United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans
Sri Lanka Armed Forces
The Sri Lanka Armed Forces is the overall unified military of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka encompassing the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy, the Sri Lanka Air Force. The three services have around 346,700 active personnel; the Sri Lanka Coast Guard is under the purview of the Ministry of Defence but is staffed by civilian personal. Sri Lanka has a military history going back to more than 2000 years; the roots of the modern Sri Lankan military lead back to the colonial era when the Portuguese and British established local militias to support their wars against the local Kingdoms. The British created the Ceylon Rifle Regiment during the Kandyan wars. Although it had natives in its ranks, it was composed of Malays, it was disbanded in 1873. The lineage of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces dates back to 1881, when the British created a volunteer reserve on the island named the Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers. Created to supplement the British garrison in Ceylon in the event of an external threat, it increased in size.
In 1910 it was consisted of several regiments. The CDF mobilized for home defence in World War I and again in World War II when its units were deployed along with allied forces in Asia and Africa. At the end of the war it has grown in size to that of an independent brigade, but was de-mobilized in 1946 and disbanded in 1949. In 1937 the Ceylon Naval Volunteer Force was established, it was mobilized for war in 1939 and was incorporated into the Royal Navy. Following establishment of the Dominion of Ceylon with Britain granting independence in 1948, work began to establish a regular military; the Army Act No. 17 of 1949 was passed by Parliament on April 11, 1949 and formalized in the Gazette Extraordinary No. 10028 of October 10, 1949. This marked the creation of the Ceylon Army, the CDF the CRNVR were disbanded to make way for a regular navy. On December 9, 1950 the Royal Ceylon Navy was established. In 1951 the Royal Ceylon Air Force was established as the youngest of the three forces. From the outset Britain played a significant role in helping the Ceylon government in developing its armed forces.
The growth of the Ceylon Armed Forces was slow due to lack of foreign threat, since Ceylon maintained cordial relations with its neighbor India and had a defence treaty with Britain. In the 1950s it was employed in internal security assisting the police. There was an attempted coup in 1962 by a group of reservists, which led to cuts in military spending and the disbandment of several regiments. This, together with the lack of an intelligence agency, left it ill-prepared for the insurgency launched by the Marxist JVP in April 1971; the 1971 JVP Insurrection saw Ceylon Armed Forces mobilizing for combat operations for the first time and its size grew rapidly. The insurrection was brought under control in a few months. In 1972 Ceylon became the Ceylon Armed Forces became the Sri Lanka Armed Forces. By the early 1980s, the Sri Lanka Armed Forces mobilized against the insurgency of Tamil militant groups in the north of the island; this was the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War. The size of the Armed Forces grew in the 1980s.
By the mid-1980s, the Armed Forces began launching operations in the like of conventional warfare against the LTTE which had by became the most powerful of the Tamil militant groups. This led to India intervening by entering Sri Lankan air space. Shortly afterward the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord was signed and the Indian Peace Keeping Force was sent to Sri Lanka to establish peace; the military was redistricted to its bases but was soon involved in another insurrection by the JVP in the south of the island from 1987 to 1989. In the north, tension increased with the LTTE and the IPKF leading to open war with the two suffering heavy casualties. In 1990 the IPKF pulled out and the war commenced with the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and the LTTE. In 1994, a brief ceasefire came into place and peace talks began; the ceasefire ended. The phase of the war that followed, known as Eelam War III, saw a conventional war taking place in the northern and eastern provinces of the island and terrorist attacks in other parts of the country.
The Sri Lankan Army began deploying full divisions in offensive operations and the Navy and Air Force increased their inventories to support the Army. In 2002, a new ceasefire was established with Norwegian mediation and peace talks began; the SLMM was established to monitor the ceasefire and certain progress archived until the LTTE withdrew from the peace talks in 2003. Although the ceasefire continued no peace talks took place till 2005. In the mean time the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission filed a report stating the LTTE had violated the ceasefire 3,471 times since the signing of the cease fire, including matters such as child recruiting, abduction, firing of weapons, carrying of arms in government-held areas, construction of new positions, movement of arms and military equipment, denial of access to families of detainees and the obstruction of truce monitors; however the security forces violated the ceasefire only 162 times. Some defence reforms commenced in 2002 when the Prime Minister established the Defence Review Committee which formulated extensive recommendations that encapsulate force modernization as well as restructuring of command and control in ways that would make the army more responsive to civil control.
The first task of the Committee was to assess Higher Defence Organisation, given the d
Sri Lanka the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years, it has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in 1948.
Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history.
Moors, Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā; the Tamil term Eelam, was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature. The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni; the Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb from Cerentivu or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ. Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505, was transliterated into English as Ceylon; as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon. The country is now known in Sinhala in Tamil as Ilaṅkai. In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka".
In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man, other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport. Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka; the 19th-century Irish historian James Emerson Tennent theorized that Galle, a city in southern Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory and other valuables. According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600 BC and other signs of advanced civilisation have been discovered in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC with the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers to Sri Lanka, after being expelled from Vanga Kingdom (present-day Ben
The Kandyan Convention was an agreement signed on 10 March 1815 between the British and the Chiefs of the Kandyan Kingdom, British Ceylon for the deposition of King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha and ceding of the Kingdom's territory to British rule. The king, of South Indian ancestry, faced powerful opposition from the Sinhalese chieftains who sought to limit his power. A successful coup was organized by the chieftains, marking the end of 2358 years of self-rule on the island and resulting in the imprisonment of the King in Vellore; the treaty is quite unique in that it was not signed by the monarch on the throne but by members of his court and other dignitaries of the kingdom. The convention gained a degree of infamy when, according to apocryphal sources, Wariyapola Sri Sumangala, a Buddhist monk of the kingdom and trampled a Union Jack hoisted by the British, demanding the flag of Kandy be left flying until the Convention was signed.. The authenticity of the native signatures have been called into question.
Robert Brownrigg - Governor of Ceylon John D'Oyly - Chief Translator to the Government Jas. Surtherland - Deputy Secretary to the Government Ehelepola Nilame Molligoda sr. - Maha Adigar & Dissawa of the Sath Korles Pilima Talawuwe sr. alias Kapuwatte - 2nd Adigar & Dissawa of Sabaragamuwa Pilima Talawuwe jr. - Dissawa of Hathra Korles Monarawila - Dissawa of Uva Ratwatte - Dissawa of Matale Molligoda jr. - Dissawa of Thun Korles Dullewe - Dissawa of Walapane Millewe - Dissawa of Wellassa & Binthenna Galagama - Dissawa of Tamankaduwa Galagoda - Dissawa of Nuwara Kalawiya'Sri Wickrema Rajasinha', the'Malabari' king, to forfeit all claims to the throne of Kandy. The king is declared fallen and deposed and the hereditary claim of his dynasty and extinguished. All his male relatives are banished from the island; the dominion is vested in the sovereign of the British Empire, to be exercised through colonial governors, except in the case of the Adikarams, Mohottalas, Korales and other subordinate officers reserving the rights and powers within their respective ranks.
The religion of Buddhism is declared its rights to be maintained and protected. All forms of physical torture and mutilations are abolished; the governor alone can sentence a person to death and all capital punishments to take place in the presence of accredited agents of the government. All civil and criminal justice over Kandyan to be administered according to the established norms and customs of the country, the government reserving to itself the rights of interposition when and where necessary. Other non-Kandyan's position to remain according to British law; the proclamation annexing the Three and Four Korales and Sabaragamuwa is repealed. The dues and revenues to be collected for the King of England as well as for the maintenance of internal establishments in the island; the Governor alone can facilitate commerce. The Archives of the Government of Sri Lanka possesses the original copy of the Convention. Kandyan Treaty of 1638 Kandyan Wars British Ceylon and Kingdom of Kandy 1805 The Kandyan Convention and British policy 1815: Kandyan convention and the role of D’Oyly Short History of Ceylon By Humphrey William Codrington Sri Lankan Ethnic Crisis: Towards a Resolution By R. B.
Herath The 1815 Kandyan Convention at the Audience Hall The signing of the Kandyan Convention Kandyan Convention of 1815 Kandyan Convention of 1815 by Dr. K. D. G. Wimalaratne
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon
An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon together With somewhat Concerning Severall Remarkable passages of my life that hath hapned since my Deliverance out of Captivity is a book written by the English trader and sailor Robert Knox in 1681. It describes his experiences some years earlier on the South Asian island now best known as Sri Lanka, it provides one of the most important contemporary accounts of 17th century Ceylonese life. Knox spent 19 years on Ceylon after being taken prisoner by King Râjasimha II, he survived by selling goods and lending rice and corn. He escaped with one companion in 1679 and reached Arippu, a Dutch settlement on the north-west coast of the island, from where he was able to return to England in 1680; the book was written during the voyage to England. It came to the attention of Knox's employers, the directors of the British East India Company, who recommended its publication; the historian and biographer John Strype, Knox's cousin, helped him to prepare the book for publication with the encouragement of the natural philosopher and polymath Robert Hooke.
It was printed by Richard Chiswell, the printer to the Royal Society, under the imprimaturs of the Society and the Company. When the book was published in 1681 it was read and was translated in Knox's lifetime into German and French editions, it was a major influence on the works of Daniel Defoe. The Relation has a wider literary importance in influencing the development of the English novel. Knox uses direct and idiomatic language to provide detailed descriptions of the factual reality that he saw during his time on Ceylon, he paints a portrait of himself as a practical, self-sufficient and robust individual much like Defoe's shipwrecked mariner. The book is of fundamental importance as a source for the economic history and anthropology of Ceylon during this period due to the objectivity and detail of the text, in which Knox provides observed descriptions of Sinhalese topography and social life, cultural characteristics and conditions in the kingdom of Kandy, it is divided into four parts. The preface provides maps and descriptions of Tamil royal and rural life in the country Vanni which he stumbled into in the north and east of the island.
The book is accompanied by seventeen copperplate engravings of unknown provenance to illustrate topics addressed by Knox. The engravings are not artistically accomplished, but they do fit the text well. However, the artist suffers from evidently not having seen his subjects. A. I. Goonetileke comments that "the animals are near caricatures and the human subjects are based on more familiar European models." The non-English editions of the book adapt the original English engravings. The Dutch edition, for instance, incorporates engravings by Jan Luyken which are based on the English originals but provide a more animated setting, with more detailed backgrounds of buildings and landscapes. An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon at Project Gutenberg Downloadable copy of the 1817 edition
Governors of British Ceylon
The Governor of Ceylon was the representative in Ceylon of the British Crown from 1795 to 1948. In this capacity, the governor was president of the Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces in Ceylon; the governor was the head of the British colonial administration in Ceylon, reporting to the Colonial Office. With Ceylon gaining self-rule and dominion status with the creation of Dominion of Ceylon in 1948, this office was replaced by the Governor-General, who represented the British monarch as the head of state; the office of Governor-General was itself abolished in 1972 and replaced by the post of President when Sri Lanka became a republic. The Governor, appointed by the British monarch, maintained executive power in Ceylon throughout British rule; the Governor was the head of the executive administration in the island. Limited to the coastal regions, the authority of the governor was extend to the provinces of the Kingdom of Kandy following the Kandyan Convention in 1815.
The Governor had absolute power in the island deriving it from the traditional powers of the Dutch governors and the King of Kandy and reporting to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. It was in the Colebrooke Reforms which first defined the role of the Governor as "the representative of the Sovereign the Monarch who rules over the Parliament of the United Kingdom"; these reforms introduced the first legislator, expanded over the next century in the reforms that took place. Upon independence in 1948, the office of the Governor was abolished and replaced with that of the Governor-General as the representative of the Sovereign; the Governor was the Commander-in-Chief of British Forces in Ceylon, except only during World War II, when Admiral Sir Geoffrey Layton was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Ceylon with power exceeding that of the Governor. In November each year, the Governor would receive the annual tribute from the Sultan of Maldives; the Governor was the ex-officio Chancellor of the University of Ceylon and patron of the Royal College Colombo.
Following the Colebrooke Reforms the Executive Council of Ceylon and the Legislative Council of Ceylon was established with the Governor chairing both these councils. In 1931, the Legislative Council was replaced by the State Council of Ceylon with limited self-government; the title of the position was "Governor of Ceylon" and was styled Excellency and enjoyed precedence over all other government officials in Ceylon. He was referred to as'His Excellency' and addressed as'Your Excellency'; this practice as constituted to the office of President. The Governor's main residence and office was the King's House in Colombo and secondary residence was the King's Pavilion in Kandy; the vacationing residence of the Governor, Queen's Cottage was located in the hill station of Nuwara Eliya. The Governor's Bodyguard was a mounted guard that functioned as a ceremonial guard for the Governor when attending state functions. An ceremonial native regiment of Lascoreens was maintained by the office of the Governor to provide a ceremonial guard on special occasions such as the Maldivian Tribute or Royal visits.
The office of the Governor, had a permanent staff. It consisted of the Secretary to the Governor, a Private Secretary, an Aide-de-Camp, the Maha Mudaliyar, an Office Assistant and support staff. Dutch governors of Zeylan Governor-General of Ceylon History of Sri Lanka Governors of Ceylon CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY, Ministry Constitutional Change and National IntegrationSpecific