Greater Helsinki

Greater Helsinki is the metropolitan area surrounding Helsinki, the capital city of Finland. It includes the smaller Capital Region urban area; the smaller Capital Region consists of the central cities of Helsinki, Vantaa and Kauniainen and has a population of 1.17 million. The Greater Helsinki region is the largest urbanised area in the country with 1,495,271 inhabitants and is by far the most important economic and scientific region of Finland. Five out of Finland's 15 universities and most of the headquarters of notable companies and governmental institutions are located in Greater Helsinki, as is Finland's main airline hub and airport, Helsinki Airport, located in Vantaa; these regions are located in the south of Finland, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, part of the Baltic Sea. They area a part of the region of Uusimaa; the term "Helsinki Metropolitan Area" and the other terms used are not established and may vary in different contexts. Greater Helsinki is sometimes incorrectly called Helsinki Region due to an incorrect direct translation of the Finnish and Swedish terms Helsingin seutu and Helsingforsregionen.

In the strictest sense, the Finnish Capital Region consists of four municipalities with city status, Vantaa and Kauniainen, whose total population is about 1.1 million. This area is most called the Capital region in English, Pääkaupunkiseutu in Finnish, Huvudstadsregionen in Swedish, although the use of the terms is not consistent; the vast majority of the inhabitants live in the urban areas of the cities, but within the boundaries of these cities there are suburban and rural areas. About ten more municipalities are considered to be part of Greater Helsinki, as they can be considered to be commuter towns and exurbs of Helsinki; when Hyvinkää, Järvenpää, Kirkkonummi, Nurmijärvi, Tuusula, Mäntsälä, Pornainen and Vihti are included, the number of inhabitants rises to 1.4 million. All of the municipalities belong to the region of Uusimaa. Of these, Järvenpää, Tuusula, Nurmijärvi, Kirkkonummi, Mäntsälä and Vihti have parts of the urban area within them. Additionally, the cities of Porvoo, to some extent Riihimäki, which have close ties and commuter train accesses, are close to the capital, are nowadays included in regional planning, which raises the total population to about 1,550,000.

As a part of the "Urban audit" project, Eurostat has attempted to standardise the concept of a'metropolitan area'. According to this study the Metropolitan area of Helsinki consists of the kernel of Helsinki: Helsinki, Espoo and Kauniainen; the Helsinki Larger Urban Area consists of 12 cities and municipalities: the kernel of Helsinki and the aforementioned eight municipalities. Statistics Finland define the commuter belt of Helsinki to include a total of 24 municipalities, with a land area of 7,359.80 km2 and a population of 1,431,108 as of 31 December 2007. In addition to that, there are people from as far as Lahti and Tampere commuting to Helsinki daily. Statistics Finland defines the Helsinki urban area according to the official Finnish definion of an urban area. Urban areas in Finland are defined as inhabited areas of at least 200 people with a maximum distance of 200 metres between buildings; the Helsinki urban area is the largest of its kind in Finland, encompasses land throughout Greater Helsinki, with notable gaps around forests and other less-densely populated areas.

The table below lists population and population density for the largest municipalities of the Greater Helsinki area. The commuter towns of Lohja and Porvoo are not included, though, if they were, they would raise the overall population above 1.5 million people. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Libraries Metropolitan area Largest European metropolitan areas Largest metropolitan areas in the Nordic countries List of urban areas in the Nordic countries Largest urban areas of the European Union Helsinki urban area ThisisFinland: Helsinki: A veritable mini-metropolis HSL, Helsinki Regional Transport Authority

Saltmarsh topminnow

The saltmarsh topminnow is a species of killifish for the family Fundulidae. It occurs in the costal wetlands of the Gulf of Mexico in the United States. Saltmarsh topminnows have little color in life. Saltmarsh topminnows live in estuaries, coastal salt marshes and back water sloughs including shallow tidal meanders of Spartina marshes, they are endemic to brackish water areas from Galveston Bay, Texas to Escambia Bay in the western panhandle of Florida. Habitat alteration and marsh erosion are the most serious threats to the saltmarsh topminnow. VulnerableAmerican Fisheries Society: Threatened in Florida, Vulnerable elsewhere Species of Greatest Conservation Need: FL, LA, MS. In 2006 the Species of Concern Grant program funded the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources for the study: “Fundulus jenkinsi, Saltmarsh Topminnow: Conservation Planning and Implementation”. Fundulus jenkinsi was described in 1892 as Zygonectes jenkinsi by Barton Warren Evermann with the type locality given as Dickinson Bayou, near Galveston, Texas.

The specific name honours the American physiologist Oliver Peebles Jenkins of Stanford University. NMFS. Species of Concern Fact Sheet. 2008

Why Paint Cats

Why Paint Cats is a humorous book written by New Zealand author Burton Silver and illustrator Heather Busch. It is one including Why Cats Paint and Dancing with Cats; the book purports to describe the practice of the decorating of cats with paint. Some readers were concerned at the dangers of applying paint to cats, but the book's depictions are digitally manipulated. Critical reception for the book has been mixed to positive, with the SF site calling it "luscious and truly amazing". Publishers Weekly wrote that the book was "amusing as a novelty item" and that it was "so weird that it's sort of irresistible." The Hamilton Spectator stated that the book's contents were "spectacular". The Los Angeles Times wrote that Silver's writing was "tongue-in-cheek scholarly, complete with footnotes and a bibliography". Snopes Urban Legend Reference