The state of Ottoman administration in the Balkans continued to deteriorate throughout the 19th century, with the central government occasionally losing control over whole provinces. Reforms imposed by European powers did little to improve the conditions of the Christian population, Bosnia suffered at least two waves of rebellion by the local Muslim population, the most recent in 1850. Austria consolidated after the turmoil of the first half of the century, meanwhile, the nominally autonomous, de facto independent principalities of Serbia and Montenegro also sought to expand into regions inhabited by their compatriots. Nationalist and irredentist sentiments were strong and were encouraged by Russia, on 24 August 1854, during the Crimean War, the Ottoman Empire took its first foreign loans. A large amount of money was spent for building new ships for the Ottoman Navy during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz. In 1875, the Ottoman Navy had 21 battleships and 173 warships of other types, all of these expenditures, however, put a huge strain on the Ottoman treasury. In the meantime, a drought in Anatolia in 1873 and flooding in 1874 caused famine. This made the European creditors bondholders, and assigned special rights to the OPDA for collecting various types of tax and customs revenues. After the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, Austria-Hungary stationed military garrisons in the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia and Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar, taking advantage of the chaos that occurred during the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, Bulgaria declared its formal independence on 5 October 1908. Herzegovina Uprising April Uprising Razlovtsi insurrection On June 28,1876, Montenegro, great eastern crisis and Serbia, 1875-1878. Svetska srpska zajednica, Institut srpskog naroda, király, Béla K. Rothenberg, Gunther Erich. War and Society in East Central Europe, Insurrections wars and the crisis in the 1870s
Serbian soldiers attacking the Ottoman army at Mramor, 1877
The Avenger: An Allegorical War Map for 1877 by Fred. W. Rose, 1872: This map reflects the "Great Eastern Crisis" and the subsequent Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.