The bush stone-curlew or bush thick-knee is a large, ground-dwelling bird endemic to Australia. The bush stone-curlew was first described by the English ornithologist John Latham in 1801 under the binomial name Charadius grallarius. Like most stone-curlews, it is nocturnal and specialises in hunting small grassland animals: frogs, insects, crustaceans, snakes and small mammals are all taken gleaned or probed from soft soil or rotting wood. Birds forage individually or in pairs over a large home range on moonlit nights. During the day, bush stone-curlews tend to remain inactive, sheltering amongst tall grass or low shrubs and relying on their cryptic plumage to protect them from predators; when disturbed, they freeze motionless in odd-looking postures. For visual predators like raptors and humans this works well, but it serves little purpose with animals that hunt by scent such as foxes, dingoes or goannas. Despite their ungainly appearance and habit of freezing motionless, they are sure-footed and agile on the ground, although they fly during daylight hours, they are far from clumsy in the air.
The bush Stone-curlew is heard more than it is seen. Its call sounds like a scream in the night; when scared, it screeches – a sound similar to the screech of a possum. When threatened, they may raise their wings wide and high in an impressive threat posture and emit a loud, hoarse hissing noise; the bush stone-curlew has a broad habitat preference. It can be found in open forest, eucalyptus woodland, rainforest edges, grassy plains, arid scrubland and along inland watercourses, it is a common species in the cities of Brisbane and Townsville however is not found in urban areas in the south of its range. It can be found throughout Australia apart from Tasmania, it is still abundant in the tropical and sub-tropical north, however has become rare in the less fertile south where it was once common. Bush stone-curlews remain reasonably common in the north of Australia, but have become rare in the less fertile south. Many experts believe that fox predation is a prime factor in their decline, however there are areas where foxes are common yet the bush stone-curlew population remains healthy, so the true causes remain uncertain.
Large-scale habitat destruction and fragmentation has undoubtedly been important, may well be the major factor, although there is some evidence which suggests that the species favours agricultural land with patches of remnant native vegetation over intact areas of vegetation. Bush stone-curlew is not listed as threatened on the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, it is common in Queensland, not considered to be regionally threatened there. In New South Wales it is considered endangered under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. Bush Stone Curlew are listed as "threatened" on the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. Under this Act, an Action Statement for the recovery and future management of this species has been prepared. On the 2007 advisory list of threatened vertebrate fauna in Victoria, this species is listed as endangered
Rainbow Beach, Queensland
Rainbow Beach is a coastal town in the Wide Bay–Burnett region of Queensland, east of Gympie. At the 2011 census, Rainbow Beach had a population of 1,103, it is a popular tourist destination, both as a gateway to Fraser Island. The town's name derives from the rainbow-coloured sand dunes surrounding the settlement. According to the legends of the Kabi people, the dunes were coloured when Yiningie, a spirit represented by a rainbow, plunged into the cliffs after doing battle with an evil tribesman. Much of the sand colours stem from the rich content of minerals in the sand, such as rutile, ilmenite and monazite. A black dune of ilmenite sands, overgrown by dune vegetation, can be found north west of the main town; this is being removed for sale in China with complete removal expected to take two years. The Cooloola Section of the Great Sandy National Park borders the town to the south. A number of walking tracks through the national park depart from the southern outskirts of Rainbow Beach; this includes the northern end point of the Cooloola Great Walk.
By road, Rainbow Beach is located 75 kilometres from the Bruce Highway town of Gympie, 239 kilometres from the Queensland state capital, Brisbane. Known as Black Beach, Rainbow Beach was renamed after the coloured sands located near the town which lies to the south of Fraser Island on Wide Bay, it was gazetted as late as 1969. Until that time there was no road to Rainbow Beach, with the only access being via boat from Tin Can Bay. Sandmining ceased in the economic focus changed to recreation and tourism; the Singaporean-owned Cherry Venture a 1600-ton cargo vessel was empty when it grounded on 8 July 1973 during gale force conditions. The freighter was bound for Brisbane from New Zealand and floundered in the heavy seas and gale force winds; the anchor cable had parted in the 12 metre seas as the Captain had attempted to hold the ship into the wind. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to refloat her, she was stripped of her fittings and left to the elements. Up until 2007 her rusted hulk was a major tourist drawcard and boasted its own ice-cream vendor.
The huge stainless steel propeller was taken off the vessel and is now on display in the Laurie Hanson Park, which overlooks the beach at Rainbow Beach. The town's war memorial commemorating those who died in the World War I and subsequent conflicts was refurbished in 1993 and is located in Laurie Hanson Park. Rainbow Beach Library was opened in 2012; the town's economy is now dominated by tourism, featuring quiet and idyllic holidays and retirement getaway. The town caters to beach-orientated holiday-makers with hotels and caravan parks; the town promotes itself as the "Gateway to Fraser Island" as vehicular ferries for Fraser Island depart from Inskip Point, north of town. Double Island Point, a popular destination amongst 4WD enthusiasts, is located east of town, it is promoted as an eco-tourism destination. Although it has a permanent population of about 900, about 70,000 visitors come to the town each year. Gympie Regional Council operates Rainbow Beach Library at Rainbow Beach Community Hall, 32 Rainbow Beach Road, Rainbow Beach.
In 2011, a large sinkhole consumed much of the beach at Inskip Point, with the hole size estimated at 100 m+ long and 50 m+ deep. A large sinkhole opened up near Queensland's Rainbow Beach, affecting campers along Inskip Point in September 2015. Fishermen were the first to notice the shoreline receding into the ocean around 10:30 pm, the Brisbane Times reports. Casey Hughes told ABC news; the sinkhole was 50 metres wide and three metres deep. The sinkhole swallowed up a caravan, a camper trailer and several tents. 140 people were evacuated from the campground. Most of the campers were able to move their vehicles out of harm's way before their campsites were submerged in water. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Rainbow Beach
While a significant majority of water vessels are powered by diesel engines, with sail power and gasoline engines popular, boats powered by electricity have been used for over 120 years. Electric boats were popular from the 1880s until the 1920s, when the internal combustion engine took dominance. Since the energy crises of the 1970s, interest in this quiet and renewable marine energy source has been increasing again as solar cells became available, for the first time making possible motorboats with an infinite range like sailboats; the first practical solar boat was constructed in 1975 in England. The first electric sailboat which made a round-the-world tour, including the through the Panama Canal, with only green technologies is EcoSailingProject. An early electric boat was developed by the German inventor Moritz von Jacobi in 1839 in St Petersburg, Russia, it was a 24-foot boat. It was demonstrated to Emperor Nicholas I of Russia on the Neva River, it took more than 30 years of battery and motor development before the electric boat became a practical proposition.
This method of propulsion enjoyed something of a golden age from about 1880 to 1920, when gasoline-powered outboard motors became the dominant method. Gustave Trouvé, French electrical engineer, patented a small electric motor in 1880, he suggested that the motor could power a set of paddle wheels to propel boats on the water, argued for the use of a propeller, instead. An Austrian emigre to Britain, Anthony Reckenzaun, was instrumental in the development of the first practical electric boats. While working as an engineer for the Electrical Power Storage Company, he undertook much original and pioneering work on various forms of electric traction. In 1882 he designed the first significant electric launch driven by storage batteries, named the boat Electricity; the boat was over 7 metres long. The batteries and electric equipment were concealed from view underneath the seating area, increasing the passenger accommodation; the boats were used for leisure excursions up and down the River Thames and provided a smooth and quiet trip.
The boat could operate at an average speed of 8 miles per hour. Moritz Immisch established his company in 1882 in partnership with William Keppel, 7th Earl of Albemarle, specializing in the application of electric motors to transportation; the company employed Magnus Volk as a manager in the development of their electric launch department. After 12 months of experimental work starting in 1888 with a randan skiff, the firm commissioned the construction of hulls which they equipped with electrical apparatus; the world's first fleet of electric launches for hire, with a chain of electrical charging stations, was established along the River Thames in the 1880s. An 1893 pleasure map of the Thames shows 8 "charging stations for electric launches" between Kew and Reading; the company built its headquarters on the island called Platt's Eyot. From 1889 until just before the First World War the boating season and regattas saw the silent electric boats plying their way up and downstream; the company's electric launches were used by the rich as a conveyance along the river.
Grand ships were constructed of teak or mahogany and furnished luxuriously, with stained glass windows, silk curtains and velvet cushions. William Sargeant was commissioned by Immisch's company to build the Mary Gordon in 1898 for Leeds City Council for use on the Roundhay Park Lake - the boat still survives and is being restored; this 70 foot long luxury pleasure craft could carry up to 75 passengers in comfort. Launches were exported elsewhere - they were used in the Lake District and all over the world. In the 1893 Chicago World Fair 55 launches developed from Anthony Reckenzaun's work carried more than a million passengers. Electric boats had an early period of popularity between around 1890 and 1920, before the emergence of the internal combustion engine drove them out of most applications. Most of the electric boats of this era were small passenger boats on non-tidal waters at a time when the only power alternative was steam. With the advent of the gasoline-powered outboard motor, the use of electric power on boats declined from the 1920s.
However, in a few situations, the use of electric boats has persisted from the early 20th century to the present day. One of these is near Berchtesgaden in south-eastern Germany. Here the lake is considered so environmentally sensitive that steam and motor boats have been prohibited since 1909. Instead the Bayerische Seenschifffahrt company and its predecessors have operated a fleet of electric launches to provide a public passenger service on the lake; the first electrically powered submarines were built in the 1890s, such as the Spanish Peral submarine, launched in 1888. Since electric power has been used exclusively for the powering of submarines underwater, although diesel was used for directly powering the propeller while on the surface until the development of diesel-electric transmission by the US Navy in 1928, in which the propeller was always powered by an electric motor, energy coming from batteries while submerged or diesel generator while surfaced; the use of combined fuel and electric propulsion has been extended over the years to the extent that some modern liners such as the Queen Mary 2 use only electric motors for the actual propulsion, powered by diesel and gas turbine engines.
The advantages include being able to run the fuel engines at an optimal speed at all times and being able to mount the electric motor i
Four-wheel drive called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, is linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive". However, "four-wheel drive" refers to a set of specific components and functions, intended off-road application, which complies with modern use of the terminology. 4WD systems were used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions; the terms used by various manufacturers reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.
Four-by-four or 4x4 is used to refer to a class of vehicles in general. Syntactically, the first figure indicates the total number of wheels, the second indicates the number that are powered. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. A 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two axle ends each. If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4. During World War II, the U. S. military would use spaces and a capital'X' – like "4 X 2" or "6 X 4". Four-wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term refers to a system, optimized for off-road driving conditions; the term "4WD" is designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.
All-wheel drive was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, six-wheel drive on 6×6s, so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s. Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles; when referring to heavy vehicles the term is applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. This is coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems are not intended for more extreme off-road use; when used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance, rather than for off-road applications. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.
An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors. Individual-wheel drive is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor; this system has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric; this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Per the SAE International standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above; the standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential.
The definition notes. Full-Time AWD systems drive both rear axles at all times via a center differential; the torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed; the definition does not address exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system"; the standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor; when the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle.
In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes seconda
Cherry Venture was a 1600 ton cargo ship of Scandinavian origin. It ran aground on Teewah Beach in South East Queensland, Australia on 6 July 1973 and remained on the beach for 34 years until its removal in early 2007; the ship named the Scania, was built in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1945. She was called the Slott and Timor Venture. In 1973, she was known as the Cherry Venture. On the day of the storm the ship was traveling from Auckland to Brisbane under the command of Captain Seluenu. Cherry Venture was wrecked due to a lack of cargo. Buoys in the area recorded wave heights of up to 40 ft; the unladen ship sat high in the water, when combined with the high tides and strong swell, propelled it to a point far enough up the sand that it could not be re-floated, despite attempts that involved dredging the beach. However, the captain and the crew of 24 and 2 monkeys onboard all survived; the wreck was subsequently purchased by Peter Vagellas, an Australian entrepreneur, who had intended to re-float the vessel and convert it into a luxury liner and floating casino to service the Great Barrier Reef.
In 1977 there was a failed attempt to refloat the ship. Nine major salvage attempts over the years have failed; the wreck was a popular stopping point for tourists en route between Noosa and Fraser Island, has been photographed often. Despite safety warnings regarding the rusting structure's unsound nature, visitors would climb over the wreck. In December 1985, the ship's stainless steel propeller was removed using a thermal lance by Bill and Bruce Dunne of Caloundra, it was restored by the Rainbow Beach Business and Tourism Association and mounted as a monument in the township of Rainbow Beach. In late 2006 it was announced that the wreck would be demolished due to increasing dangers posed by its deterioration, including exposed asbestos in the engine room; the removal process, which necessitated cordoning off a section of public highway which runs along the beach next to the wreck, began on 13 February 2007. After the demolition of the wreck in 2007, the state government ordered the site to be buried for the safety of visitors.
In 2013, Cyclone Oswald and local storms caused severe erosion at the site which removed the layer of sand above the remains of the hull. This sparked the tourism business as the wreck was and now still is a special example of Australia's shipping history. List of shipwrecks The Cherry Venture on Google Maps
SS Maheno was an ocean liner belonging to the Union Company of New Zealand that operated in the Tasman Sea, crossing between New Zealand and Australia, from 1905 until 1935. She was used as a ship by the New Zealand Naval Forces during World War I, she was washed ashore on Fraser Island by a cyclone in 1935 where the disintegrating wreck remains as a popular tourist attraction. The 5,000-ton steel-hulled ship was built by William Denny and Brothers of Dumbarton and launched on 19 June 1905. At 400 feet in length and 50 feet in the beam, she was powered by three Parsons turbines, giving her a speed of 17.5 knots. She could carry up to 420 passengers: 240 in 1st class, 120 in 2nd and 60 in 3rd, had a refrigerated cargo hold. Accommodation for first class passengers included a dining room, smoking room, music room with Bechstein grand piano; the ship was lit by electricity, was fitted with all the latest safety equipment, which included Clayton sulphur dioxide fire extinguishers. The ship entered service on 18 November 1905, was employed on routes between Sydney and Melbourne via ports in New Zealand and Hobart, Tasmania.
She made regular voyages between Sydney and Vancouver. During World War I Maheno was converted into a hospital ship using money raised by an appeal by the Earl of Liverpool, the Governor-General, she was fitted with eight wards and two operating theatres, had a medical team consisting of five doctors and 61 orderlies from the Army Medical Corps, a matron, thirteen nursing sisters, from the newly formed New Zealand Army Nursing Service and chaplains. In accordance with Article 5 of the 1899 Hague Convention she was repainted white overall, with a broad green stripe along her sides, large red crosses on the sides and funnels. Maheno arrived at Moudros, the naval base of the Gallipoli Campaign, on 25 August 1915, the next day was off ANZAC Cove, loading casualties from the Battle of Hill 60. Over the next three months she carried casualties from Gallipoli to Malta, they were cared for by members of the New Zealand Army Nursing Service including Evelyn Brooke. Maheno arrived back at New Zealand on 1 January 1916 to refit returned to Egypt in February to collect patients for transport back to New Zealand.
She sailed to the UK, arriving at Southampton on 3 July 1916, just after the start the Battle of the Somme. Until October 1916 she operated in the English Channel, returning large numbers of wounded and sick troops from the Western Front to England. Maheno sailed back to New Zealand in December 1916, made six more voyages between New Zealand and the British Isles, bringing back patients. There were criticisms of the Maheno making several trips to New Zealand to refit or to transport wounded soldiers home when most could have gone in a troopship; the Chief Medical Officer was William Collins on her first voyage and James Elliott on her second and third voyages. In 1915 Collins "raised hackles by denying nurses their officer status and deluding himself that he could command the ship’s commander, the master". In 1917 British Major Gretton was critical of the staff and said “he puts his friends on the ship when they want soft jobs”; the ship’s nickname is “Liverpool’s yacht”. The complaint got as far as the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
At the War's end in November 1918 she was released from military service and returned to her business owner, whereupon she resumed her commercial life. At the end of her commercial life, on 3 July 1935 Maheno left Sydney under tow by the 1,758 ton ship Oonah, a former Tasmanian Steamers Pty. Ltd. Bass Strait ferry, built in 1888, which along with the Maheno had been sold to the shipbreaker's yard Miyachi K. K. K. in Osaka, Japan. The ships were linked by a 900-foot 6.75-inch wire rope. On the afternoon of 7 July, about 50 miles from the coast, the towline parted in a cyclone. Attempts to re-attach the towline failed in the heavy seas, the Maheno, with a skeleton crew of eight men aboard, drifted off and disappeared; the Oonah, with her steering gear temporarily disabled, broadcast a radio message requesting assistance for Maheno, whose propellers had been removed. Maheno was subsequently found on 10 July by an aircraft piloted by Keith Virtue, beached off the coast of Fraser Island; the crew had set up camp onshore, waiting for the Oonah to arrive.
The wreck was the location of the marriage of Dudley Weatherley and Beatrice McLean, at the invitation of Captain Takaka, to notes from the ship's Bechstein piano. The ship attempts to refloat her failed; the wreck was subsequently offered for sale. Maheno has remained at the location since corroding away. Due to the now dangerous condition of the ship access is prohibited; the Australian Department of Defence lists the wreck as a site of unexploded ordnance contamination though there are no records of it being used as a live firing target, or of any UXO being recovered from the site. SS Marama: sister ship. List of shipwrecks of Australia
The mangrove honeyeater is a species of bird in the honeyeater family Meliphagidae. The species was once considered to be conspecific with the varied honeyeater, but it is now treated as a separate species; these two species form a genus with the singing honeyeater. It is endemic to Australia, where it is restricted to the eastern coast from Townsville in Queensland to northern New South Wales; the species has been expanding its range southward in recent years. The mangrove honeyeater is locally common over most of its range, but is rarer in the south, its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical mangrove forests. The mangrove honeyeater was placed in the genus Lichenostomus but was moved to Gavicalis after molecular phylogenetic analysis published in 2011 showed that the original genus was polyphyletic