International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Steven Frederic Seagal is an American actor, screenwriter, martial artist, and musician who holds American and Serbian citizenship. A 7th-dan black belt in Aikido, Seagal began his life as a martial arts instructor in Japan. He moved to Los Angeles, where he worked as an arts instructor on Never Say Never Again. In 1988, Seagal made his debut in Above the Law. By 1991, he had starred in four successful films and he achieved further fame in 1992, when he played Navy SEALs counter-terrorist expert Casey Ryback in Under Siege. However, On Deadly Ground and Under Siege 2, Dark Territory were less successful at the box office, during the latter half of the 1990s, Seagal starred in three more theatrical films and the direct-to-video film The Patriot. Since that time, with the exception of Exit Wounds and Half Past Dead, from 1998 to 2014, Seagal appeared in a total of 27 of these. At the age of 58, he returned to prominence as Torrez in the 2010 film Machete and he created and starred in two seasons of the undercover police drama series True Justice between 2011 and 2012.
Seagal is an accomplished guitarist, having released two albums, and performed on a number of film scores. He has worked with musicians, including Stevie Wonder and Tony Rebel. As a businessman, Seagal has undertaken many ventures, he is estimated to be anywhere from $5–16 million. In 1997, he began working closely with Young Living on a line of oil products. As the founder of Steven Seagal Enterprises, he began to market his own drink, Lightning Bolt. In 2013, he began representing the Russian firearms manufacturer ORSIS, in addition to his professional achievements, Seagal is known as an environmentalist, an animal rights activist, and as a supporter of the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. He is known for his political views and for his friendship with Vladimir Putin. Seagal once referred to Putin as one of the living world leaders. Seagal was born in Lansing and his mother, was a medical technician, and his father, Samuel Seagal, was a high school math teacher. His mother was of English and Dutch ancestry and his father was the son of Russian Jews who moved to the U. S
Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also, a soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the American Revolutionary War, while governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action, that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinsons The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto United we stand, divided we fall. Issac Shelbys military service began, when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant and he gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina and he played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain.
For his service, Shelby was presented with a sword and a pair of pistols, by the North Carolina legislature. Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky, on lands awarded to him for his military service and his heroism made him popular with the states citizens and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky, from Indian attacks and organized its first government and he used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. At the end of his term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict and he was elected easily, and at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroes offer to become Secretary of War, in his last act of public service and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe.
Isaac Shelby died, at his estate in Lincoln County, Isaac Shelby was born in the Province of Maryland on December 11,1750, near Hagerstown in Frederick County. He was the child and second son of Evan and Letitia Shelby. Though the family had been loyal to the Church of England, they became Presbyterians after coming to British America, Shelby was educated at the local schools in his native colony. He worked on his fathers plantation and occasionally work as a surveyor. At age eighteen he was appointed deputy sheriff of Frederick County, Shelbys father lost a great deal of money when Pontiacs Rebellion disrupted his lucrative fur trade business, and two years later, the business records were destroyed in a house fire. Consequently, in December 1770 the family moved to the area near Bristol, where they built a fort, here and his father worked for three years herding cattle
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer and frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky, as a young adult, Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, and selling their pelts in the fur market. Through this occupational interest, Boone first learned the easy routes to the area, there, he founded the village of Boonesborough, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone, Boone was a militia officer during the Revolutionary War, which, in Kentucky, was fought primarily between the American settlers and the British-aided Indians. Boone was captured by Shawnee warriors in 1778 and he escaped and alerted Boonesborough that the Shawnees were planning an attack. Although heavily outnumbered, Americans repelled the Shawnee warriors in the Siege of Boonesborough, Boone was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly, during the Revolutionary War, and fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782.
Blue Licks, a Shawnee victory over the Patriots, was one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, following the war, Boone worked as a surveyor and merchant, but fell deeply into debt through failed Kentucky land speculation. Frustrated with the problems resulting from his land claims, in 1799, Boone emigrated to eastern Missouri. Boone remains a figure in American history. He was a legend in his own lifetime, especially after an account of his adventures was published in 1784 by John Filson, an American edition made him equally famous across the United States. After his death, he was frequently the subject of heroic tall tales and his adventures—real and legendary—were influential in creating the archetypal Western hero of American folklore. In American popular culture, he is remembered as one of the foremost early frontiersmen, the epic Daniel Boone mythology often overshadows the historical details of his life. Daniel Boone was of English and Welsh ancestry, because the Gregorian calendar was adopted during his lifetime, Boones birth date is sometimes given as November 2,1734, although Boone used the October date.
The Boone family belonged to the Religious Society of Friends, called Quakers, daniels father, Squire Boone emigrated from the small town of Bradninch, Devon to Pennsylvania in 1713, to join William Penns colony of dissenters. Squire Boones parents, George Boone III and Mary Maugridge, followed their son to Pennsylvania in 1717, in 1720, Squire Boone, who worked primarily as a weaver and a blacksmith, married Sarah Morgan. Sarahs family were Quakers from Wales, and had settled in 1708 in the area which became Towamencin Township of Montgomery County, in 1731, the Boones moved to the Oley Valley, near the modern city of Reading. There they built a log cabin, partially preserved today as the Daniel Boone Homestead, Daniel Boone was born there, the sixth of eleven children. Daniel Boone spent his years on what was the edge of the frontier
George Madison was the sixth Governor of Kentucky. He was the first governor of Kentucky to die in office, Little is known of Madisons early life. He was a member of the influential Madison family of Virginia and he served with distinction in three wars – the Revolutionary War, Northwest Indian War, and War of 1812. He was twice wounded in the Northwest Indian War, and in the War of 1812 he was taken following the Battle of Frenchtown in Michigan. Madisons political experience before becoming governor consisted of a tenure as state auditor. Although his military service made him popular in Kentucky, he sought no higher office until the citizens insisted he run for governor in 1816. James Johnson, his challenger in the race, dropped out early due to Madisons overwhelming popularity. A few weeks later, he became the first Kentucky governor to die in office, opponents of his lieutenant governor, Gabriel Slaughter, mounted a popular but unsuccessful challenge to Slaughters succeeding Madison in office.
George Madison was born in June 1763 in the portion of Augusta County and his parents were John and Agatha Madison. His brother James became the Episcopal bishop of Virginia and the president of the College of William & Mary, another brother was Captain Thomas Madison. They were second cousins to President James Madison, Madison was educated in the local schools and received instruction at home. Before he was old enough to enlist, he entered the Continental Army as a private during the Revolutionary War. It is not known when Madison moved to Kentucky, but land records in Lincoln County indicate he and he married Jane Smith and they had four children – Agatha, William and George. Madison served with the Kentucky militia during the Northwest Indian War and he was a subaltern in Arthur St. Clairs army in the American defeat at the Battle of the Wabash on November 4,1791. During the retreat, a soldier named William Kennan found Madison sitting on a log, Kennan quickly retrieved an abandoned horse he had seen, he helped Madison astride the horse, and they both escaped.
Later in the war, Madison served under Major John Adair, on November 5,1792, Adairs men were encamped near Fort St. Clair when they were ambushed by an Indian force under the command of Little Turtle. Adair ordered a retreat, rallied his men and divided them into three groups and he ordered those under Madison to turn the enemys flank, but they failed and Madison was wounded again in this battle. Following this, Adair withdrew to Fort St. Clair, in Adairs report to Brigadier General James Wilkinson, he wrote, Madisons bravery and conduct need no comment, they are well-known
Charles Scott (governor)
Charles Scott was an 18th-century American soldier who was elected the fourth governor of Kentucky in 1808. Orphaned at an age, Scott enlisted in the Virginia Regiment in October 1755 and served as a scout and escort during the French. He quickly rose through the ranks to become a captain, in August 1776, he was promoted to colonel and given command of the 5th Virginia Regiment. The 5th Virginia joined George Washington in New Jersey that year, Scott commanded Washingtons light infantry, and by late 1778 was serving as his chief of intelligence. Furloughed at the end of the Philadelphia campaign, Scott returned to service in March 1779 and was ordered to South Carolina to assist General Benjamin Lincoln in the southern theater. He arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, just as Henry Clinton had begun his siege of the city, Scott was taken as a prisoner of war when Charleston surrendered. Paroled in March 1781 and exchanged for Lord Rawdon in July 1782, after the war, Scott visited the western frontier in 1785 and began to make preparations for a permanent relocation.
He resettled near present-day Versailles, Kentucky, in 1787, confronted by the dangers of Indian raids, Scott raised a company of volunteers in 1790 and joined Josiah Harmar for an expedition against the Indians. After Harmars Defeat, President Washington ordered Arthur St. Clair to prepare for an invasion of Indian lands in the Northwest Territory. In the meantime, Scott, by now holding the rank of general in the Virginia militia, was ordered to conduct a series of preliminary raids. In July 1791, he led the most notable and successful of these raids against the village of Ouiatenon, St. Clairs main invasion, conducted that year, was a failure. Shortly after the separation of Kentucky from Virginia in 1792, the Kentucky General Assembly commissioned Scott as a major general and gave him command of the 2nd division of the Kentucky militia. Scotts division cooperated with Mad Anthony Waynes Legion of the United States for the rest of the Northwest Indian War, having previously served in the Virginia House of Delegates and as a presidential elector, the aging Scott now ran for governor.
His 1808 campaign was managed by his step-son-in-law, Jesse Bledsoe. A fall on the icy steps of the governors mansion early in his term confined Scott to crutches for the rest of his life, and left him reliant on Bledsoe. After his term expired, Scott returned to his Canewood estate and his health declined rapidly, and he died on October 22,1813. Scott County and Scott County, are named in his honor, as are the cities of Scottsville, Charles Scott was born in 1739, probably in April, in the part of Goochland County, that is now Powhatan County. His father, Samuel Scott, was a farmer and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses and his mother, whose name is not known, died most likely around 1745
War of 1812
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but the British often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. By the wars end in early 1815, the key issues had been resolved, the view was shared in much of New England and for that reason the war was widely referred to there as Mr. Madison’s War. As a result, the primary British war goal was to defend their North American colonies, the war was fought in three theatres. Second and naval battles were fought on the U. S. –Canadian frontier, large-scale battles were fought in the Southern United States and Gulf Coast. With the majority of its land and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars, early victories over poorly-led U. S. armies demonstrated that the conquest of the Canadas would prove more difficult than anticipated. Despite this, the U. S. was able to inflict serious defeats on Britains Native American allies, both governments were eager for a return to normality and peace negotiations began in Ghent in August 1814.
This brought an Era of Good Feelings in which partisan animosity nearly vanished in the face of strengthened American nationalism, the war was a major turning point in the development of the U. S. military, with militia being increasingly replaced by a more professional force. The U. S. acquired permanent ownership of Spains Mobile District, the government of Canada declared a three-year commemoration of the War of 1812 in 2012, intended to offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border. At the conclusion of the commemorations in 2014, a new national War of 1812 Monument was unveiled in Ottawa. The war is remembered in Britain primarily as a footnote in the much larger Napoleonic Wars occurring in Europe, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812. This section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States, as Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair.
The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was vindication of American identity. Americans at the time and historians since often called it the United States Second War of Independence, in 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law, the American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton, the British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. The United States view was that Britains restrictions violated its right to trade with others, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man. The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become U. S.
citizens and this meant that in addition to recovering naval deserters, it considered any United States citizens who were born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the reluctance of the United States to issue formal naturalization papers and it was estimated by the Admiralty that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805
Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. The core campuses of Indiana University are located in Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Bloomington is the flagship campus of Indiana University. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is the urban campus of Indiana University. The campus is operated in cooperation with Purdue University, but is administered by Indiana University, in addition to its two core campuses, Indiana University comprises seven smaller campuses and two extensions spread throughout Indiana. The smaller campuses are, Indiana University East is located in Richmond, Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo, Indiana. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary, Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend, Indiana. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany, Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne is located in Fort Wayne, Indiana. IPFW is operated in cooperation with, and is administered by, Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus, Indiana.
The centers/extensions are, The Danielson Center is located in New Castle, the Elkhart Center is located in Elkhart, Indiana. Future projects include, A medical school complex near downtown Evansville, according to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations is over $1.57 billion. Mark Cuban Brad Stephens Indiana University has three medals to recognize individuals, the University Medal, the only IU medal that requires approval from the Board of Trustees, was created in 1982 by IU President John W. Ryan and is the highest award bestowed by the University. It honors individuals for singular or noteworthy contributions, including service to the university and achievement in arts, science, the first recipient was Thomas T. Solley, former director of the IU Art Museum. Indiana University Presidents Medal for Excellence, a reproduction in silver of the symbolic jewel of office worn by the president at ceremonial occasions, is rich in meaning.
The first recipients were member of the Beaux Arts Trio on September 20,1985, Thomas Hart Benton Mural Medallion recognizes individuals who are shining examples of the values of IU and the universal academic community. President Ryan was the first to award this honor and it was first awarded to the president of Nanjing University on July 21,1986. Indiana University has a number of ways to recognize the accomplishments of faculty, the recipient is the IU nominee for the national Campus Compact Thomas Ehrlich Award for Service Learning. The Mace, a symbol of authority dating back to medieval times and it would be used in processions of city mayors and other dignitaries, and became an emblem of order and authority during academic ceremonies. The staff of IUs Mace is 30 inches long and made of polished ebony encircled with four brass, gold-plated collars, atop the staff is a globe of plated brass with four flat sides
Richard Mentor Johnson
Richard Mentor Johnson was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. He is the vice president ever elected by the United States Senate under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment. Johnson represented Kentucky in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate, he began, Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1806. He became allied with fellow Kentuckian Henry Clay as a member of the War Hawks faction that favored war with Britain in 1812. At the outset of the War of 1812, Johnson was commissioned a colonel in the Kentucky Militia and he and his brother James served under William Henry Harrison in Upper Canada. Johnson participated in the Battle of the Thames, some reported that he personally killed the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, which he used to his political advantage. After the war, Johnson returned to the House of Representatives, the legislature appointed him to the Senate in 1819 to fill the seat vacated by John J.
Crittenden. As his prominence grew, his relationship with Julia Chinn. It worked against his political ambitions, unlike other upper class leaders who had African American mistresses but never mentioned them, Johnson openly treated Chinn as his common law wife. He acknowledged their two daughters as his children, giving them his surname, much to the consternation of some of his constituents. The relationship is believed to have led to the loss of his Senate seat in 1829, in 1836, Johnson was the Democratic nominee for vice-president on a ticket with Martin Van Buren. Campaigning with the slogan Rumpsey Dumpsey, Rumpsey Dumpsey, Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh, virginias delegation to the Electoral College went against the states popular vote and refused to endorse Johnson, abstaining instead. However, he was elected to the office by the Senate, Johnson proved such a liability for the Democrats in the 1836 election that they refused to renominate him for vice-president in 1840. President Van Buren campaigned for re-election without a running mate and he lost to William Henry Harrison, a Whig.
Johnson tried to return to office but was defeated. He finally was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1850, Richard Mentor Johnson was born on October 17,1780, the fifth of Robert and Jemima Johnsons eleven children. At the time, the family was living in the newly founded settlement of Beargrass, near present-day Louisville, by 1782, the Johnsons had moved to Bryans Station in Fayette County. Johnsons mother was considered among the women of the community because of her actions during Simon Girtys raid on Bryans Station in August 1782
Calcium nitrate, called Norgessalpeter, is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca2. This colourless salt absorbs moisture from the air and is found as a tetrahydrate. It is mainly used as a component in fertilizers but has other applications, nitrocalcite is the name for a mineral which is a hydrated calcium nitrate that forms as an efflorescence where manure contacts concrete or limestone in a dry environment as in stables or caverns. A variety of related salts are known including calcium ammonium nitrate decahydrate, Norgessalpeter was synthesized at Notodden, Norway in 1905 by the Birkeland–Eyde process. Most of the calcium nitrate is now made in Porsgrunn. The fertilizer grade is popular in the greenhouse and hydroponics trades, it contains ammonium nitrate and water and this is called calcium ammonium nitrate. Formulations lacking ammonia are known, Ca2·4H2O, a liquid formulation is offered. An anhydrous, air-stable derivative is the urea complex Ca2·4, which has sold as Cal-Urea. Calcium nitrate is used to control certain plant diseases.
For example, dilute calcium nitrate sprays are used to bitter pit. Calcium nitrate is used in waste water pre-conditioning for odour emission prevention, the waste water pre-conditioning is based on establishing an anoxic biology in the waste water system. In the presence of nitrate, the metabolism for sulfates stops, additionally easy degradable organic matter is consumed, which otherwise can cause anaerobic conditions downstream as well as odour emissions itself. The concept is applicable for surplus sludge treatment. Calcium nitrate is used in set accelerating concrete admixtures and this use with concrete and mortar is based on two effects. The calcium ion accelerates formation of hydroxide and thus precipitation. This effect is used in cold weather concreting agents as well as some combined plasticizers, the nitrate ion leads to formation of iron hydroxide, whose protective layer reduces corrosion of the concrete reinforcement. Calcium nitrate is a very common coagulant in latex production, especially in dipping processes, dissolved calcium nitrate is a part of the dipping bath solution.
The warm former is dipped into the liquid and a thin film of the dipping liquid remains on the former