Dry Tortugas National Park
Dry Tortugas National Park is a national park in the United States about 68 miles west of Key West in the Gulf of Mexico. The park preserves Fort Jefferson and the seven Dry Tortugas islands, the archipelagos coral reefs are the least disturbed of the Florida Keys reefs. The park is noted for abundant sea life, tropical bird breeding grounds, colorful coral reefs, the parks centerpiece is Fort Jefferson, a massive but unfinished coastal fortress. Fort Jefferson is the largest brick structure in the Western Hemisphere. Among United States forts it is exceeded in only by Fort Monroe and Fort Adams. Dry Tortugas is unique in its combination of a largely undisturbed tropical ecosystem with significant historic artifacts, the park is accessible only by seaplane or boat and has averaged about 63,000 visitors annually in the period from 2007 to 2016. Activities include snorkeling, birdwatching, scuba diving, Dry Tortugas National Park is part of the Everglades & Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve, established by UNESCO in 1976 under its Man and the Biosphere Programme.
The Dry Tortugas is an archipelago of coral islands about 70 miles west of Key West. They represent the westernmost extent of the Florida Keys, though several reefs and submarine banks continue westward outside the park, the park area is more than 99 percent water. The seven major islands, all within the park, roughly from west to east, Loggerhead Key, Garden Key, Bush Key, Long Key, Hospital Key, Middle Key and East Key. The park is bordered on the east and west by the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, the total land area within the park is 104 acres. The park is in a maritime climate, with rainy seasons coinciding with hurricane season from May to October. The area is influenced by frequent hurricanes and tropical storms. Even with exposure to tropical systems the Tortugas are among the driest places in Florida, there is little temperature variation, with high temperatures in summer around 90 °F and low temperatures in winter around 66 °F. Vessels wishing to moor in the natural area must use designated mooring buoys or docks.
About 54 percent of the park open for fishing. Visiting the park by boat is difficult because of its distance. Official ferry and transportation services to the Dry Tortugas includes the Yankee Freedom III catamaran, the Dry Tortugas are the western extension of an arcuate chain of Pleistocene reef and oolitic limestone islands, with the eastern limit in the vicinity of Miami
Acadia National Park
Acadia National Park is a national park located in the U. S. state of Maine. It reserves much of Mount Desert Island, and associated smaller islands, initially created as the Sieur de Monts National Monument in 1916, the park was renamed Lafayette National Park in 1919, and was given its current name of Acadia in 1929. Over three million people visited the park in 2016, Acadia is the oldest designated national park area east of the Mississippi River. The area was inhabited by the Wabanaki people. While he was sailing down the coast of what is now Maine on 5 September 1604, the distance from this island to the mainland on the north is not a hundred paces. It is very high and cleft in places, giving it the appearance from the sea of seven or eight mountains one alongside the other, the tops of them are bare of trees, because there is nothing there but rocks. The woods consist only of pines and birches and he named it Mount Desert Island. Over four centuries later, the area remains essentially the same, the first French Missionary colony in America was established on Mount Desert Island in 1613.
The colony was destroyed a short time by a vessel from the Colony of Virginia as the first act of overt warfare in the long struggle leading to the French. The island was granted to Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac by Louis XIV of France in 1688, Massachusetts governor Sir Francis Bernard, 1st Baronet assumed control of the island in 1760. In 1780 Massachusetts granted the eastern half of the island to Cadillacs granddaughter, Mme. de Gregoire, the first record of summer visitors vacationing on the island was in 1855, and steamboat service from Boston was inaugurated in 1868. The first land was donated by Mrs. Eliza Homans of Boston in 1908, the landscape architect Charles Eliot is credited with the idea for the park. Dorr, called the Father of Acadia National Park, along with Eliots father Charles W. Eliot and it first attained federal status when President Woodrow Wilson established it as Sieur de Monts National Monument on July 8,1916, administered by the National Park Service. On February 26,1919, it became a park, with the name Lafayette National Park in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette.
Jordan Pond Road was started in 1922 and completed as a scenic highway in 1927. The parks name was changed to Acadia National Park on January 19,1929, Schoodic Peninsula was added to the park in 1929, and the Cadillac Mountain Summit Road, begun in 1925, was completed in 1931. From 1915 to 1933, the wealthy philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. financed, designed and he sponsored the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand, with the nearby family summer home Reef Point Estate, to design the planting plans for the subtle carriage roads at the park. The network encompassed over 50 miles of carriage trails,17 granite bridges
Biscayne National Park
Biscayne National Park is a U. S. National Park located in southern Florida, south of Miami. The park preserves Biscayne Bay and its barrier reefs. Ninety-five percent of the park is water, and the shore of the bay is the location of a mangrove forest. The park covers 172,971 acres and includes Elliott Key, the islands farther north in the park are transitional islands of coral and sand. The offshore portion of the park includes the northernmost region of the Florida Reef, Biscayne National Park protects four distinct ecosystems, the shoreline mangrove swamp, the shallow waters of Biscayne Bay, the coral limestone keys and the offshore Florida Reef. The shoreline swamps of the mainland and island margins provide a nursery for larval and juvenile fish, the bay waters harbor immature and adult fish, seagrass beds, soft corals, and manatees. The keys are covered with tropical vegetation including endangered cacti and palms, Offshore reefs and waters harbor more than 200 species of fish, pelagic birds and hard corals.
Sixteen endangered species including Schaus swallowtail butterflies, smalltooth sawfish, Biscayne has a small population of threatened American crocodiles and a few American alligators. The people of the Glades culture inhabited the Biscayne Bay region as early as 10,000 years ago before rising sea levels filled the bay. The Tequesta people occupied the islands and shoreline from about 4,000 years before the present to the 16th century, Reefs claimed ships from Spanish times through the 20th century, with more than 40 documented wrecks within the parks boundaries. While the parks islands were farmed during the 19th and early 20th centuries, their rocky soil, in the early 20th century the islands became secluded destinations for wealthy Miamians who built getaway homes and social clubs. Honeywells guesthouse on Boca Chita Key was the areas most elaborate private retreat, following the Cuban Revolution of 1959, Elliott Key was used as a training ground for infiltrators into Fidel Castros Cuba by the Central Intelligence Agency and by Cuban exile groups.
Originally proposed for inclusion in Everglades National Park, Biscayne Bay was cut from the park to ensure Everglades establishment. Through the 1960s and 1970s, two fossil-fueled power plants and two power plants were built on the bay shores. A backlash against development led to the 1968 designation of Biscayne National Monument, the preserved area was expanded by its 1980 re-designation as Biscayne National Park. The park is used by boaters, and apart from the parks visitor center on the mainland, its land. Biscayne National Park comprises 172,971 acres in Miami-Dade County in southeast Florida, the parks eastern boundary is the ten-fathom line of water depth in the Atlantic Ocean on the Florida Reef. The parks western boundary is a fringe of property on the mainland, the only direct mainland access to the park is at the Convoy Point Visitor Center, adjacent to the park headquarters
Cuyahoga Valley National Park
Cuyahoga Valley National Park is a United States national park that preserves and reclaims the rural landscape along the Cuyahoga River between Akron and Cleveland in Northeast Ohio. The 32, 950-acre park is administered by the National Park Service and is the national park in Ohio. It was established in 1974 as the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area and was designated as a park in 2000. The valley began providing recreation for urban dwellers in the 1870s when people came from nearby cities for carriage rides or leisure boat trips along the canal, in 1880, the Valley Railroad became another way to escape urban industrial life. Actual park development began in the 1910s and 1920s with the establishment of Cleveland, in 1929 the estate of Cleveland businessman Hayward Kendall donated 430 acres around the Richie Ledges and a trust fund to the state of Ohio. Kendalls will stipulated that the property should be used for park purposes. It became Virginia Kendall park, in honor of his mother, in the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps built much of the parks infrastructure including what are now Happy Days Lodge and the shelters at Octagon and Kendall Lake.
Although the regional parks safeguarded certain places, by the 1960s local citizens feared that urban sprawl would overwhelm the Cuyahoga Valleys natural beauty, active citizens joined forces with state and national government staff to find a long-term solution. Finally, on December 27,1974, President Gerald Ford signed the bill establishing the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, the National Park Service acquired the 47-acre Krejci Dump in 1985 to include as part of the recreation area. They requested an analysis of the sites contents from the Environmental Protection Agency. After the survey identified extremely toxic materials, the area was closed in 1986, litigation was filed against potentially responsible parties, which included Ford, GM, Chrysler, 3M, and Waste Management of Ohio. All the companies except 3M agreed to a settlement, 3M lost at trial, cleanup began in 1987 and had not been completed as of mid-2011, although most of the area had been restored to its original state as wetlands.
It is administered by the National Park Service, david Berger National Memorial in Beachwood, Ohio is managed through Cuyahoga Valley National Park. The Richfield Coliseum, an arena in the Cuyahoga River area, was demolished in 1999. It has since become a grassy meadow popular with birdwatchers, rolling hills and winding river scenery attract many park visitors. Steep narrow ravines, a floodplain, and lush farmland contrast with one another throughout the park. The Ledges provides a boulder-strewn cliff to relax and watch the sunset over the scenery below. Sled-riding is popular during the winter at Kendall Hills, in the mid-1980s, the park hosted the National Folk Festival
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a United States National Park in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. The primary attraction of the park is the cave, Carlsbad Cavern. Carlsbad Caverns National Park is open day of the year except Thanksgiving, Christmas. Visitors to the cave can hike in on their own via the entrance or take an elevator from the visitor center. The park entrance is located on US Highway 62/180, approximately 18 miles southwest of Carlsbad, Carlsbad Caverns National Park participates in the Junior Ranger Program. The park has two entries on the National Register of Historic Places, The Caverns Historic District and the Rattlesnake Springs Historic District, approximately two thirds of the park has been set aside as a wilderness area, helping to ensure no future changes will be made to the habitat. Carlsbad Cavern includes a cave chamber, a natural limestone chamber almost 4,000 feet long,625 feet wide. It is the fifth largest chamber in North America and the twenty-eighth largest in the world, an estimated 250 million years ago, the area surrounding Carlsbad Caverns National Park served as the coastline for an inland sea.
Present in the sea was a plethora of marine life, whose remains formed a reef, unlike modern reef growths, the Permian reef contained bryozoans and other microorganisms. After the Permian Period, most of the evaporated and the reef was buried by evaporites. Tectonic movement occurred during the late Cenozoic, uplifting the reef above ground, susceptible to erosion, water sculpted the Guadalupe Mountain region into its present-day state. Carlsbad Caverns National Park is situated in a bed of limestone above groundwater level, during cavern development, it was within the groundwater zone. Deep below the limestones are petroleum reserves, at a time near the end of the Cenozoic, hydrogen sulfide began to seep upwards from the petroleum into the groundwater. The combination of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen from the water formed sulfuric acid, the sulfuric acid continued upward, aggressively dissolving the limestone deposits to form caverns. The presence of gypsum within the cave is a confirmation of the occurrence of this process, once the acidic groundwater drained from the caverns, speleothems began to be deposited within the cavern.
Erosion above ground created the entrance to the Carlsbad Caverns within the last million years. Exposure to the surface has allowed for the influx of air into the cavern, growths from the roof downward formed through this process are known as stalactites. Additionally, water on the floor of the caverns can contain carbonic acid, growths from the floor upward through this process are known as stalagmites
Arches National Park
Arches National Park is a US National Park in eastern Utah. The park is adjacent to the Colorado River,4 miles north of Moab and it is home to over 2,000 natural sandstone arches, including the world-famous Delicate Arch, in addition to a variety of unique geological resources and formations. It contains the highest density of natural arches in the world, the park consists of 76,679 acres of high desert located in the Colorado Plateau. Its highest elevation is 5,653 feet at Elephant Butte, forty-three arches are known to have collapsed since 1977. The park receives on average 10 inches of rain a year, administered by the National Park Service, the area was originally named a National Monument on April 12,1929. It was redesignated as a National Park on November 12,1971, over millions of years, the salt bed was covered with debris eroded from the Uncompahgre Uplift to the northeast. During the Early Jurassic desert conditions prevailed in the region and the vast Navajo Sandstone was deposited, an additional sequence of stream laid and windblown sediments, the Entrada Sandstone, was deposited on top of the Navajo.
Over 5,000 feet of sediments were deposited and have been mostly eroded away. Remnants of the cover exist in the area including exposures of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, the arches of the area are developed mostly within the Entrada formation. The weight of this caused the salt bed below it to liquefy. The evaporites of the area formed more unusual salt anticlines or linear regions of uplift, faulting occurred and whole sections of rock subsided into the areas between the domes. In some places, they turned almost on edge, the result of one such 2, 500-foot displacement, the Moab Fault, is seen from the visitor center. As this subsurface movement of salt shaped the landscape, erosion removed the rock layers from the surface. Except for isolated remnants, the formations visible in the park today are the salmon-colored Entrada Sandstone, in which most of the arches form. These are visible in layer cake fashion throughout most of the park, over time, water seeped into the surface cracks and folds of these layers.
Ice formed in the fissures and putting pressure on surrounding rock, breaking off bits, winds cleaned out the loose particles. A series of free-standing fins remained and water attacked these fins until, in some, the cementing material gave way and chunks of rock tumbled out. Others, with the degree of hardness and balance, survived despite their missing sections
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Channel Islands National Park
Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U. S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, the park covers 249,561 acres of which 79,019 acres are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U. S. National Monument on April 26,1938, and it was promoted to a National Park on March 5,1980. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles around Channel Islands National Park, the Channel Islands were originally discovered in 1542 by the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1938 the Santa Barbara and Anacapa islands were designated a national monument, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands were combined with the monument in 1980 to form modern-day Channel Islands National Park.
On January 28,1969 an oil rig belonging to Union Oil experienced a blow-out 6 miles off the coast of California, the resulting spill was, at the time, the largest oil spill to occur in United States territorial waters. Following the spill, tides carried the oil onto the beaches of the Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and this spill had a large impact on native wildlife of the Channel Islands. Much of the seabird population was affected, with over an estimated 3,600 avians killed. Meanwhile, seals and other sea life died and washed ashore on both the islands and the mainland and this spill is the third largest oil spill in the United States, only surpassed by the Deepwater Horizon and the Exxon Valdez oil spills. It resulted in a 34,000 acres expansion of the Department of the Interior buffer zone in the channel, the islands within the park extend along the Southern California coast from Point Conception near Santa Barbara to San Pedro, a neighborhood of Los Angeles. Park headquarters and the Robert J.
Lagomarsino Visitor Center are located in the city of Ventura, only three mammals are endemic to the islands, one of which is the deer mouse which is known to carry the sin nombre hantavirus. The spotted skunk and Channel Islands fox are endemic, the island fence lizard is endemic to the Channel Islands. One hundred and forty-five of these species are unique to the islands, Marine life ranges from microscopic plankton to the endangered blue whale, the largest animal on earth. Archeological and cultural resources span a period of more than 10,000 years, the average annual visitation to the parks mainland visitor center was around 300,000 in the period from 2007 to 2016, with 364,807 visiting in 2016. The visitor center is located in the Ventura Harbor Village, the visitor center contains several exhibits that provide information regarding all five islands, native vegetation, marine life and cultural history. Also, visitors can enjoy a film, free of charge. The visitor center is open day, except Thanksgiving and Christmas, from 8, 30AM–5
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
Trustee of FC Jones & Son v Jones
Trustee of FC Jones and Son v Jones EWCA Civ 1324 is an English unjust enrichment law case, concerning to what extent enrichment of the defendant must be at the expense of the claimant. Mr Jones transferred £11,700 in cheques from his potato growing firm’s bank account to Mrs Jones, the firm became insolvent, which vested the account retrospectively into the trustee in bankruptcy. Mrs Jones bought potato futures, and earned £50,760 and this was put into an account with Raphael & Sons plc. The Official Receiver claimed that under the Bankruptcy Act 1914 sections 37 and 38, Mrs Jones claimed it was hers, but the sum was paid into court. Millett LJ held the trustee in bankruptcy could recover everything, from the date of the act of bankruptcy, all money in the bankrupts’ joint accounts belonged to the trustee in bankruptcy. Mr Jones had no title to the money out. The deposit of the money under the contract’s terms with the commodity broker belonged to the trustee. English unjust enrichment law Tracing in English law
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park is a United States National Park located in western Colorado and managed by the National Park Service. There are two entrances to the park, the south rim entrance is located 15 miles east of Montrose. The park contains 12 miles of the 48-mile long Black Canyon of the Gunnison River, the canyons name owes itself to the fact that parts of the gorge only receive 33 minutes of sunlight a day, according to Images of America, The Black Canyon of the Gunnison. The Gunnison River drops an average of 34 feet per mile through the entire canyon, by comparison, the Colorado River drops an average of 7.5 feet per mile through the Grand Canyon. The greatest descent of the Gunnison River occurs within the park at Chasm View dropping 240 feet per mile, the Black Canyon is so named because its steepness makes it difficult for sunlight to penetrate into its depths. As a result, the canyon is often shrouded in shadow, at its narrowest point the canyon is only 40 ft wide at the river.
The extreme steepness and depth of the Black Canyon formed as the result of geologic processes acting together. The Gunnison River is primarily responsible for carving the canyon, though several other events had to occur in order to form the canyon as it is seen today. The lighter-colored pegmatite dikes that can be seen crosscutting the basement rocks formed during this same period, the entire area underwent uplift during the Laramide orogeny between 70 and 40 million years ago which was part of the Gunnison Uplift. This raised the Precambrian gneiss and schist that makes up the canyon walls, during the Tertiary from 26 to 35 million years ago large episodes of volcanism occurred in the area immediately surrounding the present day Black Canyon. The West Elk Mountains, La Sal Mountains, Henry Mountains, with the Gunnison River’s course set, a broad uplift in the area 2 to 3 million years ago caused the river to cut through the softer volcanic deposits. Eventually the river reached the Precambrian rocks of the Gunnison Uplift, since the river was unable to change its course, it began scouring through the extremely hard metamorphic rocks of the Gunnison Uplift.
The river’s flow was much larger than currently, with higher levels of turbidity. As a result, the river dug down through the Precambrian gneiss, the extreme hardness of the metamorphic rock along with the relative quickness with which the river carved through them created the steep walls that can be seen today. A number of canyons running into the Black Canyon slope in the wrong direction for water to flow into the canyon. It is believed that streams in the region shifted to a more north-flowing drainage pattern in response to a change in the tilt of the surrounding terrain. The west-flowing Gunnison, was trapped in the hard Precambrian rock of the Black Canyon. The Ute Indians had known the canyon to exist for a time before the first Europeans saw it