A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, the seal-making device is referred to as the seal matrix or die, the imprint it creates as the seal impression. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the matrix is in intaglio. The design on the impression will reverse that of the matrix and this will not be the case if paper is embossed from behind, where the matrix and impression read the same way, and both matrix and impression are in relief. However engraved gems were carved in relief, called cameo in this context. The process is essentially that of a mould and these pendent seal impressions dangled below the documents they authenticated, to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached. Some jurisdictions consider rubber stamps or specified signature-accompanying words such as seal or L. S. to be the equivalent of, i. e. an equally effective substitute for.
In Europe, although coats of arms and heraldic badges may well feature in such contexts as well as on seals, the study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics. Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of importance in archaeology. In ancient Mesopotamia carved or engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used and these could be rolled along to create an impression on clay, and used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. They are normally hollow and it is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck, many have only images, often very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. From Ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings, including some with the names of kings, have been found, seals have come to light in South Arabia datable to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic engraved in reverse so as to read correctly in the impression, from the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece.
In the Early Minoan age these were formed of stone and ivory. By the Middle Minoan age a new set for seal forms, hard stone requires new rotary carving techniques. The Late Bronze Age is the par excellence of the lens-shaped seal and the seal ring. These were a luxury art form and became keenly collected. His collection fell as booty to Pompey the Great, who deposited it in a temple in Rome, engraved gems continued to be produced and collected until the 19th century
Constitution of France
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth Republic, while the text was drafted by Michel Debré. Since the constitution has been amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2008 and it provides for the election of the President and the Parliament, the selection of the Government, and the powers of each and the relations between them. It ensures judicial authority and creates a High Court, a Constitutional Council, and it was designed to create a politically strong President. It enables the ratification of treaties and those associated with the European Union. It is unclear whether the wording is compatible with European Union law, the Constitution sets out methods for its own amendment either by referendum or through a Parliamentary process with Presidential consent. However, president Charles de Gaulle bypassed the legislative procedure in 1962 and directly sent an amendment to a referendum.
This was highly controversial at the time, the Constitutional Council ruled that since a referendum expressed the will of the sovereign people, on 21 July 2008, Parliament passed constitutional reforms championed by President Nicolas Sarkozy by a margin of two votes. Prior to 1971, though executive and judicial decisions had to comply with the principles of law. It was assumed that unelected judges and other appointees should not be able to overrule laws voted for by the directly elected French parliament, in practice, the political opposition sends all controversial laws before it. The Constitution defines in Article 89 the rules for amending itself, first, a constitutional bill must be approved by both houses of Parliament. Then, the bill must be approved by the Congress, a joint session of both houses, the bill can be submitted to a referendum. This permitted the establishment of an elected presidency, that would otherwise have been vetoed by the Parliament. Article 11 was used for changes for the second and last time in 1969.
France has had numerous past constitutions, the ancien régime was an absolute monarchy and lacked a formal constitution, the régime essentially relied on custom. Journal Officiel de la République Française, 9151–9173, lélaboration de la Constitution de la Ve République. Frédéric Monera, Lidée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel – Paris, martin A. Rogoff, French Constitutional Law and Materials – Durham, North Carolina, Carolina Academic Press,2010. Texte intégral de la Constitution du 4 octobre 1958 en vigueur, Constitutional council of the French Republic
Coat of arms of Peru
The Coat of arms of Peru is the national symbolic emblem of Peru. Four variants are used, the Coat of arms per se, the National Coat of arms, or National Shield, the Great Seal of the State, and the Naval Coat of arms. The Coat of arms has a branch on its left. This variant is used on the ensign or state flag. Its use on its own is infrequent, except on currency, the National Coat of arms, or National Shield, consists of the shield plus a Peruvian flag and a standard on each side, and a Civic Crown as crest. It is used on the war flag and its use on its own is mandated for all public buildings, with the name of the entity under it. The Great Seal of the State, consisting of the National Shield and it is used for various naval purposes. The first version of the Coat of Arms of Peru was designed by General José de San Martín and it consisted of a landscape of Inti the sun rising from the Andes, seen from the sea, and escorted by laurel branches tied with a golden ribbon. In the shield, on a sky background, the suns yellow rays can be seen behind the dark brown mountains rising above the blue.
The flags of the South American nations and a tree can be seen behind the shield. A condor on the left and a llama on the act as supporters. All this was on top of a base, with a scroll under it with the motto Renació el sol del Perú in capital letters. Some flowers and ammunition were on the base, on 25 February 1825, Simón Bolívar and the Constituent Congress proclaimed a law defining the new national symbols. Establishing the new Coat of Arms, similar to the one used today and this was designed by Congressmen José Gregorio Paredes and Francisco Javier Cortés. El escudo tendrá por timbre una corona cívica vista de plano, e irá acompañada en cada lado de una bandera y un estandarte de los colores nacionales, señalado más adelante. The shield shall have as crest a Civic Crown seen flat and this is the coat of arms used today and is a modification of the second version. Until 1950, the coat of arms was a symbol of both the nation and the state, and presented difficulties in its design. The last modification was in March 1950, during General Manuel A.
Odría’s administration, in this way, the coat of arms was split in halves, and the lower section became the largest, rather than the smallest
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor whose vehicle may be a character, place or event, representing real-world issues and occurrences. Many ancient religions are based on astrological allegories, that is, allegories of the movement of the sun, in classical literature two of the best-known allegories are the Cave in Platos Republic and the story of the stomach and its members in the speech of Menenius Agrippa. One of the examples of allegory, Platos Allegory of the Cave. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in an all of their lives. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world. He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, allegorical is Ezekiel 16 and 17, wherein the capture of that same vine by the mighty Eagle represents Israels exile to Rome. Allegory has an ability to freeze the temporality of a story, Mediaeval thinking accepted allegory as having a reality underlying any rhetorical or fictional uses.
The allegory was as true as the facts of surface appearances, if, the Greeks or others say that they were not committed to the care of Peter and his successors, they necessarily confess that they are not of the sheep of Christ. This text demonstrates the frequent use of allegory in religious texts during the Mediaeval Period, following the tradition, since meaningful stories are nearly always applicable to larger issues, allegories may be read into many stories which the author may not have recognised. This is allegoresis, or the act of reading a story as an allegory. S, lewis and A Kingdom Far and Clear, The Complete Swan Lake Trilogy by Mark Helprin. The story of the apple falling onto Isaac Newtons head is another famous allegory and it simplified the idea of gravity by depicting a simple way it was supposedly discovered. It made the scientific revelation well known by condensing the theory into a short tale. According to Henry Littlefields 1964 article, L. Yet, George MacDonald emphasised in 1893 that, A fairy tale is not an allegory, I much prefer history – true or feigned– with its varied applicability to the thought and experience of readers. I think that many confuse applicability with allegory, but the one resides in the freedom of the reader, and this further reinforces the idea of forced allegoresis, as allegory is often a matter of interpretation and only sometimes of original artistic intention.
Like allegorical stories, allegorical poetry has two meanings – a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning, some unique specimens of allegory can be found in the following works, Edmund Spenser – The Faerie Queene, The several knights in the poem actually stand for several virtues. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Young Goodman Brown, The Devils Staff symbolises defiance of God, the characters names, such as Goodman and Faith, ironically serve as paradox in the conclusion of the story. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter, The scarlet letter symbolises many things, the characters, while developed with interiority, are allegorical in that they represent ways of seeing the world. George Orwell – Animal Farm, The pigs stand for political figures of the Russian Revolution, lászló Krasznahorkai - The Melancholy of Resistance and the film Werckmeister Harmonies, It uses a circus to describe an occupying dysfunctional government
Great Seal of France
The Great Seal of France is the official seal of the French Republic. The Great Seal features Liberty personified as a seated Goddess of Liberty wearing a crown with seven arches and she holds a fasces and is supported by a ships tiller with a cock carved or printed on it. At her feet is a vase with the letters SU, at her right, in the background, are symbols of the arts, education and industry. The scene is surrounded by the legend RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, DÉMOCRATIQUE, the first seals were created by the Merovingian kings to authenticate their orders. Merely rings originally, worn on a necklace, the royal seals grew bigger and bigger under the House of Capet to reach around 12 centimetres and these are the modern dimensions of the seal. All the seals under the Ancien Régime featured the king sitting on throne and giving justice, yet every king had his own personal seal. All edicts, orders and declarations were sealed, on August 13,1792, representatives of the National Convention arrested King Louis XVI.
He was imprisoned, and executed on January 21,1793 and this act of regicide demonstrated that “the Convention had irreversibly ruled out any compromise with the Revolution’s opponents. ”With the absence of the king, the French Republic sought a new national symbol. It was from these times that the French symbol of Marianne emerged. The French Revolution not only challenged the authority of the Old Regime led by the monarchy. Anthropologists have argued that society needs a “center” which includes social and political mapping that gives the people a sense of their place. In the traditional model of authority, “the king was the sacred center, revolutionaries began iconoclastically destroying tangible reminders of the Old Regime, such as breaking the seals of royalty, the scepter and the crown and melting them into republican coins. The abolition of royalty, led to questions about the importance of having a unified symbol, in the beginning, seals were only used to compensate for the imperfection of writing.
Yet as Henri Grégoire argued, civilized people found that “a sign, the nation would only be recognizable by its public symbolic representation, and hence it was agreed that a new seal of state would be created to give the new republic a sense of permanence. The seal was not only a representation of authority. As Lynn Hunt puts it, “new symbols could make new men. ”The French Revolution stood for the notion that members of a society could invent culture and politics for themselves. As the National Convention worked to unify the Republic after the fall of the monarchy, in the end, “the choice of a new insignia seemed almost automatic. ”Liberty was officially represented by the female figure of Marianne, which adheres to traditional iconographic expectations. The Phrygian cap worn by this figure of liberty was representative of the inherent freedom of the French people and provided a sharp contrast to the crown of the monarchy. ”She was depicted as “a woman holding a stave surmounted by a cap and trampling a yoke underfoot, this is the emblem that the ancients gave to Liberty won through valor
Keeper of the Seals
The title Keeper of the Seals or equivalent is used in several contexts, denoting the person entitled to keep and authorize use of the Great Seal of a given country. The title may or may not be linked to a cabinet or ministerial office. The official Keeper of the Great Seal of Canada is the Governor General, however, it is actually kept with the Registrar General of Canada, a title which since 1995 has been linked to the office of Minister of Industry. Each province since 1869 has its own seal and their keepers are the provincial Lieutenant Governors, the French Keeper of the Seals is a title held by the Minister of Justice. Formerly, as Keeper of the Seals of France, this title belonged to the Chancellor, the title is nowadays often used interchangeably with Minister of Justice of France. The Minister of Justice guards the Great Seal of France, dating from 1848, in his or her office, the Seal was used in 1958 to seal the Constitution of France and has since been used to seal certain constitutional amendments.
In Italy, the Minister of Justice assumes the duties of Guardasigilli, as Guardasigilli, the Minister of Justice countersigns all laws and decrees signed by the president and the decrees issued by other ministries. The Minister of Justice is the editor of the Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, in the Netherlands, custody of the great seal is held ex-officio by the Minister of Justice. The Governor-General of New Zealand has custody of the Seal of New Zealand, responsibility for the seal is delegated to the Clerk of the Executive Council. The seal is affixed to various instruments that require it, several British officials have titles connected to the keeping of seals. Lord Privy Seal, Keeper of the Privy Seal of England, a sinecure office used to bring a person into the British Cabinet as a Minister without Portfolio. Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, An honor traditionally given to a Scottish Peer, Lord High Chancellor, Keeper of the Great Seal of the Realm. Prior to the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the office had had substantial legislative and judicial power, Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, An official entrusted with the Great Seal of Scotland, generally given to holders of Scotland-specific offices.
Currently held ex officio by the First Minister of Scotland, the position grants the First Minister a position in the order of precedence by virtue of his or her position as Keeper of the Great Seal. Before the Scotland Act 1998 created the office of First Minister, Keeper of the Welsh Seal, An office created by the Government of Wales Act 2006 that is held ex-officio by the First Minister of Wales. It grants the minister a position for purposes of the Order of Precedence. No Welsh Seal had previously existed since those used by the native Princes of Wales, Chancellor of Cornwall, Keeper of the Great Seal. Appointed by the Duchy of Cornwall, vacant since 1867, Keeper of the Privy Seal of Cornwall, Appointed by the Duchy of Cornwall, vacant since 1933
Great Seal of the Irish Free State
The Great Seal of the Irish Free State is the seal which was used to seal official documents of the Irish Free State by the Governor-General. The Great Seal is currently on display at National Museum of Ireland at Collins Barracks. Both sides of the Great Seal feature an image of the harp surrounded by the words SAORSTÁT ÉIREANN in Gaelic script, one side is engraved in silver, the other in copper. After the 1937 Constitution of Ireland was enacted the Seal of the President of Ireland was struck as a replacement to the Great Seal and it is substantially the same as the former Seal but features the word ÉIRE instead of SAORSTÁT ÉIREANN. As early as August 1922 civil servants in the Provisional Government sought Ministerial approval to adopt a seal and it was thought a seal was necessary for legal reasons. An approach was made by Hugh Kennedy, the Attorney General to Thomas Sadleir, in his reply Sadlier noted that he was “satisfied that the harp was very early in the 12th century an Irish badge.
His view was that, On 28 December 1922 a meeting of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State decided that the Celtic Harp should be adopted, later, in August 1923 the Executive Council determined that the “Brian Ború Harp” would be the basis of the new seal. Archibald McGoogan of the Art Department of the National Museum perfected the design, elements of the Ardagh Chalice were incorporated into the design of the Great Seal. Final authorisation was given by the Executive Council on 17 October 1924 for the provision of the various seals and these included Ministerial Seals, using the ‘Brian Ború’ Harp and with “Saorstát Éireann” and the Ministerial title arranged around the harp in both Irish and English. The rope pattern was a copy of the base of the Ardagh Chalice. In March 1931, important changes in procedure in the Irish Free State were announced. The reforms meant that in future the King would be advised directly in matters concerning the Irish Free States foreign affairs instead of through the Secretary of State for the Dominions
Great Seal of the Realm
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereigns approval of important state documents. Scotland since the 14th century has had its own seal, the Great Seal of Scotland, sealing wax is melted in a metal mould or matrix and impressed into a wax figure that is attached by cord or ribbon to documents that the Monarch wishes to make official. Edward the Confessor sometime before A. D.1066 started using a Great Seal casting in wax of his own visage to signify that a document carried the force of his will. With some exceptions, each subsequent monarch up to 1603 and the Union of the Crowns which united the crowns of Scotland and England has chosen his or her own design for the Great Seal. This Seal was inscribed with The Great Seal of England,1648, displaying the map of England, Ireland and Guernsey on one side, with the Arms of England and Ireland. On the other side was shown the interior of the House of Commons, but they held the seal only until 1656, when Cromwell nominated William Steele, Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer in England, Lord Chancellor of Ireland.
In 1688, before attempting to flee to France, James II is said to have thrown his Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames in the hope that the machinery of government would cease to function. This may have been a choice, in order to imply the continuity of government. A new obverse was created, but the reverse was crudely adapted by inserting a female figure beside the male figure, when Mary died, the obverse returned to the design used by James II, while the female figure was deleted from the reverse. Thus, William III used a seal that was identical to James IIs, except for changes to the lettering, on the other hand, the longer-lived British monarchs have had several Great Seals during their reigns. Only one matrix of the Great Seal exists at a time, and since the wax used for the Great Seal has a melting point. Queen Victoria had to select four different Great Seal designs during the years of her reign. The current seal matrix was authorised by the Privy Council in July 2001 and it was designed by James Butler and replaced that of 1953, designed by Gilbert Ledward.
The obverse shows a middle-aged Elizabeth II enthroned and robed, holding in her hand a sceptre. F. D. is the abbreviated Latin form of the royal title, on the reverse are the full royal arms, including crest and supporters. This is the first time that the arms have provided the main design for one side of the British Great Seal. The seals diameter is 6 inches and the weight of both sides of the seal matrix exceeds 275 troy ounces. The Great Seal is attached to the documents of state that require the authorisation of the monarch to implement the advice of the Government
Great Seal of the United States
The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the U. S. federal government. The phrase is used both for the seal itself, and more generally for the design impressed upon it. The Great Seal was first used publicly in 1782, the obverse of the great seal is used as the national coat of arms of the United States. It is officially used on such as United States passports, military insignia, embassy placards. As a coat of arms, the design has official colors, since 1935, both sides of the Great Seal have appeared on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. The Seal of the President of the United States is directly based on the Great Seal, the design on the obverse of the seal is the coat of arms of the United States. The shield, though sometimes drawn incorrectly, has two differences from the American flag. First, it has no stars on the blue chief, unlike the American flag, the outermost stripes are white, not red, so as not to violate the heraldic rule of tincture.
The supporter of the shield is an eagle with its wings outstretched. Although not specified by law, the branch is usually depicted with 13 leaves and 13 olives. The eagle has its head turned towards the branch, on its right side. In its beak, the eagle clutches a scroll with the motto E pluribus unum, over its head there appears a glory with 13 mullets on a blue field. In the current dies of the seal, the 13 stars above the eagle are arranged in rows of 1-4-3-4-1. The 1782 resolution of Congress adopting the arms, still in force, legally blazoned the shield as Paleways of 13 pieces and gules, a more technically proper blazon would have been argent, six pallets gules. But the phrase used was chosen to preserve the reference to the 13 original states, the 1782 resolution adopting the seal blazons the image on the reverse as A pyramid unfinished. In the zenith an eye in a triangle, surrounded by a glory, the pyramid is conventionally shown as consisting of 13 layers to refer to the 13 original states.
The adopting resolution provides that it is inscribed on its base with the date MDCCLXXVI in Roman numerals, where the top of the pyramid should be, the Eye of Providence watches over it. Two mottos appear, Annuit cœptis signifies that Providence has approved of undertakings, Novus ordo seclorum, freely taken from Virgil, is Latin for a new order of the ages
Great Seal of the Confederate States of America
The Great Seal of the Confederate States of America, formally the Seal of the Confederate States, was used to authenticate certain documents issued by the C. S. government. The phrase is used both for the seal itself, and more generally for the design impressed upon it. On May 20,1863, Secretary of State Judah Benjamin instructed James Mason to arrange for its manufacture in London and it was first used publicly in 1864. The seal prominently features George Washington on horseback, in the position as the 1858 Virginia Washington Monument, located adjacent to the Confederate Capitol in Richmond. Washington is pictured in his uniform of the Revolution securing American independence, washingtons first equestrian statue was by Henry Kirke Brown, erected in New York City in 1856. It has since moved to Union Square in the center of the park. There, the hat is held in his left hand rather than atop his head, as depicted in the equestrian statue at the Virginia Capitol. The Union Square statue is duplicated at the Washington Monument at West Point, Washington was a model for the Confederacy due to his importance in founding a new nation.
He was a paragon of personal character, a leader who secured independence. Washington is surrounded with a wreath, which is made of some of the agricultural products of the Confederacy, corn, cotton, rice. The top margin of the features the words The Confederate States of America,22 February 1862. The bottom margin contains the motto, Deo Vindice. The religious motto reflected the view of, most Confederate citizens, that slavery was condoned by Christianity and thus, by extension, this design was never used. The design of the seal was finalized on April 30,1863, the seal dies eventually reached Richmond before the end of the war. However, due to the risks of running the Union naval blockade imposed upon the Confederacy, the dies were thus unlikely to ever have been used in any official capacity. Both sets of artifacts initially passed through private ownership before ultimately entering museum collections, the dies now reside in Richmonds Museum of the Confederacy, and the embossing press, equipped with brass replica dies, is in a National Trust Museum in St.
Georges, Bermuda. Images of the Seal of the Confederate States Great Seal of the United States Sigillologia, being Some Account of the Great or Broad Seal of the Confederate States of America. OL 25400537M – via Powell & Ginck, Seal of the Confederate States at the British Library Seal of the Confederate States at the Library of Congress Seal of the Confederate States at the University of Georgia
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo