The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
The Wellington Cup is a Group 3 Thoroughbred horse race in New Zealand held annually in late January at Trentham Racecourse in Trentham by the Wellington Racing Club. Inaugurated in 1874, it was raced over various distances until 1974 when it was converted to a metric distance of 3200 metres 2 miles: 1874-1889, 1942–1973 1 1⁄2 miles: 1890-1941 3200 metres: 1974-2008 2400 metres: 2009-2015 3200 metres: 2016 onwardsThe event is one of New Zealand's most important races and offers a purse of NZ$250,000. Given the prestige of the race, there was some disappointment at the news that the race would lose its Group One status from 2009; the Wellington Racing Club responded to the downgrade by reducing the distance to 2400 metres in order to attract a higher quality field. Speed record: 3.15.59 - Daria's Fun 1988 3200 metres 3.16.2 - Il Tempo Most wins: 3 - Cynisca 3 - Great Sensation 3 - Castletown Most wins by an owner:? -Most wins by a jockey:? -Most wins by a trainer:? - Winners list at Thoroughbred Heritage Wellington Cup Day at Trentham Racecourse
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds; the black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", without them, a horse cannot be considered a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings. Bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings -. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both a black base coat; the addition of other genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are simple, the genes themselves and the mechanisms that cause shade variations within the bay family are quite complex and, at times, disputed; the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but subsequently pulled from the market. Sooty genetics appear to darken some horses' bay coats, that genetic mechanism is yet to be understood. Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs, no black points; the pigment in a bay horse's coat, regardless of shade, is rich and saturated. This makes bays lustrous in the sun if properly cared for; some bay horses exhibit dappling, caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple; the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays have a two-toned hair shaft, which, if shaved too may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter, a somewhat dull orange-gold like a dun. However, as the hair grows out, it will darken again to the proper shade.
This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but not seen in darker shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft. There are many terms that are used to describe particular qualities of a bay coat; some shade variations can be related to nutrition and grooming, but most appear to be caused by inherited factors not yet understood. The palest shades, which lack specific English terminology found in other languages, are called wild bays. Wild bays are true bays with pigmented reddish coat color and black manes and tails, but the black points only extend up to the pastern or fetlock. Wild bay is found in conjunction with a trait called "pangare" that produces pale color on the underbelly and soft areas, such as near the stifle and around the muzzle. Bay horses have black skin and dark eyes, except for the skin under markings, pink. Skin color can help an observer distinguish between a bay horse with white markings and a horse which resembles bay but is not; some breed registries use the term "brown" to describe dark bays.
However, "liver" chestnuts, horses with a red or brown mane and tail as well as a dark brownish body coat, are sometimes called "brown" in some colloquial contexts. Therefore, "brown" can be an ambiguous term for describing horse coat color, it is clearer to refer to dark-colored horses as dark bays or liver chestnuts. However, to further complicate matters, the genetics that lead to darker coat colors are under study, there exists more than one genetic mechanism that darkens the coat color. One is a theorized sooty gene; the other is a specific allele of Agouti linked to a certain type of dark bay, called seal brown. The seal brown horse has dark brown body and lighter areas around the eyes, the muzzle, flanks. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; some foals are born bay, but carry the dominant gene for graying, thus will turn gray as they mature until their hair coat is white.
Foals that are going to become gray must have one parent, gray. Some foals may be born with a few white hairs visible around the eyes and other fine-haired, thin-skinned areas, but others may not show signs of graying until they are several months old. Chestnuts, sometimes called "Sorrels," have a reddish body coat similar to a bay, but no black points, their legs and ear edges are the same color as the rest of their body and their manes and tails are the same shade as their body color or a few shades lighter. Black is confused with dark bays and liver chestnuts because some black horses "sunburn," that is, when kept out in the sun, they develop a bleached-out coat that looks brownish in the fine-haired areas around the flanks. However, a true black can be recognized by looking at the fine hairs around eyes; these hairs are always black on a black horse, but are reddish, brownish, or a light gold on a bay or chestnut. Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat
A gelding is a castrated horse or other equine, such as a donkey or a mule. Castration, as well as the elimination of hormonally-driven behavior associated with a stallion, allows a male horse to be calmer and better-behaved, making the animal quieter and more suitable as an everyday working animal; the gerund and participle "gelding" and the infinitive "to geld" refer to the castration procedure itself. The verb "to geld" comes from the adjective geldr; the noun "gelding" is from the Old Norse geldingr. The Scythians are thought to have been the first people to geld their horses, they valued geldings as war horses because they were quiet, lacked mating urges, were less prone to call out to other horses, were easier to keep in groups, were less to fight with one another. A male horse is gelded to make him better-behaved and easier to control. Gelding can remove lower-quality animals from the gene pool. To allow only the finest animals to breed on, while preserving adequate genetic diversity, only a small percentage of all male horses should remain stallions.
Mainstream sources place the percentage of stallions that should be kept as breeding stock at about 10%, while an extreme view states that only 0.5% of all males should be bred. In wild herds, the 10% ratio is maintained as a single stallion protects and breeds with a herd, larger than 10 or 12 mares, though may permit a less dominant junior stallion to live at the fringes of the herd. There are more males than just herd stallions, but unattached male horses group together for protection in small all-male "bachelor herds", where, in the absence of mares, they tend to behave much like geldings. Geldings are preferred over stallions for working purposes because they are calmer, easier to handle, more tractable. Geldings are therefore a favorite for many equestrians. In some horse shows, due to the dangers inherent in handling stallions, which require experienced handlers, youth exhibitors are not permitted to show stallions in classes limited to just those riders. Geldings are preferred over mares, because some mares become temperamental when in heat.
The use of mares may be limited during the months of pregnancy and while caring for a young foal. In horse racing, castrating a stallion may be considered worthwhile if the animal is distracted by other horses, difficult to handle, or otherwise not running to his full potential due to behavioral issues. While this means the horse loses any breeding value, a successful track career can be a boost to the value of the stallion that sired the gelding. Sometimes a stallion used for breeding is castrated in life due to sterility, or because the offspring of the stallion are not up to expectations, or because the horse is not used much for breeding, due to shifting fashion in pedigree or phenotype. Castration may allow a stallion to live peacefully with other horses, allowing a more social and comfortable existence. Under British National Hunt racing rules, to minimize the health and safety risk for horses and spectators, nearly all participating horses are geldings. On the other hand, in other parts of Europe, geldings are excluded from many of the most prestigious flat races including the Classics and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.
In North American Thoroughbred racing, geldings, if otherwise qualified by age, winnings, or experience, are allowed in races open to intact males. The same applies in Australia. To perpetuate any given breed, some male horses must remain capable of reproduction. Thus, animals considered to be the finest representatives are used for mating. Though the criteria used can be, in some places, rather subjective, a stallion should have a superior appearance, or phenotype; some cultures did not and still geld male horses, most notably the Arabs. These people used mares for everyday work and for war. In these cultures, most stallions are still not used for breeding, only those of the best quality; when used as ordinary riding animals, they are kept only with or near other male horses in a "bachelor" setting, which tends to produce calmer, less stallion-like behavior. Sometimes cultural reasons for these practices exist. Gelding horses is approved of as a way to allow more horses to live comfortably and safely in proximity to humans and other horses, as an ethical means of population control within the animal rights community.
However, a small number of horse owners are concerned that the process may cause pain for the animal or somehow lessen their vitality or spirit. While modern surgical procedures cause far less discomfort to the animal than more primitive methods, there is minor postoperative discomfort when the animal is in recovery. Although castrations have few complications, there are risks. Castration can have complication such as swelling, hemorrhage or post-operative bleeding and eventration, it can take up to six weeks for residual testosterone to clear from the new gelding's system and he may continue to exhibit stallion-like behaviors in that period. For reasons not always clear, about 30% of all geldings may still display a stallion-like manner, some because of a cryptorchid testicle retained in the horse, some due to learned behavior, but some for no clear reason. Training to eliminate these behaviors
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala