A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Cabin Creek Ranger Residence and Dormitory
The Cabin Creek Ranger Residence and Dormitory known as the Cabin Creek Ranger Station, were built in 1934 and 1935 in Sequoia National Park by the Civilian Conservation Corps. The three-room wood-frame residence and the two-room dormitory are examples of the National Park Service Rustic style; the two buildings stand close to the former site of the Lost Grove Entrance Station. They were built by CCC workers from the Buckeye CCC camp during the summers of 1934 and 1935, to house rangers for the Lost Grove entrance to the Generals Highway. Intended to be located at Lost Grove and to use sequoia logs, the move to nearby Cabin Creek resulted in a change to a wood appropriate to the new location, which did not feature sequoias. Design work for the buildings was carried out by Park Service landscape architect Harold G, Fowler and Emergency Conservation Work landscape architect Lloyd Fletcher
Triple Divide Peak (Tulare County, California)
Triple Divide Peak is a mountain along the Great Western Divide in the Sierra Nevada range on the boundary between Kings Canyon and Sequoia national parks, in Tulare County, California. It rises to 12,640 feet. Near Kaweah Gap, the peak divides three important watersheds: the Kern River, the Kaweah River, the Kings River; this three-way divide leads to the peak's name. At one time, it was called The Keystone; the Kaweah Peaks Ridge spurs off to the south, while the Kings-Kaweah Divide branches off to the west. "Triple Divide Peak". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-26
The Kaweah River is a river draining the southern Sierra Nevada in Tulare County, California in the United States. Fed by high elevation snowmelt along the Great Western Divide, the Kaweah begins as four forks in Sequoia National Park, where the watershed is noted for its alpine scenery and its dense concentrations of giant sequoias, the largest trees on Earth, it flows in a southwest direction to Lake Kaweah – the only major reservoir on the river – and into the San Joaquin Valley, where it diverges into multiple channels across an alluvial plain around Visalia. With its Middle Fork headwaters starting at 13,000 feet above sea level, the river has a vertical drop of nearly two and a half miles on its short run to the San Joaquin Valley, making it one of the steepest river drainages in the United States. Although the main stem of the Kaweah is only 33.6 miles long, its total length including headwaters and lower branches is nearly 100 miles. The lower course of the river and its many distributaries – including the St. John's River and Mill Creek – form the Kaweah Delta, a productive agricultural region spanning more than 300,000 acres.
Before the diversion of its waters for irrigation, the river flowed into Tulare Lake, the now dry terminal sink of a large endorheic basin in the southern San Joaquin Valley fed by the Kern and Tule Rivers and southern branches of the Kings River. The name "Kaweah" comes from a native Yokutsan word meaning "crow cry"; the Yokuts and Western Mono are the main Native American groups in the Kaweah River basin, explored by the Spanish in the early 1800s and logged after the 1850s by American colonists, before its upper reaches became part of Sequoia National Park in 1890. The Kaweah River originates along the Great Western Divide, a chain of 13,000-foot peaks in the middle of Sequoia National Park; the divide separates the Kaweah drainage from the Kern River drainage to the east. The Middle Fork, sometimes considered part of the main stem, flows southwest from the confluence of Lone Pine Creek and Hamilton Creek, whose lake sources lie at or above 12,000 feet in the Mount Stewart area; the Marble Fork begins in a high plateau area known as the Tableland and drops 1,200 feet over a glacial headwall, forming Tokopah Falls, before flowing west past Lodgepole Village and turning south.
The two forks join at the bottom of a deep gorge directly below Moro Rock to form the main stem of the Kaweah River. The Kaweah River flows in a southwest direction, paralleled by Highway 198 in its narrow canyon. A short distance outside Sequoia National Park it picks up the East Fork, which originates above 9,000 feet elevation in the Mineral King valley, from the left, it continues past the town of Three Rivers, where it receives the North Fork, which begins in the Grant Grove area of Kings Canyon National Park. The South Fork enters from the left before the river empties into Lake Kaweah, the reservoir formed by Terminus Dam in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Terminus Dam, a 255-foot high earthfill dam, has the primary purpose of flood control but supplies water for irrigation and hydroelectricity. Below the dam the Kaweah River passes Lemon Cove, receives Dry Creek from the right and flows into the San Joaquin Valley where it divides into several major distributaries. At the McKay Point Dam, the St. John's River splits off to the northwest, making a wide loop around Visalia before becoming Cross Creek north of Goshen, from where it flows south.
The main channel of the Kaweah River continues to the southwest through farmland, with Outside Creek and Deep Creek splitting to the south before the Kaweah itself divides into Mill Creek and Packwood Creek. Mill Creek continues westward through Visalia, Packwood Creek skirts to the south of the city, terminating in a small flood control basin. Mill Creek ends at a confluence with Cross Creek, which flows southward to the old Tulare Lake bed near Corcoran, joining a channel carrying water from the Tule River; the Kaweah Delta region, as defined by the Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District, covers about 340,000 acres in Tulare and Kings Counties. The length of the Kaweah River is 33.6 miles between the confluence of the Middle and Marble Forks and the bifurcation of Mill and Packwood Creeks. However, including its tributaries and distributaries, the river is much longer. Mill Creek flows westward for a total distance of 58.7 miles. Including the upstream Middle Fork, long, the length of Cross Creek below Mill Creek, 21.7 miles, some water in the Kaweah system flows 95 miles from the head of the Middle Fork to the Tulare Lake bed.
Most of the Kaweah River's runoff comes from the mountain watershed above Visalia, which covers a total of 658 square miles. Including all the lands drained and crossed by the river's many distributaries down to the Tulare Lake bed, the Kaweah River hydrologic region covers 1,523 square miles; the annual runoff of the Kaweah River between 1975 and 1995 was 443,000 acre feet, or about 600 cubic feet per second. The river's highest flows are during the peak snowmelt months of June. Most of the water is diverted above Visalia for groundwater recharge. With the exception of agricultural wastewater, water flows any further downstream except in wet years. Large storms can
Mount Farquhar, or Mount Francis Farquhar, is a peak in Kings Canyon National Park. It is named in for Francis P. Farquhar, a conservationist who played a key role in creating the park. Mount Farquhar is, in the southern portion of Kings Canyon National Park, on the Great Western Divide north of North Guard and Mount Brewer, its west facing slopes feed Sphinx Creek, while its east facing slopes feed Cross Creek and North Guard Creek. All of these drain through Bubbs Creek to the South Fork of the Kings River; this summit was informally known as Notch Peak, after the prominent notch in its profile when seen from the east, until 1989. That year, the United States Geological Survey's Board on Geographic Names recognized a new name of the peak to commemorate Francis Farquhar, who had died fifteen years earlier. Farquhar, a local mountaineer, had worked as an author and a director of the Sierra Club to protect the Kings Canyon region of the Sierra Nevada; the first ascent was made on July 1932 by the South Ridge route.
A large first ascent party was composed of Dorothy Baird, D. R. Brothers, Alice Carter, Norman Clyde, Glen Dawson, William Dulley, Patricia Goodhue, Katherine Lindforth, Julie Mortimer, Arthur Neld, Lincoln O'Brien, Thomas Rawles, John Schager and Alfred Weiler, they scrambled cross country to the Sphinx Lakes, climbed to the col south of the peak, ascended by way of the south ridge. Other established routes on Mount Farquhar include the Northwest Ridge, the Blank Stair Route, the Northeast Face put up in September 1971 by Jeanne Neal and Galen Rowell. "Mount Francis Farquhar". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-31
The Cattle Cabin is a one-room log cabin, built in the Sierra Nevada by Hale Tharp and two partners in 1890, in present-day Sequoia National Park, California. Cattle Cabin is located in the Giant Forest of giant redwoods, is associated with Tharp's Log as a structure supporting ranching operations in the area; the cabin and the surrounding lands were bought by the National Park Service in 1916. National Park Service - "Challenge of the Big Trees", Caucasian Settlers come to the Southern Sierra, with history on Hale Tharp