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Great Ireland

Great Ireland known as White Men's Land, in Latin as Hibernia Major and Albania, was a land said by various Norsemen to be located near Vinland. In one report, in the Saga of Eric the Red, some skrælingar captured in Markland described the people in what was White Men's Land, to have been "dressed in white garments, uttered loud cries, bore long poles, wore fringes." Another report identifies it with the Albani people, with "hair and skin as white as snow." Scholars and writers disagree on the nature of the land, from either being treated as a myth based on faded knowledge of lands in the western ocean, to theories on locating it somewhere in North America. Celtic folklore tells of a mythical land across the western ocean referred to as the Celtic Otherworld known as Annwn or Avalon, among other names; the Byzantine scholar Procopius of Caesarea described the Otherworld of the ancient Gauls and said it was located west of Britain. Plutarch, in a chapter from the Moralia called'Concerning the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon', describes a land called Ogygia, five days sail from Britain and that the Celtic natives knew of three other lands equal distance from Ogygian and from each other in the direction of the setting sun including a'Great Continent' and'Land of Cronus' and from the ancient era until the early Christian historical era, geographers referred to the waters beyond Iceland as the ‘Cronian Sea’.

First I will tell you the author of the piece, if there is no objection, who begins after Homer’s fashion with, an isle Ogygian lies far out at sea, distant five days’ sail from Britain, going westwards, three others distant from it, from each other, are more opposite to the summer visits of the sun. The Great Continent by which the great sea is surrounded on all sides, they say, lies less distant from the others, but about five thousand stadia from Ogygia, for one sailing in a rowing-galley. Irish documents called ‘Immrama’ from the 6th and 7th centuries record the adventures of Irish priests in the western ocean while other folkloric stories tell of the Atlantic voyages of those like Saint Brendan and King Arthur considered mythical, yet Gerardus Mercator refers to a Jacob Cnoyen, who had learned that eight men returned to Norway from an expedition to the Arctic islands in 1364, in a letter to John Dee, stating that the eight men who came to Norway in 1364 were not survivors of a recent expedition, but descended from the colonists who had settled the distant lands several generations earlier and claimed to be descendants of King Arthur's expedition.

The following is a translation taken from Mercator's 1569 polar map: "we have taken from the Itinerium of Jacobus Cnoyen of the Hague, who makes some citations from the Gesta of Arthur of Britain. He was descended in the fifth generation from those whom Arthur had sent to inhabit these lands, he related that in the year 1360 a certain Minorite, an Englishman from Oxford, a mathematician, went to those islands; the four canals there pictured he said flow with such current to the inner whirlpool, that if vessels once enter they cannot be driven back by wind." According to the Landnámabók, Ari Marsson, married to Erik the Red's first cousin and related to the author of the Íslendingabók and Landnámabók, discovered the land six days' sailing west of Ireland. This journey is thought to have occurred around the year 983, their son was Ari. It lies in the ocean to westward, near Vineland the Good, said to be a six-day sail west from Ireland. Ari couldn't get away, was baptized there; this story was first told by Hrafn Limerick-Farer.

Thorkel Gellisson quoted some Icelanders who had heard Earl Thorfinn of Orkney say that Ari had been recognized in White Man's Land, couldn't get away from there, but was thought highly of. The Annals of Greenland, an 11th century Norse chronicle, says: Next to Vinland the Good and a little beyond lies Albania, Hvitramannaland. Thither were sailings from Ireland. Irishmen and Icelanders recognized Ari, son of Mar and Thorkatla from Reykjaness, of whom no tidings have been received for a long time and who became a chieftain of the land. White Men's Land is mentioned in the Saga of Eric the Red, where it is related that the inhabitants of Markland speak of it to Thorfinn Karlsefni. Now, when they sailed from Vinland, they had a southern wind, reached Markland, found five Skrælingar. Karlsefni's people caught the children, and they took the children with them, taught them their speech, they were baptized. The children called their mother Vætilldi, their father Uvægi, they said that kings ruled over the land of the Skrælingar, one of w

Gaspar Correia

Gaspar Correia was a Portuguese historian considered a Portuguese Polybius. He authored Lendas da Índia, one of the earliest and most important works about Portuguese rule in Asia. Little is known of his family origins and birthplace, it is assumed that he was born in 1492. He lived in Portuguese India arriving around 1512-14 to serve as a soldier and chosen as scrivener to Afonso de Albuquerque, for which he was proud, he returned to Portugal in 1529 for some time but returned to India. His work Lendas da Índia, though written in a rude style, is considered an indispensable contemporary reference, having profited from his thirty-five years' work in India, from privileged sources unknown to Fernão Lopes de Castanheda or João de Barros, he wrote the first European account on Asiatic Cholera. One theory suggests that he was murdered in Portuguese Malacca, by order of Governor Estêvão da Gama, the son of Vasco da Gama; the 3,500-page Lendas da Índia manuscript was brought from India to Portugal by Miguel da Gama shortly after Correia's death and copies circulated only among authorised persons.

One author claims, without citing any source, that the manuscript was published in 12 volumes in 1556 but, if it existed, no trace remains. His family retained the manuscript of the original, printed in 1858 and 1864 by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, he died around 1563 in Portuguese India. CORREIA, Gaspar. Lendas da Índia. Porto: 1975. BELL, Aubrey Fitz Gerald, "Gaspar Corrêa", Hispanic notes & monographs. Portuguese series v, Volume 5 of Hispanic society of America, Oxford University Press, H. Milford, 1924. BANHA de ANDRADE, António Alberto, Gaspar Correia, o 1.º historiador português do Oriente. Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Centro de Estudos de História e Cartografia Antiga, Lisbon, 1985. CORREA, Gaspar; the Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama, His Viceroyalty. From the Lendas da India of Gaspar Correa, accompanied by original documents. Printed for the Hakluyt Society, London: 1869. CORREA, Gaspar. Lendas da India. Lisboa: Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, 1858-1866. 8 volumes

Uitvoerend Bewind

The Uitvoerend Bewind was the name of the government of the Batavian Republic between 1798 and 1801. The president of the Uitvoerend Bewind was head of state of the Batavian Republic; the political group of unitarian democrats was dissatisfied with the slowness of the progress of the Dutch parliament, the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic. They were in favour of a central authority, opposed federalism, wanted general elections. Conservatives and moderates stood against such demands, the country had become un-governable, without prospects of drafting a constitution. Under the leadership of Pieter Vreede, the unitarian democrats engineered a coup d'état on January 22, 1798, with the help of general Herman Willem Daendels, began to rule as the Uitvoerend Bewind, which soon became unpopular among their own supporters in the country. A second coup followed on June 1798, with the goal of removing the impopular rule. An interim government was installed, which would reign until new elections would bring a new Representative Assembly, still under universal suffrage.

Between 1798 and 1801, the president of the Uitvoerend Bewind was the head of state of the Batavian Republic, not as the president of the Assembly

Mathilde Flögl

Mathilde Flögl was an Austrian artist and designer. She worked in several different mediums including textiles and paint. Flögl was a member of the Wiener Werkstätte translated to the Vienna Workshops; this group was part of the Arts and Crafts movement dedicated to elegance and appropriateness. They aimed to expand it to all fields of life. Flögl was active in this group, she participated in most of the major Wiener Werkstätte exhibitions; the Viennese Museum of Applied Arts houses over 1,600 of Flögl's works from when she was involved with the Wiener Werkstätte. Among these are many independent works and collaborations with other individuals in the group. Notable members of the Wiener Werkstätte include two of its founders Josef Hoffman and Koloman Moser as well as Gustav Klimt, among others. For the group's 25th anniversary, Flögl amassed, arranged and published, The Wiener Werkstatte, 1903-1928: The Evolution of the Modern Applied Arts; the book itself was a work of art using elaborate materials and decoration in its pages.

The group's finances were always precarious because of their use of these costly materials but in 1929 the Wiener Werkstätte disbanded due to bankruptcy with the stock market crash that same year. In 1931, Flögl began a studio of her own. Flögl was a member of the Wiener Frauenkunst, a group of female artists working in Vienna. Flögl's work is in museums around the world including the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, The Kyoto Costume Institute in Kyoto, the Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna, among others. Mathilde Flögl was born on 9 September 1893 in Brno, Czech Republic. Between 1909–16, she studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna. During her education, Flögl focused on applied graphics and enamelling taught by Josef Hoffman and Oskar Strnad among others. Flögl died in 1958 in Austria. Flögl joined the Wiener Werkstätte in 1916, an artist collective focusing on refinement of material and integrating art into all aspects of life, their pieces were made both independently and on commission.

The collective was formally registered as “Wiener Werkstätte, Productivgenossenschaft von Kunsthandwerkern in Wien, Genossenschaft mit unbeschränkter Haftung” in 1903 by Josef Hoffman, Koloman Moser, Fritz Waerndorfer. The workshop had conflicting views on its integration of women artists, it was known to many as a space for women to produce art without the burden of the male gaze. The majority of women in the collective were paid as much as their male counterparts. Yet, a critic describes the Wiener Werkstaette workshop in Döblergasse: “When one entered the ateliers in the Döblergasse, one saw little of the men directing the whole thing… but the young women-artists in their white smocks zipped through the whole building, populating all of its stories. If one searched for them in the workplaces, one found them either at the drawing table with a textile-design sketch, or occupied with embroidery or a poster, or else busy as ceramicist at the pottery wheel.” - Hans Ankwicz-Kleehoven Flögl joined the workshop in its second iteration when the original Wiener Werkstäette liquidated in 1914 due to difficulty in selling their work and thus a lack of funding.

The renewed Wiener Werkstaette, now called “Betriebsgesellschaft m.b. H. Der Wiener Werksatte Productivegenossenschaft für Gegenstände des Kunstgewerbes” was under the direction of Philipp Hauser, Hoffman's colleague, supported by the Primavesi family who owned 33% of the company's shares; the collective worked in furniture, ceramics and metalwork, fashion, graphic design, among other mediums. They opened shops in Switzerland and the USA. Flögl designed and produced works of art in many different mediums, some in collaboration with other members of the Wiener Werkstaette like Hoffman. For example, on a glass, Flögl painted the designs on the sides of a cup Hoffman constructed. With a glass box, Flögl added the floral designs while Hoffman manufactured the box. Flögl painted murals for residences and establishments in Vienna including the Graben-Café, she worked in fashion, notably designing the fabric for a gown at the held at the Kyoto Costume Institute, in addition to accessories such as beaded necklaces.

She did many ceramic pieces including a ceramic candelabra and a ceramic hunting scene featuring dogs attacking a deer. Designs for textiles and metalwork seems to be where most of her work lies. Flögl used floral designs in her work in addition to more geometric patterns making pieces that were both abstract and linear. An example of this style is seen in a swatch called Fälter, designed for the bedspread of Karl Duldig and Slawa Horowitz-Duldig in 1924, it was block printed onto silk. This use of an artist's work as a bedspread exemplified the Wiener Werkstätte's belief in art being incorporated into all areas of life. Flögl used abstract shapes and geometric lines, as was characteristic of her work, to produce columns of bright butterflies separated by colourful vertical lines. Flögl was partial to butterflies. In 1929, Swiss-German company, Salubra manufactured a wallpaper collection designed by Flögl. Copper Hewitt has an online collection featuring 59 pieces of her painted design work, most painted in gouache.

For the group's 25th anniversary, Flögl edited, arranged and published, The Wiener Werkstätte, 1903-1928: The Evolution of the Modern Applied Arts Exhibitions. It was published in Engl

Robert Danvers

Robert Danvers Wright and Villiers was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1659 and 1660. The illegitimate child of a notorious liaison, Danvers had four different names, changed religion four times and sided according to circumstances with Royalists, the restored monarchy and its opponents. Danvers was the illegitimate son of Frances Coke, Viscountess Purbeck, the estranged wife of John Villiers, 1st Viscount Purbeck by Sir Robert Howard of Clun Castle and was baptised as Robert Wright, his mother was the daughter of Sir Edward Coke of Buckinghamshire. After they were convicted of adultery, his parents went to France where he was educated between 1633 and 1641 under the name Howard and brought up as a Catholic, his mother brought him back to England at the start of the English Civil War and Lord Purbeck was persuaded to recognise him as his son and let him assume the name Villiers. As Villiers, he fought for the king at the Battle of Edgehill and in 1643 became a colonel of foot in the Royalist army and governor of Oswestry.

In 1644 he became a Presbyterian and submitted to Parliament. He inherited the estates of his mother on her death in 1645, he paid fines of £2,650 for his delinquency with borrowed money, but the estates were not freed of sequestration until 1653. Danvers married Elizabeth Danvers daughter of Sir John Danvers of Dauntsey, Wiltshire on 23 November 1648 and had two sons and three daughters.. After he married the daughter of the regicide Sir John Danvers he stated that he would have been willing to act as the King’s executioner; when his father-in-law died, Oliver Cromwell allowed him to assume the name and arms of Danvers "because those of the name of Villiers had sided" with the King. On Lord Purbeck’s death in 1658 he renounced the peerage. In 1659, Danvers was elected Member of Parliament for Westbury, Wiltshire in the Third Protectorate Parliament until he was expelled as a Cavalier, he was elected MP for Malmesbury in April 1660 for the Convention Parliament but after the Restoration, he was challenged over the treasonable remarks he made at the time of the King's execution.

There followed a dispute over parliamentary privilege when he was summoned to the House of Lords as Viscount Purbeck on 15 June 1660 to answer charges. He argued that he was not a peer and on 27 July was discharged on bail for £10,000. On 27 December 1660, he swore allegiance to the restored monarchy and entered into a bond of £5,000 to do nothing to oppose it. Before Venner's rising in January 1661, Danvers spoke against the monarchy, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London where he was still incarcerated on 2 July 1662 when his wife visited him there, they were given licence to take the name and arms of Danvers. He was transferred to York gaol whence he escaped in 1664. In the course of the Second Anglo-Dutch War he was imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. In 1668 he was given the freedom of Wycombe, he was forced to leave England to escape his creditors, died at Calais in 1674 where he was buried a Roman Catholic in the church of Nôtre Dame

Line 1 (Tianjin Metro)

Line 1 of the Tianjin Metro runs from the north-west to the south-east of downtown Tianjin. It is 42.227 km in length with 32 stations. The line started operations on 12 June 2006, it was rebuilt from the original Tianjin Metro line, which opened in 1976, but had to close down and undergo renovations in 2001 as part of the system's modernizing project. The line's color is red. Construction began in 1970; the first section, spanning 3.6 km of track and 4 stations, which are named Xinhualu, Yingkoudao and Haiguangsi stations, was completed by February 1976. The second section, with an additional 1.6 km of track and the Xi'nanjiao and Erweilu stations, was completed by 1980. After construction resumed, the total length was 7.4 km, with 8 stations, service on the line began on 28 December 1984. To cut construction costs, the authority used an abandoned canal bed to build part of the system, thus the underground section is only 2–3 meters beneath the street surface, was the world's shallowest metro. Years train frequency reduced and trains were delayed.

The rolling stocks themselves where dilapidated, with most seat covers torn off, lights becoming dim. To change to a more modern and cleaner system in East Asia, a massive reconstruction and expansion plan was laid out in 2000. In preparation, the system was closed on 1 September 2001, with renovation started on 21 November after being delayed due to the terrorist attacks of 11 September. After introducing new rolling stocks, adding half-height platform screen doors and extending the line to Shuanglin, the line was completed at the end of 2005 and was re-opened on 12 June 2006. In 2008, Xizhan Station was temporarily closed for three years for the reconstruction of the Tianjin West railway station, it reopened on 1 July 2011. In 2016, the at-grade Shuanglin station was closed. On December 3, 2018, Shuanglin station was reopened as a new underground station. On December 3, 2018, Line 1 extended one station, from Shuanglin station to Lilou station. On December 28, 2019, four stations on the eastern extension was opened.

The signal system was replaced by the new ATO system, the running stock was overhauled. Coaches per train - 6. Frequency - 3-4 minutes in peak hours & 8 minutes at other times. Operating hours - 5:30 to 22:30; the line is underground between Qinjiandao and Tucheng stations, as well as Lilou. The other nine stations are elevated. All elevated stations are covered by mixture of transparent & opaque corrugated sheets; the line passes through six districts, namely Beichen, Nankai, Heping and Jinnan. The whole journey takes about 50 minutes; the line is linked to other subway lines: 2 3 5 and 6. And interchanges to future lines will be available with line 4 7 8 10 and 11. All line 1 station concourses are equipped with a customer service center, ticket vending machines, automatic fare gates, bank ATMs. For security and other reasons, all line 1 stations have platform-edge doors installed. TVs are installed that display travel tips, advertising and waiting time for the next train