice and a chamberlain in charge of financial affairs. To the "Kingdom of the Morea" was joined the administration of the islands of Kythera and Antikythera, off the southeastern coast of the Peloponnese, in Venetian hands since 1204; the formal title of the Venetian governor-general of the Morea was Provveditore generale delle Armi, with his seat in Nafplio. In the first period after the conquest, he was assisted by two provveditori extraordinary.
The provveditori generali appointed during the duration of the Kingdom of the Morea are known through their relazioni, the reports they submitted to the Venetian government on their deeds. These were: Giacomo Corner Tadeo Gradenigo, provveditore estraordinario Antonio Molin, provveditore estraordinario Marin Michiel Agostino Sagredo Paolo Nani Francesco Grimani Giacomo da Mosto Antonio Nani Angelo Emo Marco Loredan Antonio Loredan Alessandro Bon To restore the province, settlers were encouraged to immigrate from the other Greek lands with the lure of considerable land grants, chiefly from Attica but from other parts of Central Greece the areas that suffered during the war. 2,000 Cretans, Catholic Chians, Venetian citizens from the Ionian Islands and some Bulgarians answered this call. In addition, mention is made of 1,317 Muslim families that remained behind, converted to Christianity and were given lands or enterprises as concessions; as a result of these
Giovanni Dandolo was the 48th Doge of Venice, elected late in his life on 31 March 1280, died on 2 November 1289. During his reign the first Venetian gold ducat was introduced into circulation. Dandolo came from a prominent Venetian family that provided three other doges to Venice: Giovanni's great-grandfather Enrico Dandolo, Francesco Dandolo and Andrea Dandolo. Two women from the Dandolo family married doges: Giovanna Dandolo with Pasquale Malipiero and Zilia Dandolo with Lorenzo Priuli. Dandolo is a distant relative of many famous figures in Italian history, such as Fra Angelico, Eugenio Canfari, Benito Mussolini. Giovanni Dandolo was married to some one named Caterina. Before his election as doge, Dandolo occupied various public positions including Podestà of Bologna and Padua, commander of the Venetian naval units, he was a commercial representative of Ragusa in 1237 when he signed a trade agreement with Stefan Vladislav. The news of his election to doge reached him while he was fighting in a military action against Istria and Trieste, which expanded into an open war in the following year involving Venice's perennial enemy, the Patriarchate of Aquileia and the Papal States.
More armed clashes followed, continued for the duration of Dandolo's reign as doge. After Dandolo signed the peace Treaty of Ravenna with Ancona, a new military theater opened through the revolt in Crete led by the Greek Alexios Kalergis and backed by the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII, Venice's rival for the domination of the eastern Mediterranean; these conflicts forced the Republic of Venice to negotiate peace agreements with Charles of Anjou and Philip III of France, concluding an alliance with the former in the Treaty of Orvieto. During Dandolo's reign as doge, relations with the Vatican were tense. Venice had refused to join the Papal States in a punitive action against Sicily, provoking Pope Martin IV to excommunicate Venice, repealed in 1285 by Martin's successor, Pope Honorius IV. In 1287 unrest flared up again in Istria and spread to Friuli; the war widened after the intervention of the German Emperor Rudolf I, allied with the Patriarchate of Aquileia, Venice had to sue for peace. In 1284, the first Venetian gold ducat called the Zecchino, was introduced into circulation.
The ducat would be used until the end of the Venetian Republic and was always made with the same weight, 3.56 grams of 24 karat gold. The coin was valid in all states; the name ducat comes from the inscription on the coin's back: Sit tibi Christe datus quem tu regis iste ducatus, which frames a picture of Christ. The front of each coin showed the ruling doges on their knees in front of the city's patron saint, Mark the Evangelist. Dandolo was buried in San Zanipolo; the tomb was not preserved, only a stone slab with an inscription commemorates the doge. Helmut Dumler: Venedig und die Dogen. Düsseldorf 2001
Pietro Gradenigo was the 49th Doge of Venice, reigning from 1289 to his death. When he was elected Doge, he was serving as the podestà of Capodistria in Istria. Venice suffered a serious blow with the fall of Acre, the last Crusader stronghold in the Holy Land, to the Mamluks of Egypt in 1291. A war between Venice and Genoa began in 1294, Venice sustained some serious losses: it lost a naval battle, its possessions in Crete were pillaged and the Byzantine emperor, Andronikos II, arrested many Venetians in Constantinople. In response, the Venetian fleet sacked Galata and threatened the imperial palace of Blachernae, but in 1298 they lost again - this time at Curzola. In 1299 the two republics signed a peace treaty. Doge Gradenigo was responsible for the so-called Serrata del Maggior Consiglio, the Locking of the Great Council of Venice; this new law, passed in February 1297, restricted membership of the future Councils only to the descendants of those nobles who were its members between 1293 and 1297.
This move created a oligarchic system, disenfranchising a great majority of the citizens and provoking some unrest. In 1308, during Gradenigo's reign as doge, Venice became involved in war with the Papacy over the control of Ferrara and on 27 March 1309 the Republic was excommunicated by Pope Clement V, barring all Christians from trading with Venice; the Doge's policy, seen by many as disastrous, led to a plot to depose him and the Great Council, led by Bajamonte Tiepolo and other members of the aristocratic families. On 15 June 1310, the coup failed and its leaders were punished. Tiepolo's plot led to the creation of the Council of Ten as a temporary institution, which evolved into the permanent body which in reality governed the Republic. On 13 August 1311, Gradenigo died, since Venice was under interdict and the religious ceremonies could not be held, he was buried in an unmarked grave on Murano, he was married first to Tomasina Morosini and to Agnese Zantani
Council of Ten
The Council of Ten, or the Ten, from 1310 to 1797, one of the major governing bodies of the Republic of Venice. The Council of Ten was created in 1310 by Doge Pietro Gradenigo. Created as a temporary body to investigate the plot of Baiamonte Tiepolo and Marco Querini, the powers of the Council were made formally permanent in 1455; the Council was composed of ten patrician magistrates elected by the Great Council to one-year terms. Until 1582, an additional zonta of around 15 to 20 members served on the Council. No more than one member of the same family could serve on the Council at any one time, members could not be re-elected to successive terms. Elections took place annually in others in September; the Council, which met at least weekly, had the power to impose punishments upon nobles, including banishment and capital punishment. Doge Marino Faliero was executed on the council's orders in 1355, Count of Carmagnola was executed on the council's orders in 1432; the body's deliberations were secretive, members of the Council of Ten took an oath of secrecy.
Historian Edward Wallace Muir Jr. wrote: "The Council of Ten stood somewhat apart from the hierarchy of offices but was proverbially powerful. With its secret funds, system of anonymous informers, police powers, broad jurisdictional mandate over matters of state security, the members of the Council of Ten, along with those of the Collegio, rotated offices among themselves and constituted the inner circle of oligarchical patricians who, in effect, ruled the republic." During the War of the League of Cambrai, for example, the Council had responsibility for finding ways to pay for the state's military expenses. From the 1490s through the 1530s, the Council of Ten and other Venetian authorities enacted sumptuary laws. In 1506, the Ten enacted an anti-banqueting law, seeking to prevent ambitious noblemen from engaging in vote buying by hosting lavish dinner parties at the compaginie della calza; the law prohibited women other than the wives of members from attending such dinners. The Council was formally tasked with maintaining the security of the Republic and preserving the government from overthrow or corruption.
However, its small size and ability to make decisions led to more mundane business being referred to it, by 1457 it was enjoying unlimited authority over all governmental affairs. In particular, it oversaw Venice's diplomatic and intelligence services, managed its military affairs, handled legal matters and enforcement. By the end of the sixteenth century, the Council of Ten had become Venice's spy chiefs, overseeing the city's vast intelligence network. In 1539, the Council established the State Inquisitors, a tribunal of three judges chosen from among its members to deal with threats to state security; the Inquisitors were given equal authority to that of the entire Council of Ten, could try and convict those accused of treason independently of their parent body. To further these activities, the Inquisitors created a large network of spies and informants, both in Venice and abroad. Inquisitors could conduct secret trials with a low standard of proof, the inquisitors' practices bore strong similarities to those of the Roman Inquisition, established three years later.
From 1624 onward, the Council of Ten was charged with the prosecution of all crimes involving the private lives of Venetian patricians. David Chambers & Brian Pullan with Jennifer Fletcher. Venice: A Documentary History, 1450-1630. University of Toronto Press/Renaissance Society of America. Stanley Chojnacki, "Identity and Ideology in Renaissance Venice: The Third Serrata" in Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297–1797. De Vivo, Filippo. Information and Communication in Venice: Rethinking Early Modern Politics. Oxford University Press. Edward Muir. Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice. Princeton University Press. John Julius Norwich. A History of Venice. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-72197-5
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars, he won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history, he was born in Corsica to a modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789.
He rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt, he became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808; the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, ended in victory for the Allies against Napoleon.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war; the French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted, it resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil; the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
Napoleon took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June; the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries and large parts of modern Italy and Germany, he implemented fundamental liberal policies throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, so on—were championed, consolidated and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica fr
Procurator of St Mark's
The office of Procurator of St Mark's was the second most prestigious life appointment in the Republic of Venice, after that of Doge of Venice. Originating in the ninth century, the Procurator's original duties were to attend to the fabric and administration of St Mark's Basilica. There was one Procurator, appointed by the Doge, but between 1231 and 1442, their number increased to nine procurators appointed by the Great Council of Venice, their duties expanded in 1269 to include the protection of orphans and the insane, as well as the execution of wills. Appointment as a Procurator of San Marco was one of the highest honours the Most Serene Republic could bestow on its leading citizens, next to the Dogate, along with the latter, the only appointments for life; the nine procurators consisted of: the Procuratori de Supra, who took care of the administration of St Mark's Basilica. The Procurators' offices were located in the Procuratie in the Piazza San Marco; the office of Procurator of St Mark's was not abolished at the fall of the Republic of Venice in 1797.
Instead, the Procurators remained responsible for administering the assets of St. Mark's Basilica, under the authority of the Patriarch of Venice; the position was confirmed by a royal decree issued by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy in 1931. Today, there are seven procurators, with the president holding the title of First Procurator of St Mark's; the Procurators work with architects and engineers to ensure the historic preservation of St. Mark's Basilica; this article is based on this article on Italian Wikipedia. Da Mosto, Andrea: L'Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Biblioteca d'Arte editrice, Rome, 1937