Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is the second most populous city in Pakistan and the 32nd most populous city in the world, the city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistans Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab. Lahore is ranked as a world city, and is one of Pakistans wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2014. Lahore is the cultural centre of the Punjab region, and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city has a history, and was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis, Ghurids. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire, the city was contested between the Maratha Empire and Durrani Empire, became capital of the Sikh Empire, before becoming the capital of the Punjab under British rule. Following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Lahore became the capital of Pakistans Punjab province, Lahore is one of Pakistans most liberal and cosmopolitan cities. It exerts a strong influence over Pakistan.
Lahore is a centre for Pakistans publishing industry, and remains the foremost centre of Pakistans literary scene. The city is a centre of education in Pakistan. Lahore is home to Pakistans film industry, and is a centre of Qawwali music. The city is much of Pakistans tourist industry, with major attractions including the old Walled City. Lahore is home to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Lahore Fort, the etymology of Lahore is uncertain, but according to legend the city was once known as Lavapura, in honour of Prince Lava of the Hindu epic poem, the Ramayana. Lahore Fort contains a vacant Lava temple, dedicated to the founder of the city. Lahore was called by different names throughout history, to date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Lahore is described as a Hindu principality in the Rajput accounts, the founder of Suryavansha, is believed to have migrated out from the city. The Solanki tribe, belonging to Amukhara Pattan, which included the Bhatti Rajputs of Jaisalmer, Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind.
Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century, the sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated
The Orlov is a large diamond that is part of the collection of the Diamond Fund of the Moscow Kremlin. It is described as having the shape and proportions of half a chickens egg, the as yet unnamed stone passed from merchant to merchant, eventually appearing for sale in Amsterdam. Shaffrass, an Iranian millionaire who owned the diamond, found a buyer in Count Grigory Grigorievich Orlov. The Count paid a purported 400,000 Dutch florins and their affair continued as Grigory Orlov led the way in the dethronement of her husband in a coup détat and the elevation of Catherine to power. Their relationship carried on for years and produced an illegitimate child. Count Orlov sought to rekindle their romance by offering her the diamond, while he failed to regain her affections, Catherine did bestow many gifts upon Count Orlov, these gifts included the Marble Palace in St. Petersburg. Catherine named the diamond after the Count, and had her jeweller, C. N. Troitinski, now known as the Imperial Sceptre, it was completed in 1784.
The Orlov is set at the top, with its domed top facing forward, above it is a double-headed eagle with the Arms of Russia enameled on its breast. The Orlov is a rarity among historic diamonds, for it retains its original Indian rose-style cut and its colour is widely stated as white with a faint bluish-green tinge. Data released by the Kremlin give the Orlovs measurements as 32 millimetres x 35 millimetres x 21 millimetres, the weight is just an estimate – it has not formally been weighed in many years. Lord Twinings book A History of the Crown Jewels of Europe mentions how once, during a circa 1913 inspection of the jewels by the curator. He weighed the stone, but did not write down its exact weight and he said that it was about 190 carats, which corresponds to the measurement-based estimate. Malecka, Did Orlov buy the Orlov, gems & Jewellery, The Gemmological Association of Great Britain, vol. Malecka, The Great Mughal and the Orlov, Famous Diamonds of the World, pp. 15–18. Gemological Institute of America, USA Twining, Lord Edward Francis, a History of the Crown Jewels of Europe, B. T.
Images of the Orlov in its sceptre at The World of Famous Diamonds
Delhi, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east, the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to 2011 census, Delhis city population was about 11 million, Delhis urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the worlds second largest urban area. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a wealth of $450 billion. Delhi has been inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and it has been captured and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.
New Delhi is jointly administered by the government of India and the local government of Delhi. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, which is a unique interstate regional planning area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985, Delhi ranks among the cities with the worst air pollution in the world. There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi, one of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal, according to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali, another theory suggests that the citys original name was Dhillika. The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas, the city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages.
Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring, aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty. The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC, the city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called Khandavaprastha which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha, the earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period, in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight cities have been discovered in Delhi
The Sign of the Four
The Sign of the Four, called The Sign of Four, is the second novel featuring Sherlock Holmes written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Doyle wrote four novels and 56 stories starring the fictional detective, the story is set in 1888. The Sign of the Four has a plot involving service in India, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a stolen treasure. It presents the detectives drug habit and humanizes him in a way that had not been done in the preceding novel and it introduces Doctor Watsons future wife, Mary Morstan. According to Mary, in December 1878, her father had telegraphed her upon his return from India. When Mary arrived at the hotel, she was told her father had gone out the previous night, despite all efforts, no trace has ever been found of him. Mary contacted her fathers friend who was in the same regiment and had since retired to England, one Major John Sholto. The second puzzle is that she has received six pearls in the mail from an anonymous benefactor, with the last pearl she received a letter remarking that she has been wronged and asking for a meeting.
Holmes takes the case and soon discovers that Major Sholto had died in 1882, the only clue Mary can give Holmes is a map of a fortress found in her fathers desk with the names of Jonathan Small, Mahomet Singh, Abdullah Khan and Dost Akbar. Holmes and Mary meet Thaddeus Sholto, the son of the late Major Sholto, Thaddeus confirms the Major had seen Marys father the night he died, they had arranged a meeting to divide a priceless treasure Sholto had brought home from India. While quarreling over the treasure, Captain Morstan—long in weak health—suffered a heart attack, however, he himself suffered from poor health and an enlarged spleen. His own health became worse when he received a letter from India in early 1882, dying, he called his two sons and confessed to Morstans death and was about to divulge the location of the treasure when he suddenly cried, Keep him out. The puzzled sons glimpsed a face in the window, but the trace was a single footstep in the dirt. On their fathers body is a note reading The Sign of Four, both brothers quarreled over whether a legacy should be left to Mary Morstan, and Thaddeus left his brother Bartholomew, taking a chaplet and sending its pearls to Mary.
The reason he sent the letter is that Bartholomew has found the treasure and possibly Thaddeus, Bartholomew is found dead in his home from a poison dart and the treasure is missing. While the police wrongly take Thaddeus in as a suspect, Holmes deduces that there are two persons involved in the murder, a man, Jonathan Small, as well as another small accomplice. He traces them to a landing where Small has hired a steam launch named the Aurora. With the help of dog Toby that he sends Watson to collect from Mr Sherman, Small tries to escape but is captured
Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad, commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal Emperor. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign, Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire temporarily reached its greatest extent. During his reign,4.6 million people were said have died due to war, Aurangzebs policies partly abandoned the legacy of pluralism, which remains a very controversial aspect of his reign and led to the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Rebellions and wars led to the exhaustion of the imperial Mughal treasury and he was a strong-handed authoritarian ruler, and following his death the expansionary period of the Mughal Empire came to an end. Nevertheless, the territory of the Mughal Empire still remained intact more or less until the reign of Muhammad Shah. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat and he was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.
In June 1626, after a rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb. His daily allowance was fixed at Rs.500 which he spent on religious education, on 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment. He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, Aurangzebs valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs.200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses and Aurangzeb said, If the fight had ended fatally for me, death drops the curtain even on Emperors, it is no dishonor. The shame lay in what my brothers did, by arrangement, Aurangzeb stayed in the rear, away from the fighting, and took the advice of his generals as the Mughal Army gathered and commenced the Siege of Orchha in 1635. The campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power, Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in 1636. In 1637, Aurangzeb married the Safavid princess, Dilras Banu Begum and she was his first wife and chief consort.
He had an infatuation with a girl, Hira Bai. In his old age, he was under the charms of his concubine, the latter had formerly been a companion to Dara Shikoh. In the same year,1637, Aurangzeb was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput kingdom of Baglana, in 1644, Aurangzebs sister, was burned when the chemicals in her perfume were ignited by a nearby lamp while in Agra. This event precipitated a crisis with political consequences. Aurangzeb suffered his fathers displeasure by not returning to Agra immediately, Shah Jahan had been nursing Jahanara back to health in that time and thousands of vassals had arrived in Agra to pay their respects
The Koh-i-Noor is a large, colourless diamond that was found near Guntur in Andhra Pradesh, possibly in the 13th century. According to legend, it first weighed 793 carats uncut, although the earliest well-attested weight is 186 carats, in 1852, Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria, unhappy with its dull and irregular appearance, ordered it cut down from 186 carats. It emerged 42 percent lighter as a dazzling oval-cut brilliant weighing 105.6 carats, as the diamonds history involves a great deal of fighting between men, the Koh-i-Noor acquired a reputation within the British royal family for bringing bad luck to any man who wears it. Since arriving in the country, it has ever been worn by female members of the family. Today, the diamond is set in the front of the Queen Mothers Crown, part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, and is seen by millions of visitors to the Tower of London each year. The governments of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan have all tried to claim ownership of the Koh-i-Noor and demanded its return at various points in recent decades.
However, the early history is lost in the mists of time. It is however impossible to know where it was found, in the early 14th century, Alauddin Khalji, second ruler of the Turkic Khalji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, and his army began looting the kingdoms of southern India. Malik Kafur, Khiljis general, made a raid on Warangal in 1310. He called the stone the Diamond of Babur at the time, both Babur and his son and successor, mentioned the origins of this diamond in their memoirs, thought by many historians to be the earliest reliable reference to the Koh-i-Noor. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor, had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne, in 1658, his son and successor, confined the ailing emperor at nearby Agra Fort. While in the possession of Aurangazeb, it was cut by Hortenso Borgia. For this carelessness, Borgia was reprimanded and fined 10,000 rupees, according to recent research the story of Borgia cutting the diamond is not correct, and most probably mixed up with the Orlov, part of Catherine the Greats imperial Russian sceptre in the Kremlin.
Along with a host of items, including the Daria-i-Noor, as well as the Peacock Throne. When he finally managed to obtain the stone, and that is how the stone got its name. It is estimated that the worth of the treasures plundered came to 700 million rupees. This was roughly equivalent to £87.5 million sterling at the time, the riches gained by the Afsharid Empire from the Indian campaign were so monumental that Nader Shah made a proclamation alleviating all subjects of the Empire from taxes for a total of three years. After the assassination of Nader Shah in 1747 and the collapse of his empire, the stone came into the hands of one of his generals, Ahmad Shah Durrani, who became the Emir of Afghanistan
The Daria-i-Noor (Persian, دریای نور which means “Sea of light” in Persian, is one of the largest cut diamonds in the world, weighing an estimated 182 carats. Its colour, pale pink, is one of the rarest to be found in diamonds, the Daria-i-Noor is in the Iranian Crown Jewels of Central Bank of Iran in Tehran. This diamond, like the Koh-i-Noor, was mined at the Paritala-Kollur Mine in Andhra Pradesh and it was originally owned by the Kakatiya dynasty, it was looted by Turkic Khilji dynasty and to Mughal emperors. In 1739, Nader Shah of Iran invaded Northern India, occupied Delhi, daria-i-noor, along with the Koh-i-noor, was acquired by Ranjit Singh of Sikh Empire. It finally came into the possession of East India Company when Punjab fell under the British Rule in 1849, daria-i-noor was one of the main attractions of The Great Exhibition in 1851. In 1852, Hamilton and Company auctioned the diamond under the direction of the British government, at the auction, the diamond was purchased by Khwaja Alimullah from Dhaka Nawab Family.
In his visit to Calcutta in 1887, Viceroy of India Lord Dufferin went to see the diamond at Baliganj, daria-i-noor was seen by King George V and Queen Mary during their visit to Calcutta in 1912. After the Partition of India in 1947, the diamond was transferred from Calcutta to Dhaka, in 1985, a group of experts approved the genuineness of the diamond through an examination. Treasury of National Jewels of Iran
A diamond cut is a style or design guide used when shaping a diamond for polishing such as the brilliant cut. Cut does not refer to shape, but the symmetry, the cut of a diamond greatly affects a diamonds brilliance, this means if it is cut poorly, it will be less luminous. In order to best use a diamond gemstones material properties, a number of different diamond cuts have been developed, a diamond cut constitutes a more or less symmetrical arrangement of facets, which together modify the shape and appearance of a diamond crystal. Diamond cutters must consider several factors, such as the shape and size of the crystal, the practical history of diamond cuts can be traced back to the Middle Ages, while their theoretical basis was not developed until the turn of the 20th century. The most popular of diamond cuts is the round brilliant, whose facet arrangements. Also popular are the cuts, which come in a variety of shapes—many of which were derived from the round brilliant. A diamonds cut is evaluated by trained graders, with higher grades given to stones whose symmetry, the strictest standards are applied to the round brilliant, although its facet count is invariable, its proportions are not.
Different countries base their cut grading on different ideals, one may speak of the American Standard or the Scandinavian Standard, to give but two examples. The history of diamond cuts can be traced to the late Middle Ages and this was called the point cut and dates from the mid 14th century, by 1375 there was a guild of diamond polishers at Nürnberg. By the mid 15th century, the point cut began to be improved upon, the importance of a culet was realised, and some table-cut stones may possess one. The addition of four corner facets created the old single cut, neither of these early cuts would reveal what diamond is prized for today, its strong dispersion or fire. At the time, diamond was valued chiefly for its lustre and superlative hardness. For this reason, colored gemstones such as ruby and sapphire were far more popular in jewelry of the era. In or around 1476, Lodewyk van Berquem, a Flemish polisher of Bruges, introduced the technique of absolute symmetry in the disposition of facets using a device of his own invention, the scaif.
He cut stones in the known as pendeloque or briolette. However, Indian rose cuts were far less symmetrical as their cutters had the primary interest of conserving carat weight, in either event, the rose cut continued to evolve, with its depth and arrangements of facets being tweaked. The first brilliant cuts were introduced in the middle of the 17th century, known as Mazarins, they had 17 facets on the crown. They are called double-cut brilliants as they are seen as a step up from old single cuts, yet Peruzzi-cut diamonds, when seen nowadays, seem exceedingly dull compared to modern-cut brilliants
Shahab-ud-Din Muḥammad Khurram better known by his regnal name, Shah Jahan, was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658. Emperor Jahangirs death, in late 1627, was a signal for a last paroxysm of fighting among his sons and these fratricidal conflicts were carried out with ruthlessness and Jahangirs third son, proved the most ruthless of all. He was crowned at Agra and his name, Shah Jahan, was read at the Jama Masjid there in January 1628. Shah Jahan maintained an aggressive military pressure along the frontiers of the Mughal Empire, as his predecessors had. His building programme was capped by the new capital in Delhi named for himself Shahjahanabad. Here, he erected a new fortress-palace, the Red Fort, in matters of religion, his plain straightforward creed permitted no licence, although he never became a bigot. In 1633, Shah Jahan ordered the demolition of Hindu temples which had begun in the previous reign. These orders were followed by a prohibition of the erection of new shrines or the repair of older buildings, intermarriage between Hindus and Muslims was forbidden in 1634.
Shah Jahan, sustained the established alliances at a level and did not marry Hindu women, like his father. Mass conversions of Hindus to Islam were encouraged, and in cases were forcibly effected. All these acts, were dictated rather by the desire to maintain the strict tenets of Islam than to pursue the course of iconoclasm which was adopted by his son Aurangzeb. In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill, which set off a war of succession among his sons, Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, but Aurangzeb kept his father under house arrest in Agra Fort from June 1658 until his death in 1666. On 31 July 1658, Aurangzeb crowned himself emperor with the title of Alamgir, the Mughal Empire reached the pinnacle of its glory during Shah Jahans reign and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors. His reign is described as the Golden Age of the Mughals. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592 in Lahore to Prince Salim and his second wife, the name Khurram was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, with whom he shared an extremely close relationship.
Just prior to Khurrams birth, a soothsayer had predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness. Ruqaiya assumed the responsibility for Khurrams upbringing and he grew up under her care. Her step-son, noted that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram remained with her until he had turned 13
Isfahan, historically rendered in English as Ispahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 kilometres south of Tehran. The Greater Isfahan Region had a population of 3,793,104 in the 2011 Census, the counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, Shahinshahr, Falavarjan, Tiran o Karvan and Jay all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan. Isfahan is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran and it flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory and it is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces and minarets. This led to the Persian proverb Esfahān nesf-e- jahān ast, the Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world. It has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, the city has a wide variety of historic monuments and is known for the paintings and architecture.
Isfahan City Center is the 5th largest shopping mall in the world, see also, Names of Isfahan The name of the region derives from Middle Persian Spahān. Spahān is attested in various Middle Persian seals and inscriptions, including that of Zoroastrian Magi Kartir, the present-day name is the Arabicized form of Ispahan. The region appears with the abbreviation GD on Sasanian numismatics, in Ptolemys Geographia it appears as Aspadana, translating to place of gathering for the army. It is believed that Spahān derives from spādānām the armies, Old Persian plural of spāda, the history of Isfahan can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent discoveries, archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages. It is said that after Cyrus the Great freed the Jews from Babylon some Jews returned to Jerusalem whereas some others decided to live in Persia, actually this happened in the Sasanid period when a Jewish colony was made in the vicinity of the Sasanid.
They did not settle anywhere or in any city without examining the water. They did all along until they reached the city of Isfahan, there they rested, examined the water and soil and found that both resembled Jerusalem. Upon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered a large province from Isfahan, and the citys urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city. The next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids, presided over changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture. The city was called by the name and the region by the name Aspahan or Spahan. The city was governed by Espoohrans or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had important royal positions, extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the kings were fond of ambitious urban planning projects
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country. The state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of 162,968 km2, as per 2011 Census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. On 2 June 2014, the portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana. In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act,2014, Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of not exceeding 10 years. The new riverfront proposed capital in Guntur district is Amaravati, which is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA, the Gross State Domestic Product of the state in the 2016–2017 financial year at current prices stood at ₹6,800.3 billion. The state has a coastline of 974 km with jurisdiction over nearly 15,000 km2 territorial waters, the second longest among all the states of India after Gujarat. It is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east.
A small enclave of 30 km2 of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh is composed of two regions, Coastal Andhra, located along the Bay of Bengal, and Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state. These two regions comprise 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the worlds most visited religious sites, a tribe named Andhra has been mentioned in the Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India, archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of emperor Ashoka, the Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE, the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE.
The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jatiya and Andhra-bhrtya in the Puranic literature, Dharanikota along with Amaravathi was the capital of the Satavahanas. Amaravathi became a trade and pilgrimage centre during the Satavahana rule. According to the Buddhist tradition, Nagarjuna lived here, possibly in second, Andhra Ikshvakus were one of the earliest recorded ruling dynasties of the Guntur-Krishna regions of Andhra Pradesh. They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the half of the second century CE. Puranas called Andhra Ikshvakus Shri Parvatiya Andhras, archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley
A lapidary is an artist or artisan who forms stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems, including cameos, and faceted designs. The primary techniques employed are cutting and polishing, carving is an important, but specialised technique. Hardstone carving is the used in art history for objects produced by the specialised carving techniques. Diamond cutters are not referred to as lapidaries, due to the specialized techniques which are required to work diamond. By extension the term lapidary has sometimes applied to collectors of and dealer in gems. The etymological roots of lapidary is in the Latin word lapis which means stone, the term evolved from lapidarius meaning stonecutter or working with stone, into Old French lapidaire, thereon to mean one skilled in working with precious stones in 14th century. These powers included the belief in the ability of stones to prevent harm, the word appeared as an English adjective in the 18th century. The earliest known lapidary work likely occurred during the Stone Age, as people created tools from stone, they inevitably realized that some geological materials were harder than others.
The next earliest documented examples of one may consider to be lapidary arts came in the form of drilling stone. The earliest roots of drilling rocks, a method, date back to approximately one million years ago. The early Egyptians developed cutting and jewelry fashioning methods for lapis lazuli, the lapidary arts were quite well developed in the Indian subcontinent by early 1st millennium CE. They discuss sources of gems and diamonds, their origins, several other Sanskrit texts on gems and lapidary, have been dated to post-10th century suggesting a continuous lapidary practice. According to Jason Hawkes and Stephanie Wynne-Jones, archaeological evidence suggests that trade between Africa and India, in products from lapidary arts, was established in the 1st millennium CE, lapidary has been a significant tradition in early Mesoamerica. These were made from shell, jade and greenstones, the lapidary products were used as a status symbol and during burials. The Aztec used string saw and bone drills for their lapidary arts, apart from figurative carving, there are three broad categories of lapidary arts.
These are the procedures of tumbling, cabochon cutting, and faceting, most modern lapidary work is done using motorized equipment. Polishing is done with resin or metal bonded emery, silicon carbide, in older systems the grinding and polishing powders were applied separately to the grinding or buffing wheel. Often, the final polish will use a different medium, such as tin oxide or cerium oxide, cutting of harder stones is done with a diamond tipped saw