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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Great Wheel

The Great Wheel known as the Gigantic Wheel, was built for the Empire of India Exhibition at Earls Court, London, in the United Kingdom. Construction began in March 1894 at the works of Maudslay and Field in Greenwich and it opened to the public on 17 July 1895. Modelled on the original Ferris Wheel which featured at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, US, it was 94 metres tall and 82.3 metres in diameter. And weighed about 900 Tons, it stayed in service until 1906. It was demolished in 1907 following its last use at the Imperial Austrian Exhibition. Media related to Big Wheel London at Wikimedia Commons

Communist chic

Communist chic are elements of popular culture such as fashion and commodities based on communist symbols and other things associated with communism. A typical example is T-shirts and other memorabilia with Alberto Korda's iconic photo of Che Guevara. Australian journalist Matthew Clayfield remarks that the "communist iconography" has declined from the status of communist propaganda to mere commodities within the capitalist system and that its popularity is telling of the level of teaching history today. Jeff Jacoby compares the outrage caused by Prince Harry wearing swastika with indifference to public figures wearing communist symbols and offered several reasons; the Soviet Union was on the side of the Allies during World War II. Second, while Nazi ideology was overtly genocidal, many believe that communism is in reality a good system, only never properly implemented. Thirdly, the excesses of McCarthyism gave rise to an argument that harsh criticism of communism is but a continuation of Red Scare.

Jacoby thinks the most important factor is different visibility of the crimes of the two systems. Nazi crimes were documented and as a result Nazi's crimes have become imprinted in memories and records. At the same time, the level of exposure of Marxist–Leninist atrocities to the general public is lower. Nazi chic Communist nostalgia

Big Butte Springs

Big Butte Springs are natural springs located near the south fork of Big Butte Creek in Jackson County, about 30 miles north of Medford. It provides 26 million US gallons of high quality water per day; the springs provide enough water to meet the needs of the valley for seven months of the year. During the remaining five months, water is treated from the Rogue River; the springs provide water to over 115,000 customers. The springs are fed by an 88-square-mile watershed; the water requires minimal treatment to meet water quality standards. The hardness of the springs' water has declined in recent years. In 2007, the springs were tested in 120 different areas. Water temperatures average between 44 and 46 °F; the springs have little chemical pollution, low turbidity. The flow of the springs remains steady throughout the year. Beginning in 1908, Medford received drinking water from Fish Lake. Several years the surrounding land was not cleared of debris when the Fish Lake dam was expanded. Soon, the woody debris rotted, the water was determined undrinkable.

In 1923, the Medford Water Commission received water rights to 30 to 60 cubic feet per second of water from Big Butte Springs. The Medford Aqueduct, a 31-inch pipeline, was finished in 1927, transferring about 40 cubic feet per second of drinking water to residents of the Bear Creek watershed. In 1951, another pipeline was added

Brevda

Brevda. A surname given to Jewish leaders; this surname was a modification of Pravda, the Russian word for'Truth' and'Justice'. Kohen families claim direct descent from Aaron, the brother of Moses and many share a common DNA halogroup. Kohanim occupy an elevated status in Judaism, their priestly leadership duties date back to the year 600 BC. Rabbi Chaim Noach HaCohen Brevda was an eminent Rabbi in the 20th century, he was born in Poland. He studied in various Rabbinical seminaries in Lithuania and he taught in the Yeshivah in Raduń, he received his Rabbinical ordination from the Chofetz Chaim. During World War II, he escaped to Japan and to Shanghai, where he studied with the Mir Yeshiva. After the war was over, he entered the United States and settled in New York City, first in The Bronx and in Brooklyn. Upon his arrival in New York City, Rabbi Brevda taught in the Yeshiva Chofetz Chaim on the Westside of NYC. After World War II, Rabbi Mendel Zaks, the son - in- law of the Chofetz Chaim, had re-established the yeshivah in the United States.

Rabbi Brevda was well-known among the survivors of the Rabbinical institutions of Europe, for his knowledge of the oral and written law. He was the Rabbinical leader of Congregation Ahavas Achim of Brownsville and later of Congregation Bais Avrohum in Brighton Beach, he established the Yeshivah and Mesifta Tiffereth Avrohum, a post-high school Rabbinical seminary. Rabbi Brevda served in Jerusalem, Israel. Rabbi Brevda died on September 14, 1999, the 4th of Tishrei 5760, he is buried in Mount Hebron Cemetery in New York. Levi Brevda was part of an underground Zionist organization in Belarus in the early 1900s. Brevda relocated Zionist settlers from Lyakhovichi and Minsk out of Eastern Europe to Mandatory Palestine, which became Israel. Levi Brevda elected to hebraize his name to Levi Ben Amitai. Once in Israel, Brevda founded the Degania Bet kibbutz, south of the Sea of Galilee, which still exists today. Brevda's kibbutz was integral in defending the Galilee region from the invading Syrian army during Israel's war of independence.

"The heroic resistance of the Degania defenders against a regular army gave the people of the young state a large morale boost."

Antonio MacĂ­as del Real

Antonio Macías del Real was a Spanish writer and pharmacist that moved to Guatemala where he wrote for most prestigious cultural publications. Among his articles are those that we wrote for La Ilustración Guatemalteca during the last year of general José María Reina Barrios presidency; when the president was assassinated on 8 February 1898, Macías del Real wrote Perfiles biográficos de don Manuel Estrada Cabrera (Biographical profiles of Mr. Manuel Estrada Cabrera, appointed as interim President. In 1902 his adulation paid off. According to Guatemalan historian Rafael Arévalo Martínez in his book ¡Ecce Pericles!, Macías del Real -a pharmacist graduated from Universidad Central de Madrid and incorporated in Guatemala- was the one that gave Estrada Cabrera a potent venom that the latter used to get rid of his opponents. Macías del Real got his doctorate in Pharmacy in Universidad Central de Madrid in 1894, with a dissertation about the pharmaceutical studies of Eucaliptus glóbulus and he was incorporated into the College of Medicine and Pharmacy of Universidad Nacional in Guatemala on 3 July 1896.

Between 1896 and 1897 he wrote for the La Ilustración Guatemalteca where he worked alongside writer and public speaker Rafael Spinola and with the Guatemalan photography pioneer Alberto G. Valdeavellano, his articles were about political and cultural issues. On 18 April 1902, given his excellent relationship with president Manuel Estrada Cabrera, he was granted the concession to build and operate the Panamerican Railroad between Las Cruces and Vado-Ancho; the original contract with Macías del Real had been generous and had been signed by the lieutenant secretary of Economy, José Flamenco and approved by Estrada Cabrera. Besides, Macías del Real and his descendants would have enjoyed the revenue from the railway for 99 years, after which the line was supposed to go back to the State of Guatemala. Guatemala portal Biography portal Manuel Estrada Cabrera La Ilustración Guatemalteca Rafael Spinola

Francis B. Francois

Francis Bernard Francois is an American engineer and lawyer who has received recognition for his achievements in the field of engineering and policy leadership in surface transportation infrastructure and research. In 1999, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. Francois grew up on a farm in Barnum, Webster County and graduated from Iowa State University with a bachelor's degree in engineering in 1956, he moved to Washington, D. C. and began his career in 1956 as a patent examiner in the U. S. Patent Office, he enrolled in night law school at The George Washington University, earned a law degree in 1960. Francois become a patent advisor for the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1959, he was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1960, practiced patent and trademark law with the firm of Bacon and Thomas from 1962 until 1980. Francois became an elected official in Prince George's County, Maryland, in 1962, serving first as Chief Judge of the Orphan's Court a County Commissioner.

After the county changed from a County Commissioner to a County Council system, he served 10 years as a member of the County Council. In this post, he represented Prince George's County on the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments and the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority boards, among many other posts, he chaired the Joint Policy Steering Committee on the Washington Metro Alternatives Analysis Project. Nationally, he was twice elected President of the National Association of Regional Councils and in 1979–1980 was President of the National Association of Counties. In 1980, he resigned from the County Council to become Executive Director of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials where he remained until his retirement in 1999. In addition to leading AASHTO, Francois supported the transportation profession in many ways, including serving on the Executive Committee of the Transportation Research Board, he served on many TRB committees, including the Task Force on Critical Transportation Infrastructure and the Committee for Study of a Future Strategic Highway Research Program.

He was instrumental in establishing the original Strategic Highway Research Program and was one of the cofounders of ITS America where he served a term as its Chair and is now an honorary life member of its Board. He serves on the Board of Directors of Cambridge Systematics Inc, he has served on the Board of Directors for such transportation organizations as the International Road Federation and the World Road Association. In 1973, Francois was recognized by Washingtonian Magazine as a Washingtonian of the Year. In 1989, Francois received TRB's W. N. Carey Jr. Award for his leadership in supporting transportation research. In 1993, he received the Institute of Transportation Engineers Theodore M. Matson Memorial Award, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1999. In 2003, he received the Marston Medal from Iowa State University. In 2004, he was named by the American Road and Transportation Builders Association as one of the top 100 private-sector design and construction professionals in the U.

S. in the 20th Century. In 2007, Francois was the recipient of TRB's Frank Turner Medal for Lifetime Achievement in Transportation. In 2000, AASHTO created the Francis B. Francois Award for Innovation. Francois was the patent attorney for two boyhood friends, Paul D. Estlund and Kenneth F. Estlund, who received U. S. Patent 4,534,556 for a break-away basketball goal, he has written a book about the experience of acquiring the patent for the invention that saved many basketball courts from having broken backboards or bent rims. The invention likely made it easier for the NCAA to decide on the re-introduction of the slam dunk as a legal move in college basketball, after it had been banned in 1967. Many claim the no dunk rule was implemented to keep Kareem Abdul-Jabbar from dominating the college game, but coach John Wooden said, in an interview to the UCLA student daily paper, " didn't cause the change; the NCAA Rules Committee outlawed the dunk because of hanging on the rim, rims bending back, boards breaking and glass down."

With the advent of the break-away basketball goal, this was no longer an issue. Francois, Francis B.. Two Guys From Barnum, Iowa And How They Helped Save Basketball. Francois Press. ISBN 978-0-6151-8342-8. Francois, Francis B.. Me? I'm from Iowa. Lulu Press. ISBN 978-1-1052-5880-0. Papers of Francis Francois, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries AASHTO Bacon and Thomas Cambridge Systematics Inc. U. S. Patent 4,534,556 For A Break-Away Basketball Goal Francois, Francis B. Two Guys From Barnum, Iowa And How They Helped Save Basketball: A History Of U. S. Patent 4,534,556: Paul D. Estlund And Kenneth F. Estlund, Inventors Francois, Francis B. Me, I'm From Iowa C-Span: Appearances of Francis B. Francois Institute of Transportation Engineers - Honorary Member