The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria referred to as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northeastern Syria. It consists of self-governing sub-regions in the areas of Afrin, Euphrates, Tabqa and Deir Ez-Zor; the region gained its de facto autonomy in 2012 in the context of the ongoing Rojava conflict and the wider Syrian Civil War, where its official military force, the Syrian Democratic Forces has taken part. While entertaining some foreign relations, the region is not recognized as autonomous by the government of Syria or any international state or organization. Northeastern Syria is polyethnic and home to sizeable ethnic Kurdish and Assyrian populations, with smaller communities of ethnic Turkmen and Chechens; the supporters of the region argue that it is an secular polity with direct democratic ambitions based on a libertarian socialist ideology promoting decentralization, gender equality, environmental sustainability and pluralistic tolerance for religious and political diversity, that these values are mirrored in its constitution and politics, claiming it to be a model for a federalized Syria as a whole, rather than outright independence.
Some of the criticism against the region has included claims of authoritarianism, forced recruitment, the imprisonment and harassment of dissidents and journalists, the promotion of a radical anti-capitalist ideology, influence from the militant Kurdistan Workers' Party. Much of northern Syria is regarded by Kurdish nationalists as Western Kurdistan or Rojava, one of the four parts of Greater Kurdistan, parts of northeastern Syria are considered by Syriac-Assyrians as Gozarto, part of the historical Assyrian homeland. On 17 March 2016, its de facto administration self-declared the establishment of a federal system of government as the Democratic Federation of Rojava – Northern Syria; the updated December 2016 constitution of the polity uses the name Democratic Federation of Northern Syria. Since 6 September 2018, the Syrian Democratic Council has adopted a new name for the region, naming it the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, encompassing the Euphrates and Jazira regions as well as the local civil councils in the regions of Raqqa, Manbij and Deir ez-Zor.
The region's administration is sometimes referred to as the "Democratic Autonomous Administration". The region lies to the west of the Tigris along the Turkish border and borders Iraqi Kurdistan to the southeast; the region is at latitude 36°30' north and consists of plains and low hills, however there are some mountains in the region such as Mount Abdulaziz as well as the western part of the Sinjar Mountain Range in the Jazira Region. In terms of governorates of Syria, the region is formed from parts of the al-Hasakah, Deir ez-Zor and the Aleppo governorates. Northern Syria is part of the Fertile Crescent, includes archaeological sites dating to the Neolithic, such as Tell Halaf. In antiquity, the area was part of the Mitanni kingdom, its centre being the Khabur river valley in modern-day Jazira Region, it was part of Assyria, with the last surviving Assyrian imperial records, from between 604 BC and 599 BC, were found in and around the Assyrian city of Dūr-Katlimmu. It was ruled by the Achaemenids, Artaxiads, Parthians, Sasanians and successive Arab Islamic caliphates.
Kurdish settlement in Syria goes back to before the Crusades of the 11th century. A number of Kurdish military and feudal settlements from before this period have been found in Syria; such settlements have been found in the Alawite and north Lebanese mountains and around Hama and its surroundings. The Crusade fortress of Krak des Chevaliers, known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad, was a Kurdish military settlement before it was enlarged by the French Crusaders; the Kurd-Dagh has been inhabited by Kurds for more than a millennium. In the 12th century and other Muslim regiments accompanied Saladin, a Kurd from Tikrit, on his conquest of the Middle East and establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty, administered from Damascus; the Kurdish regiments that accompanied Saladin established self-ruled areas around Damascus. These settlements evolved into the Kurdish sections of Damascus of Hayy al-Akrad and the Salhiyya districts located in the north-east of Damascus on Mount Qasioun; the Kurdish community’s role in the military continued under the Ottomans.
Kurdish soldiers and policemen from the city were tasked with both maintaining order and protecting the pilgrims’ route toward Mecca. Many Kurds from Syria’s rural hinterland joi
The Assyrian homeland or Assyria refers to a geographic and cultural region situated in Northern Mesopotamia, traditionally inhabited by Assyrian people. The areas that form the Assyrian homeland are parts of present-day northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and, more northeastern Syria. Moreover, the area that had the greatest concentration of Assyrians in the world until is located in the Assyrian Triangle, a region which comprises the Nineveh plains, southern Hakkari and Barwari regions; this is. The Assyrian homeland mirrors the boundaries of ancient Assyria proper, the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid provinces of Assyria, extant between the 25th century BC and 7th century AD; the region was dissolved as a geo-political entity following the Arab Islamic conquest of Iraq in the late 7th century AD. Since the fall of the Iraqi Baath Party in 2003, in the face of violence against the indigenous Assyrian Christian community, there has been a growing movement for Assyrian independence or autonomy.
Assyrian-populated cities in Iraq include those in the Nineveh Governorate region in northern Iraq such as Alqosh, Tel Keppe, Bartella, Karemlash, Bakhdida and, up until 2014, Mosul. There is an Assyrian minority in the Dohuk Governorate cities of Zakho and Duhok in Iraqi Kurdistan, which are located within the Assyrian triangle. In Turkey, the Tur Abdin region is the traditional cultural heartland for Assyrians and is the only remaining rural region in Turkey with a major Christian presence. However, today the majority of Assyrians in Turkey live in Istanbul. Northeastern Syria has in the latest century become a center for Assyrians, with much of the Assyrian population descending from refugees from Turkey that fled during the Assyrian Genocide and during pogroms in Iraq. Major Assyrian population centras are Qamishli, al-Hasakah, Ras al-Ayn, Al-Malikiyah, Al-Qahtaniyah and the villages along the Khabur River in the Tell Tamer area; the Assyrians, an indigenous pre-Arab, pre-Kurdish and pre-Turkic people of upper Mesopotamia, are predominantly Christian, adherents of the Church of the East, an East Syrian rite sect as well as.
They speak Neo-Aramaic languages, most common being. The city of Aššur and Nineveh, the oldest and largest city of the ancient Assyrian empire, together with a number of other Assyrian cities, seem to have been established by 2600 BC; however it is that they were Sumerian-dominated administrative centres. In the late 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash the dominant Sumerian ruler in Mesopotamia, mentions "smiting Subartu". In c. the early 25th century BC, Lugal-Anne-Mundu the king of the Sumerian state of Adab lists Subartu as paying tribute to him. Assyrians are eastern Aramaic-speaking, descending from pre-Islamic inhabitants of Upper Mesopotamia; the Old Aramaic language was adopted by the population of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from around the 8th century BC, these eastern dialects remained in wide use throughout Upper Mesopotamia during the Persian and Roman periods, survived through to the present day. The Syriac language evolved in Achaemenid Assyria during the 5th century BC. During the Assyrian period Duhok was named Nohadra, during the Parthian-Sassanid rule in Assyria as Beth Nuhadra, gained semi-independence as one of a patchwork of Neo-Assyrian kingdoms in Assyria, which included Adiabene, Osroene and Beth Garmai.
Syriac Christianity took hold amongst the Assyrians between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD with the founding in Assyria of the Church of the East together with Syriac literature. The first division between Syriac Christians occurred in the 5th century, when Upper Mesopotamian based Assyrian Christians of the Sassanid Persian Empire were separated from those in The Levant over the Nestorian Schism; this split owed just as much to the politics of the day. Ctesiphon, at the time the Sassanid capital became the capital of the Church of the East. During the Christian era Nuhadra became an eparchy within the Assyrian Church of the East metropolitanate of Ḥadyab. After the Council of Chalcedon in 451, many Syriac Christians within the Roman Empire rebelled against its decisions; the Patriarchate of Antioch was divided between a Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian communion. The Chalcedonians were labelled'Melkites', while their opponents were labelled as Monophysites and Jacobites; the Maronite Church found itself caught between the two, but claims to have always remained faithful to the Catholic Church and in communion with the bishop of Rome, the Pope.
Both Syriac Christianity and the Eastern Aramaic language came under pressure following the Arab Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia in the 7th century, Assyrian Christians throughout the Middle Ages were subjected to Arabizing superstrate influence. The Assyrians suffered a significant persecution with the religiously motivated large scale massacres conducted by the Muslim Turco-Mongol ruler Tamurlane in the 14th century AD, it was from this time that the ancient city of Assur was abandoned by Assyrians, Assyrians were reduced to a minority within their ancient homeland. A Schism occurred i
The Nine-Dash Line—at various times referred to as the "10-dash line" and the "11-dash line"—refers to the undefined, vaguely located, demarcation line used by the Republic of China and subsequently the governments of the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China, for their claims of the major part of the South China Sea. The contested area in the South China Sea includes the Paracel Islands, the Spratly Islands, various other areas including the Pratas Islands, the Macclesfield Bank and the Scarborough Shoal; the claim encompasses the area of Chinese land reclamation known as the "Great Wall of Sand". An early map showing a U-shaped eleven-dash line was published in the then-Republic of China on 1 December 1947. Two of the dashes in the Gulf of Tonkin were removed at the behest of Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, reducing the total to nine. Subsequent editions added a dash to the other end of the line. Despite having made the vague claim public in 1947, China has not filed a formal and defined claim to the area within the dashes.
China added a tenth-dash line to the east of Taiwan island in 2013 as a part of its official sovereignty claim to the disputed territories in the South China Sea. On 12 July 2016, an arbitral tribunal constituted under Annex VII to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ruled that China has no legal basis to claim "historic rights" within its nine-dash line in a case brought by the Philippines; the tribunal judged that there was no evidence that China had exercised exclusive control over the waters or resources within the Nine-Dash Line. The ruling was rejected by both China. After defeated in Sino-French War in 1885, China has signed Treaty of Tientsin with France, renounced the suzerainty over Vietnam. In June 26, 1887, Qing government has signed the Convention Relating to the Delimitation of the Frontier between China and Tonkin, which didn't clarify the water border between China and French Indo-China. Following the defeat of Japan at the end of World War II, the Republic of China reclaimed the entirety of the Paracels and Spratly Islands after accepting the Japanese surrender of the islands based on the Cairo and Potsdam Declarations.
However, under the 1943 Cairo Declaration and 1945 Potsdam Proclamation, the Republic of China's sovereignty over the archipelagos and waters of South China Sea was not stated. In November 1946, the Republic of China sent naval ships to take control of these islands after the surrender of Japan; when the Peace Treaty with Japan was being signed at the San Francisco Conference, on 7 September 1951, both China and Vietnam asserted their rights to the islands. The Philippine government laid claim to some islands of the archipelagoes; the Nine-Dash Line was an eleven-dash line first shown on a map published by the government of the Republic of China in December 1947 to justify its claims in the South China Sea. The 1947 map, titled "Map of South China Sea Islands", originated from an earlier one titled "Map of Chinese Islands in the South China Sea" published by the Republic of China's Land and Water Maps Inspection Committee in 1935. In 1949, the newly established People's republic of China dropped claims in the Gulf of Tonkin, the eleven dashes was revised to nine.
After evacuating to Taiwan, the Government of Republic of China has continued its claims, the Nine-Dash Line remains as the rationale for Taiwan's claims to the Spratly and Paracel Islands. Under President Lee Teng-hui, Republic of China stated that "legally geographically, or in reality", all of the South China Sea and Spratly islands were R. O. C's territory and under R. O. C sovereignty, denounced actions undertaken there by Malaysia and the Philippines, in a statement on 13 July 1999 released by the foreign ministry of Taiwan. Taiwan and China's claims mirror each other. During international talks involving the Spratly islands, P. R. C and R. O. C have cooperated with each other; the Republic of China rejected all rival claims to the Paracel islands, repeating its position that all of the Paracel, Spratly and Pratas Islands Islands belong to the Republic of China along with "their surrounding waters and respective seabed and subsoil", that Taiwan views other claims as illegitimate, in a statement released by Taiwan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs which added – "There is no doubt that the Republic of China has sovereignty over the archipelagos and waters."The Nine-Dash Line has been used by China to show the maximum extent of its claim without indicating how the dashes would be joined if it was continuous and how that would affect the extent of the area claimed by China.
The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia have all protested over the use of such a line. After China submitted a map to the UN including the Nine-Dash Line's territorial claim in the South China Sea on 7 May 2009, the Philippines lodged a diplomatic protest against China for claiming the whole of South China Sea illegally. Vietnam and Malaysia filed their joint protest a day after China submitted its map to the UN. Indonesia registered its protest though it did not have a claim on the South China Sea. In 2013 the PRC extended their claims with a new ten-dash map; the "new" dash, however, is to the east of Taiwan and not in the South China Sea. Although China has not provided an official account, the first dashed-line map is reported by scholars and commentators to pre-date the existence of the People's Republic of China, having been published in 1947 by the Nationalist government of the R
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Greater Somalia comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have inhabited. The territory encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya. At the present day, it encompasses Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, the Lamu, Garissa and Mandera Counties in Kenya. Since the beginning of the 20th century the concept of "Greater Somalia" started to be developed with the birth of the nation of Somalia, as a united country inhabited by all the Somali clans in their "Horn of Africa" areas. Pan-Somalism refers to the vision of reunifying these areas to form a single Somali nation; the pursuit of this goal has led to conflict: Somalia engaged after World War II in the Ogaden War with Ethiopia over the Ogaden region, supported Somali insurgents against Kenya. Italians occupied the Benadir in 1890 and soon started to enlarge their Somalia italiana: they created their colony in the first years of the 20th century from Cape Guardafui to the Juba river.
During World War I, Britain secretly reached an agreement with Italy to transfer to the Italians 94,050 square kilometers of the Jubaland protectorate, situated in present-day southwestern Somalia. This was Italy's reward for allying itself with Britain in its war against Germany; the treaty was honored, in 1924, Britain ceded Jubaland. In 1926, the northern half of Jubaland was incorporated into Italian Somaliland, was re-dubbed Oltre Giuba by the Italians. Britain retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, called the Northern Frontier District. After its conquest of Ethiopia in 1936, Italy annexed the Ogaden region. In this way Italian Somaliland, with capital Mogadishu, was enlarged for the third time. In early World War II, Italian troops ejected the British. Benito Mussolini annexed the conquered area to the Italian Somalia and added the area of Moyale and Buna near the Jubaland in eastern Kenya. In August 1940 Mussolini boasted to a group of Somalis in Rome that with the conquest of British Somalia nearly all the Somali people were united, fulfilling their dream of a union of all Somalis.
In September 1940 he announced to the Somali people in Italy of having created an Italian Grande Somalia inside his Italian Empire. Indeed, in early World War II, Italian troops ejected the British. However, Britain retained administration of most of the exclusively Somali-inhabited Northern Frontier District. Italians did a tentative to occupy French Somaliland in summer 1940; however the British regained control of British Somaliland in the spring of 1941, conquered Italian Somaliland and the Ogaden. In 1945, the Potsdam conference was held, where it was decided not to return Italian Somaliland to Italy; the UN opted instead in 1949 to grant Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland for a period of ten years, after which time the region would be independent. Meanwhile, in 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of Somalis, the British "returned" the Hawd and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against raids by Somali clans.
Britain included the proviso that the Somali residents would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia claimed sovereignty over the area. This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands that it had turned over. Britain granted administration of the exclusively Somali-inhabited Northern Frontier District to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite demonstrating the overwhelming desire of the region's population to join the newly formed Somali Republic; the first armed conflict following the independence and unification of the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland territories, known collectively as the Somali Republic, began in 1963 in an ethnic Oromo and Somali district, Elekere part of Bale province, instigated by the Oromo founder of the United Liberation Forces of Oromia, Waqo Gutu. The Bale revolt, a peasant revolt stemming from issues involving land, taxation and religion, raged in the province for several years until a number of developments took the energy out of the militants, as well as the decision of Somali Prime Minister Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal to focus his country's resources on economic development.
Rebels began to surrender to the Ethiopian government at the end of 1969. Pacification was complete by the next year. Djibouti gained its independence in 1977, but a referendum was held in 1958 on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960 to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France; the referendum turned out in favor of a continued association with France due to a combined "yes" vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. However, the majority of those who voted "no" were Somalis who were in favor of joining a united Somalia as had
Iranian Kurdistan or Eastern Kurdistan, is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey. It includes the West Azerbaijan Province, Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, Ilam ProvinceKurds consider Iranian Kurdistan to be one of the four parts of a proposed Kurdistan state, which includes parts of southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq. According to the last census conducted in 2006, the four Kurdish-inhabited provinces in Iran – West Azerbaijan, Kermanshah Province, Kurdistan Province and Ilam Province – have a total population of 6,730,000. Pockets of Lurs inhabit the southern areas of Ilam Province. Iranian Kurds are about 7-10% of total population of Iran. One side of sources mention that majority of Iranian Kurds are Shia, while another side mentions that Iranian Kurds are predominantly Sunni. Shia Kurds are called Feyli, they inhabit Kermanshah and areas around Kheneghin, except for those parts inhabited by the Kurdish Jaff tribe, Ilam Province as well as some parts of the Kurdistan and Hamadan provinces.
The Kurds of Khorasan Province in northeastern Iran are adherents of Shia Islam. During the Iranian Revolution, the major Kurdish political parties were unsuccessful in absorbing Shia Kurds, who at that period had no interest in autonomy. However, since the 1990s Kurdish nationalism has seeped into a small minority of the Shia Kurdish area due to outrage against government's violent suppression of Kurds farther north. From the 10th century to 12th century A. D. two Kurdish dynasties were ruling the Hasanwayhids and the Ayyarids. The Ardalan state, established in the early 14th century, controlled the territories of Zardiawa, Kirkuk and Hawraman; the capital city of the state was first in Sharazour in present-day Iraqi Kurdistan, but was moved to Sinne. The Ardalan Dynasty continued to rule the region until the Qajar monarch Nasser-al-Din Shah ended their rule in 1867. In the 12th century CE, Sultan Sanjar created a province called "Kurdistan" centered at Bahar, located to the northeast of Hamadan.
This province included Hamadan, Kermanshah and Sharazur. It was ruled by the nephew of Sanjar. In 1217, Kurds of Zagros defeated the troops of Ala ad-Din Muhammad II, the Khwarazmid king, who were sent from Hamadan. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the Safavid family came from Iranian Kurdistan, moved to Azarbaijan, they settled in the 11th century C. E. at Ardabil. During Safavid rule, the government tried to extend its control over Kurdish-inhabited areas in western Iran. At that time, there were a number of semi-independent Kurdish emirates such as the Mukriyan and Shikak tribes around Lake Urmiye and northwest Iran. Kurds tried to keep some form of self-rule; this led to a series of bloody confrontations between the Safavids and the Kurds. The Kurds were defeated, as a result the Safavids decided to punish rebellious Kurds by forced relocation and deportation in the 15-16th century; this policy began under the reign of the Safavid King Tahmasp I. Between 1534 and 1535, Tahmasp I began the systematic destruction of the old Kurdish cities and the countryside.
Large numbers of Kurds from these areas found themselves deported to the Alborz mountains and Khorasan, as well as the heights in the central Iranian Plateau. At this time the last remnant of the ancient royal Hadhabâni tribe of central Kurdistan was removed from the heartland of Kurdistan and deported to Khorasan, where they are still found today. There is a well documented historical account of a long battle in 1609–1610 between Kurds and the Safavid Empire; the battle took place around a fortress called Dimdim located in Beradost region around Lake Urmia in northwestern Iran. In 1609, the ruined structure was rebuilt by Emîr Xan Lepzêrîn, ruler of Beradost, who sought to maintain the independence of his expanding principality in the face of both Ottoman and Safavid penetration into the region. Rebuilding Dimdim was considered a move toward independence that could threaten Safavid power in the northwest. Many Kurds, including the rulers of Mukriyan, rallied around Amir Khan. After a long and bloody siege led by the Safavid grand vizier Hatem Beg, which lasted from November 1609 to the summer of 1610, Dimdim was captured.
All the defenders were massacred. Shah Abbas ordered a general massacre in Beradost and Mukriyan and resettled the Turkish Afshar tribe in the region while deporting many Kurdish tribes to Khorasan. Although Persian historians depicted the first battle of Dimdim as a result of Kurdish mutiny or treason, in Kurdish oral traditions, literary works, histories, it was treated as a struggle of the Kurdish people against foreign domination. In fact, Beytî dimdim is considered a national epic second only to Mem û Zîn by Ahmad Khani; the first literary account of Dimdim battle was written by Faqi Tayran. The Khurasani Kurds are a community of nearly 1.7 million people deported from western Kurdistan to North Khorasan by Persia during the 16th to 18th centuries. Kurds took advantage of the Afghan invasion of the Safavid realm in the early 18th century, conquered Hamadan and penetrated to the area near Isfahan. Nader Shah sought to suppress a Kurdish rebellion in 1747, but he
Greater Iran is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long ruled by the various imperial dynasties of the Iranian Empire, having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran, or are nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranian peoples who patronize their respective cultures. It corresponds to the territory on the Iranian plateau and its bordering plains; the Encyclopædia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent for this region. The term Greater Iran is not limited to the modern state of Iran, but includes all the territory ruled by the Iranians throughout the history, including Mesopotamia, Eastern Anatolia, all of the Caucasus and Central Asia; the concept of Greater Iran has its source in the history of the Achaemenid Empire in Persis, overlaps to a certain extent with the history of Iran.
In recent centuries, Iran lost many of the territories conquered under the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, including Iraq to the Ottomans, western Afghanistan to the British, all its Caucasus territories to Russia during the Russo-Persian Wars in the course of the 19th century. The Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 resulted in Iran ceding Dagestan and most of Azerbaijan to Russia; the Turkmanchey Treaty of 1828 decisively ended centuries of Iranian control of its Caucasian provinces, made Iran cede what is present-day Armenia, the remainder of Azerbaijan and Igdir, set the modern boundary along the Aras River. On the Nowruz of 1935, the endonym Iran was adopted as the official international name of Persia by its ruler Reza Shah Pahlavi. However, in 1959, the government of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Reza Shah Pahlavi's son, announced that both "Persia" and "Iran" could be used interchangeably; the name "Irān", meaning "land of the Aryans", is the New Persian continuation of the old genitive plural aryānām, first attested in the Avesta as airyānąm.
The proto-Iranian term aryānām is present in the term Airyana Vaēǰah, the homeland of Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, near the provinces of Sogdiana, Bactria, etc. listed in the first chapter of the Vidēvdād. The Avestan evidence is confirmed by Greek sources: Arianē is spoken of as being between Persia and the Indian subcontinent. However, this is a Greek pronunciation of the name Haroyum/Haraiva, which the Greeks called'Aria'. A land listed separately from the homeland of the Aryans. While up until the end of the Parthian period in the 3rd century CE, the idea of "Irān" had an ethnic and religious value, it did not yet have a political import; the idea of an "Iranian" empire or kingdom in a political sense is a purely Sasanian one. It was the result of a convergence of interests between the new dynasty and the Zoroastrian clergy, as we can deduce from the available evidence; this convergence gave rise to the idea of an Ērān-šahr "Kingdom of the Iranians", "ēr". Richard Nelson Frye defines Greater Iran as including "much of the Caucasus, Afghanistan and Central Asia, with cultural influences extending to China and western India."
According to Frye, "Iran means all lands and peoples where Iranian languages were and are spoken, where in the past, multi-faceted Iranian cultures existed."Richard Foltz notes that while "A general assumption is made that the various Iranian peoples of'greater Iran'—a cultural area that stretched from Mesopotamia and the Caucasus into Khwarizm, Transoxiana and the Pamirs and included Persians, Medes and Sogdians among others—were all'Zoroastrians' in pre-Islamic times... This view though common among serious scholars, is certainly overstated." Foltz argues that "While the various Iranian peoples did indeed share a common pantheon and pool of religious myths and symbols, in actuality a variety of deities were worshipped—particularly Mitra, the god of covenants, Anahita, the goddess of the waters, but many others—depending on the time and particular group concerned". To the Ancient Greeks, Greater Iran ended at the Indus River located in Pakistan. According to J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams most of Western greater Iran spoke Southwestern Iranian languages in the Achaemenid era while the Eastern territory spoke Eastern Iranian languages related to Avestan.
George Lane states that after the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, the Ilkhanids became rulers of greater Iran and Uljaytu, according to Judith G. Kolbas, was the ruler of this expanse between 1304–1317 A. D. Primary sources, including Timurid historian Mir Khwand, define Iranshahr as extending from the Euphrates to the OxusTraditionally, until recent times, ethnicity has never been a defining separating criterion in these regions. In the words of Richard Nelson Frye: Many times I have emphasized that the present peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set