National Trails System
The National Trails System was created by the National Trails System Act, codified at 16 U. S. C. § 1241 et seq. The Act created a series of National trails "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." The Act authorized three types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails. The 1968 Act created two national scenic trails: the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest. In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, a fourth category of trail was added: the National Historic Trails. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. Of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. Today, the National Trails System consists of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails and over 1,000 National Recreation Trail and two connecting-and-side trails, with a total length of more than 50,000 miles.
These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving. As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by a federal agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service, or National Park Service. Two of the trails are jointly administered by the BLM and the NPS; these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites and viewsheds. More than not, they work in partnership with the states, local units of government, land trusts and private landowners, to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. All of the National Trails are supported by private non-profit organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System.
The Act is codified as 16 U. S. C. §§ 1241–1251. However, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most on October 18, 2004. National Scenic Trails are established to provide access to spectacular natural beauty and to allow the pursuit of healthy outdoor recreation; the National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east, on the Appalachian Trail, to the Rocky Mountains of the west on the Continental Divide Trail. These provide access to viewing the subtle beauties of the southern wetlands and Gulf Coast on the Florida Trail, wandering the North Woods from New York to North Dakota on the North Country Trail, or experiencing the vast diversity of landscapes of the southwest on the Arizona National Scenic Trail. Of the eleven national scenic trails, Natchez Trace, Potomac Heritage are official units of the NPS. National Historic Trails are designated to protect the remains of significant overland or water routes to reflect the history of the nation.
They represent the earliest travels across the continent on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. They commemorate the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans, on the Trail of Tears. There are 19 Historic Trails. Most of them are scenic routes instead of non-motorized trails. National Historic Trails were authorized under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, amending the National Trails System Act of 1968 The act established a category of trails known as connecting and side trails. To date, only two national side trails have been designated, both in 1990: The Timms Hill Trail, which connects the Ice Age Trail to Wisconsin's highest point, Timms Hill, the 86-mile Anvik Connector, which joins the Iditarod Trail to the village of Anvik, Alaska. Timms Hill Trail Anvik Connector The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail National Historic Trails Interpretive Center Recreational Trail Program Protected areas of the United States List of long-distance footpaths Long-distance trails in the United States Karen Berger, Bill McKibben & Bart Smith: America's Great Hiking Trails: Appalachian, Pacific Crest, Continental Divide, North Country, Ice Age, Potomac Heritage, Natchez Trace, Pacific Northwest, New England.
Rizzoli, 2014, ISBN 978-0789327413 About the Partnership for National Trails System PNTS Find a Trail Historic Trail Facts National Trails System Text of the National Trails System Act
First Ladies National Historic Site
First Ladies National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located in Canton, Ohio. During her residency in Washington, D. C.. Mary Regula, wife of Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, spoke about the nation's First Ladies. Recognizing the paucity of research materials available she created a board to raise funds and for a historian to assemble a comprehensive bibliography on American First Ladies. From these inspirations came a National First Ladies’ Library, established in 1996, the First Ladies National Historic Site; the site was established in 2000 to commemorate all the United States First Ladies and comprises two buildings: the Ida Saxton McKinley Historic Home and the Education & Research Center. Tours start at the Education & Research Center, located one block north of the Saxton McKinley house on Market Avenue; the 1895 building the City National Bank Building, was given to the National First Ladies’ Library in 1997. The first floor features a theater, a large exhibit and meeting space and a small library room with a collection of books that replicates First Lady Abigail Fillmore's collection for the first White House Library.
The center's second floor is home to the main National First Ladies' Library. Other floors contain conference rooms and office space; the Ida Saxton McKinley Historic Home preserves the home of Ida McKinley, the wife of U. S. President William McKinley; the brick Victorian house, built in 1841 and modified in 1865, is furnished in the style of the Victorian era. Costumed docents provide tours, exhibits focus on President and Mrs. McKinley, photos of First Ladies, Victorian decorations. Admission to the First Ladies National Historic Site includes both the exhibits in the Education & Research Center and a guided tour of the Ida Saxton McKinley Historic Home. Reservations for the house tour are recommended due to limits on tour size. Reservations are required for groups of 6 or more; the site is operated by the National First Ladies' Library in a partnership agreement with the National Park Service and managed by Cuyahoga Valley National Park. Media related to First Ladies National Historic Site at Wikimedia Commons First Ladies National Historic Site National First Ladies' Library
National Estuarine Research Reserve
The National Estuarine Research Reserve System is a network of 29 protected areas established by partnerships between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and coastal states. The reserves represent different biogeographic regions of the United States; the National Estuarine Research Reserve System protects more than 1.3 million acres of coastal and estuarine habitats for long-term research, water-quality monitoring and coastal stewardship. For thousands of years and estuarine environments have provided people with food, safe harbors, transportation access, flood control, a place to play and relax; the pressures on the nation’s coast are enormous and the impacts on economies and ecosystems are becoming evident. Severe storms, climate change, habitat alteration and rapid population growth threaten the ecological functions that have supported coastal communities throughout history. Estuaries are the connection between the ocean and the land and humans depend on both for their existence, so caring for both – and the connection between them – is vital to humans.
The System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 as estuarine sanctuaries and was renamed to estuarine research reserves in the 1988 reauthorization of the CZMA. NOAA provides national guidance and technical assistance; each reserve is managed on daily basis by a lead state agency or university, with input from local partners. Reserve staff work with local communities and regional groups to address natural resource management issues, such as non-point source pollution, habitat restoration and invasive species. Through integrated research and education, the reserves help communities develop strategies to deal with these coastal resource issues. Reserves provide adult audiences with training on estuarine issues of concern in their local communities, offer field classes for K-12 students, provide estuary education to teachers through the Teachers on the Estuary program. Reserves provide long-term water quality monitoring as well as opportunities for both scientists and graduate students to conduct research in a "living laboratory".
The National Estuarine Research Reserves serve as living laboratories to support coastal research and long-term monitoring and to provide facilities for on-site staff, visiting scientists and graduate students. They serve as reference sites for comparative studies on coastal topics such as ecosystem dynamics, human influences on estuarine systems, habitat conservation and restoration, species management, social science. Additionally, the reserves serve as sentinel sites to better understand the effects of climate change; the goals of the Reserve System's research and monitoring program include: ensuring a stable environment for research through long-term protection of Reserve resources addressing coastal management issues through coordinated estuarine research within the System collecting information necessary for improved understanding and management of estuarine areas, making the information available to stakeholdersEach reserve works on a variety of research projects, in addition to participating in the System-wide Monitoring Program.
The topics of these projects are varied and depend on local needs and issues, as well as issues of national concern. Topics may include issues such as investigating the impacts of non-point source pollution, understanding the role of social science in coastal resource management, controlling invasive species; the System Wide Monitoring Program was established in 1995 as a means of observing short-term variability and long-term changes in estuarine regions. Each reserve participates in SWMP which provides researchers, resource managers and other coastal decision makers with standardized, quantitative measures to determine how reserve conditions are changing. By using standard operating procedures for each component across all 29 reserves, SWMP data helps establish the reserves as a system of national reference sites, as well a network of sentinel sites for detecting and understanding the effects of climate change in coastal regions. SWMP has three major components that focus on: abiotic indicators of water quality and weather biological monitoring watershed and land use mappingAbiotic parameters include nutrients, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, in some cases, contaminants.
Biological monitoring includes measures of biodiversity and population characteristics. Watershed and land use classifications provide information on types of land use by humans and changes in land cover associated with each reserve. SWMP data for each reserve are managed by the Centralized Data Management Office, managed through a grant to the University of South Carolina and is housed at the North Inlet-Winyah Bay Reserve in South Carolina. SWMP data can be viewed and downloaded from the CDMO; the NERRS Science Collaborative is designed to put Reserve-based science to work for local communities. Administered by the University of Michigan, the program funds research projects that bring scientists, intended users of the science, stakeholders and trainers together to address problems related to coastal pollution and habitat degradation in the context of climate change; the results of these projects is shared throughout the System. The Collaborative sponsors a UM-based graduate and professional education program focused on helping individuals develop the skills needed to link science-based information to coastal resource management decisions.
National Estuarine Research Reserves are federally designated "to enhance public awareness and understanding of estuarine areas, provide suitable opportunities for public ed
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Wayne National Forest
The Wayne National Forest is located in the south-eastern part of the US state of Ohio, in the Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. It is the only national forest in Ohio. Forest headquarters are located between The Plains and Nelsonville, Ohio, on US Route 33, overlooking the Hocking River; the forested land was cleared for agricultural and lumbering use in the late 18th and 19th century, but years of poor timbering and agricultural practices led to severe erosion and poor soil composition. The Wayne National Forest was started as part of a reforestation program; the forest comprises three administrative and purchase units: Athens and Ironton. Many of the lands included in the forest are former coal-mining lands, much of this land is owned by the federal government without the mineral rights, those having been retained by former owners; as of January 2012, the forest has 240,101 acres in federal ownership within a proclamation boundary of 832,147 acres. The Athens Unit is located in Athens, Morgan and Vinton Counties, includes 67,224 acres as of 2002.
It features the Wildcat Hollow Trail, a hiking trail just northeast of Burr Oak State Park in Morgan County. The Marietta Unit is located in Monroe and Washington Counties, includes 63,381 acres as of 2002, with over half of the total being within Washington County; the Ironton Unit is located in Gallia, Jackson and Scioto Counties, includes 99,049 acres as of 2002, with over two-thirds of the total being within Lawrence County. The area of Ohio included within the Forest is based on late Paleozoic geology, heavy in sandstones and shales, including redbeds, with many coal beds; the topography is very rugged, with elevation changes in the 200–400-foot range. The North Country Trail passes through several areas of the Wayne, in which it is coincident with the Buckeye Trail and the American Discovery Trail. Wayne National Forest Official Website A Forest Returns: The Success Story of Ohio's Only National Forest –- oral history on the beginnings of the Wayne. Economic Analysis of the 2006 Wayne National Forest Plan – a critical analysis of future USFS plans for the Wayne
Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument
The Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument, a National Monument of the United States, commemorates the life of Charles Young, an escaped slave who rose to become a Buffalo Soldier in the United States Army and its first African-American colonel. It is located on United States Route 42 in Wilberforce, Ohio, in a house purchased by Young in 1907, designated a National Historic Landmark in 1974; the monument is administered by the National Park Service. The Charles Young House is located in a rural setting southwest of Wilberforce, on the north side of US 42 between Clifton and Stevenson Roads; the house is an eclectically styled 2-1/2 story brick building, with a gabled roof that has overhanging eaves. A T-shaped porch extends across the middle three bays of the five-bay front facade, supported by square posts. A series of ells extend to the rear. Charles Young was born into slavery in Kentucky in 1864, he was the third African American graduate of West Point, the first black U. S. national park superintendent, the first African American military attaché, the highest ranking black officer in the United States Army until his death in 1922.
He taught military science at Wilberforce University, during which time he purchased this house, which he called "Youngsholm". The house was built in 1832, is reported to have served as a way station on the Underground Railroad. On March 25, 2013, under the Antiquities Act, President Barack Obama designated the house as the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument, a unit of the National Park Service. Operated as a house museum with exhibits about Young and the Buffalo Soldiers, it is open for public visitation by appointment. National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center in Wilberforce List of National Monuments of the United States Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. OH-2249, "Colonel Charles Young House, Columbia Pike between Clifton & Stevenson Roads, Greene County, OH", 9 photos, 4 data pages, 1 photo caption page
Delhi Township, Hamilton County, Ohio
Delhi Township is one of the twelve townships of Hamilton County, United States. The 2010 census found 29,510 people in the township, it is the only Delhi Township statewide. The area of modern-day Delhi Township was first settled by Americans in 1789, with the founding of the village of South Bend. Delhi was incorporated as a township in 1816; the name is pronounced "DEL-high", rather than "deli", how its namesake in India is pronounced. The Sedam Springhouse, which may date back to the 1790s, is one of the oldest buildings in the township. Now known as the Delhi Springhouse, the structure stands on land near the stone house Colonel Cornelius Ryker Sedam built in 1796; the house no longer exists. The structure protected a natural spring, which supplied water as late as 1937; the springhouse was used to provide storage for perishable foods. Located in the southwestern part of the county along the Ohio River, it has the following borders: Green Township - north Cincinnati - east Kenton County, Kentucky - southeast, across the Ohio River Boone County, Kentucky - southwest, across the Ohio River Miami Township - northwestMuch of what was once part of Delhi Township, including its entire shoreline along the Ohio River, is now part of the city of Cincinnati, the county seat of Hamilton County.
Unincorporated communities in the township include Delhi Hills and Mount Saint Joseph. The Cincinnati communities of Price Hill, Sayler Park and Riverside were part of Delhi Township until they were annexed by Cincinnati at the turn of the 20th century; the township has an area of 10.1 square miles. Because the township covers the slopes leading down to the floodplain of the Ohio River, the township contains many hills, its landscape is cut by a number of ravines caused by streams that make the descent. Delhi Township is located within a climatic transition zone at the extreme northern limit of the humid subtropical climate. Being located within the northern periphery of the Upland South and within the Bluegrass region of southern Ohio and Kentucky, the local climate is a a blend of the subtropics to the south and the humid continental climate to the north. Delhi Township's average annual rainfall is 41 inches, received over an average of 82 days, along with 14 inches of snow. Temperatures range from an average July high of 88 °F to an average January low of 15 °F.
The median age of males in the township is 36.7 years of age, the median age of females in the township is 38.4 years of age. The median income for households in the township was $64,504 in 2008. In 1999, the median income for households in the township was $55,052; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. Three fire stations serve the township. Fire Station #33 serves as the fire department's headquarters; the other stations are Station #30 and Station #36. Delhi has various annual celebrations, including the Delhi Skirt Game.
The Delhi Skirt Game is a Chicago-style softball game between officers of the Delhi Township Police Department and the firefighters of the Delhi Township Fire Department. The game is played in Delhi Park on the first Friday of August, with festivities surrounding the game including live music, games of chance, concessions and fireworks; the Skirt Game benefits needy families of Delhi Township. Following an 1850s grape blight which destroyed most of the township's vineyards, many growers turned to vegetable farming. On the heels of a successful transition to vegetable farming, growers began to construct greenhouses in order to extend the growing season. At some point in the 1920–1930s, nearly all of the Delhi greenhouse operators began to realize the greater profit potential of growing flowers, subsequently converted their greenhouses from vegetable-centric operations to growing cut flowers full-time; the peak of local hothouse agriculture was reached during the late pre-WWII years, when as many as 55 family-run greenhouses operated in the township.
Notably, Delhi Township-based greenhouses produced a significant percentage of carnations supplied throughout the United States by this time. In the local region, Delhi Township became known as the "Floral Paradise of Ohio", a trademark phrase, still featured on modern, official Delhi Township signage; the importance of greenhouses in Delhi Township was reflected in the equipment of the Delhi Township Fire Department. This arrangement permitted firefighters to connect their hoses to the source of water closest to an interior greenhouse fire, eliminating the need to drag hundreds of feet of heavy, charged hose connected at the fire apparatus's pump panel outside. In this arrangement, water pressure in the involved greenhouse was boosted by a connection from the pumper to a standpipe connection on the outside of the structure; the requirement to carry a large variety of thread adapters (in order to be compatible with nearby, mutual aid departme