SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period of mass starvation and disease in Ireland from 1845 to 1849. With the most affected areas in the west and south of Ireland, where the Irish language was dominant, the period was contemporaneously known in Irish as An Drochshaol, loosely translated as the "hard times"; the worst year of the period was 1847, known as "Black'47". During the famine, about one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%; the event is sometimes referred to as the Irish Potato Famine outside Ireland. The proximate cause of the famine was a natural event, a potato blight, which infected potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s causing some 100,000 deaths outside Ireland and influencing much of the unrest in the widespread European Revolutions of 1848. From 1846, the impact of the blight was exacerbated by the Whig government's economic policy of laissez-faire capitalism. Longer-term causes include the system of absentee landlordism, single-crop dependence.

The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which from 1801 to 1922 was ruled directly by Westminster as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic and cultural landscape, producing an estimated two million refugees and spurring a century-long population decline. For both the native Irish and those in the diaspora, the famine entered folk memory; the strained relations between many Irish and their government soured further because of the famine, heightening ethnic and sectarian tensions and boosting Irish nationalism and republicanism in Ireland and among Irish emigrants in the United States and elsewhere. The potato blight returned to Europe in 1879, but by that point the Land War, described as one of the largest agrarian movements to take place in 19th-century Europe, had begun in Ireland; the movement, organized by the Land League, continued the political campaign for the Three Fs, issued in 1850 by the Tenant Right League during the Great Famine.

When the potato blight returned in the 1879 famine the League boycotted "notorious landlords" and its members physically blocked evictions of farmers. Since the Acts of Union in January 1801, Ireland had been part of the United Kingdom. Executive power lay in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Chief Secretary for Ireland, who were appointed by the British government. Ireland sent 105 members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Irish representative peers elected 28 of their own number to sit for life in the House of Lords. Between 1832 and 1859, 70 % of Irish representatives were the sons of landowners. In the 40 years that followed the union, successive British governments grappled with the problems of governing a country which had, as Benjamin Disraeli put it in 1844, "a starving population, an absentee aristocracy, an alien established Protestant church, in addition the weakest executive in the world". One historian calculated that, between 1801 and 1845, there had been 114 commissions and 61 special committees enquiring into the state of Ireland, that "without exception their findings prophesied disaster.

Lectures printed in 1847 by John Hughes, Bishop of New York, are a contemporary exploration into the antecedent causes the political climate, in which the Irish famine occurred. During the 18th century, the "middleman system" for managing landed. Rent collection was left in middlemen; this assured the landlord of a regular income, relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. Catholics, the bulk of whom lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity despite Catholic emancipation in 1829, made up 80% of the population. At the top of the "social pyramid" was the "ascendancy class", the English and Anglo-Irish families who owned most of the land and held more or less unchecked power over their tenants; some of their estates were vast. Many of these absentee landlords lived in England; the rent revenue—collected from "impoverished tenants" who were paid minimal wages to raise crops and livestock for export—was sent to England. In 1843, the British Government considered that the land question in Ireland was the root cause of disaffection in the country.

They established a Royal Commission, chaired by the Earl of Devon, to enquire into the laws regarding the occupation of land. Daniel O'Connell described this commission as "perfectly one-sided", being composed of landlords, with no tenant representation. In February 1845, Devon reported: It would be impossible adequately to describe the privations which they habitually and silently endure... in many districts their only food is the potato, their only beverage water... their cabins are a protection against the weather... a bed or a blanket is a rare luxury... and nearly in all their pig and a manure heap constitute their only property. The Commissioners concluded they could not "forbear expressing our strong sense of the patient endurance which the labouring classes have exhibited under sufferings greater, we believe, than the people of any other country in Europe have to sustain"; the Commission stat

San Francisco Film Critics Circle Awards 2005

The 4th San Francisco Film Critics Circle Awards, honoring the best in film for 2005, were given on 12 December 2005. Best Picture: Brokeback Mountain Best Director: Ang Lee - Brokeback Mountain Best Screenplay: Good Night, Good Luck. - George Clooney and Grant Heslov Best Actor: Heath Ledger - Brokeback Mountain Best Actress: Reese Witherspoon - Walk the Line Best Supporting Actor: Kevin Costner - The Upside of Anger Best Supporting Actress: Amy Adams - Junebug Best Foreign Language Film: Caché • France/Austria/Germany/Italy/United States Best Documentary: Grizzly Man Marlon Riggs Award: Jenni Olson - The Joy of Life 2005 San Francisco Film Critics Circle Awards'Brokeback' is top film pick of S. F. critics

1984 Michigan Wolverines football team

The 1984 Michigan Wolverines football team was an American football team that represented the University of Michigan in the 1984 Big Ten Conference football season. In their 16th season under head coach Bo Schembechler, the Wolverines compiled a 6–6 record and outscored opponents by a total of 214 to 200, it was the only team in Michigan's 21 seasons under coach Schembechler that did not finish its season with a winning record. Michigan began the season under quarterback Jim Harbaugh; the Wolverines went 3–1 in their first four games under Harbaugh, but Harbaugh's season ended with a broken arm in a loss to Michigan State. Michigan next turned to Russ Rein who started two games, including a 26–0 loss to Iowa, the worst loss for a Michigan team since Schembechler took over as head coach. Chris Zurbrugg took over as quarterback for the remaining five games in which the Wolverines won two and lost three. In the 1984 Holiday Bowl, Michigan lost to national champion BYU. BYU quarterback Robbie Bosco led a fourth-quarter comeback with two touchdown passes, including the game winner with 83 seconds remaining in the game.

Linebacker Mike Mallory was selected as the most valuable player on the Michigan team. The team's statistical leaders included quarterback Jim Harbaugh with 718 passing yards, tailback Jamie Morris with 573 rushing yards, tight end Sim Nelson with 459 receiving yards, placekicker Bob Bergeron with 60 points scored; the 1983 Michigan Wolverines football team had compiled a 9–3, lost to Auburn in the Sugar Bowl, was ranked No. 8 in the final AP poll. Several key players from the 1983 team did not return in 1984, including Steve Smith, a three-year starter at quarterback, All-American offensive linemen Stefan Humphries and Tom Dixon. In preseason competition, Jim Harbaugh won the starting quarterback position over Bo Rein and Chris Zurbrugg. Offensive guard Doug James and linebacker Mike Mallory were selected as the team co-captains. On September 8, 1984, Michigan defeated Jimmy Johnson's Miami Hurricanes, the defending national champions who were ranked No. 1 by both the AP and UPI in preseason polls.

The Wolverines prevailed by a 22–14 score before a crowd of 105,403 at Michigan Stadium. The victory broke Miami's 13-game winning streak. Michigan's first scoring drive began when Rodney Lyles forced a Don Oliver fumble and Michigan recovered at its 45-yard line. Quarterback Jim Harbaugh, making his first start for Michigan, led the Wolverines 55 yards down the field with Bob Perryman scoring on six-yard run. Bob Bergeron missed the extra point. Michigan's defense dominated in the first half, holding Miami scoreless, the Wolverines led 6–0 at halftime. In the third quarter, Miami quarterback Bernie Kosar threw a 32-yard touchdown pass to Eddie Brown, Miami took a 7–6 lead. Michigan responded with two drives capped by Perryman touchdowns and led 19–7 with seven minutes remaining in the game. Kosar connected with Stanley Shakespeare for a 44-yard touchdown pass to cut the lead to five points. On Miami's next possession, Rodney Lyles intercepted a Kosar pass deep in Miami territory, Bob Bergeron kicked a 27-yard field goal to extend Michigan's lead to eight points.

When Miami regained possession for its final drive, Lyles made his third interception of the game. Michigan intercepted a total of six passes off Kosar, sacked Kosar five times, forced two fumbles. Kosar completed 16 of 38 passes for 228 yards. Harbaugh completed 11 of 21 passes for 163 yards. Tailback Gerald White rushed for 89 yards on 27 carries, while Perryman scored three touchdowns and ran for 79 yards. Miami's Alonzo Highsmith was the leading ground-gainer with 126 yards. On September 15, 1984, Michigan lost to Washington, 20–11, before a crowd of 103,072 at Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor. In his second start for Michigan, Jim Harbaugh completed 17 of 37 passes for 183 yards and three interceptions. Michigan turned the ball over twice on fumbles. On September 22, 1984, Michigan beat Wisconsin, 20–14, before a crowd of 104,239 at Michigan Stadium. Wisconsin out-gained the Wolverines, 162 yards to nine, in the first quarter, but was unable to score. Michigan led 10–0 at halftime. Six Wisconsin turnovers helped Michigan.

Wisconsin came back in the second half. A blocked Michigan punt at the Wolverines 14-yard line resulted in the Badgers' final touchdown. Jim Harbaugh completed 11 of 21 passes for a touchdown. Jamie Morris rushed. Wisconsin back Larry Emery rushed. Bob Bergeron kicked two field goals, including a 50-yarder in the fourth quarter. On September 29, 1984, Michigan defeated Indiana, 14–6, before a crowd of 38,729 at Memorial Stadium in Bloomington, Indiana. Jamie Morris gained 86 yards on 19 carries. Jim Harbaugh completed 14 of 18 passes for 135 yards. On October 6, 1974, Michigan lost to Michigan State, 19–7, before a crowd of 105,612 at Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor. Bobby Morse returned a punt 87 yards for a touchdown to give the Spartans a 13–0 lead in the second quarter. Michigan quarterback Jim Harbaugh led the Wolverines down the field on a drive capped by a one-yard Eddie Garret touchdown run. In the third quarter, Harbaugh collided with Spartan linebacker Thomas Tyree as they went after a loose ball.

Harbaugh's arm was broken, he was carried off the field on a stretcher. Harbaugh had completed seven of 14 passes for 101 yards to that point. Russ Rein and Chris Zurbrugg, playing in place of Harbaugh, were unable to move the team and combined for three interceptions. On October 13, 1984, Michigan defeated Northwestern, 31–0, before a homecoming crowd of 102,245 at Michigan Stadium; the game was played at the same time that Game 5 of