Ludwigskirche in Old Saarbrücken, Germany, is a Lutheran baroque-style church. It is the symbol of the city and is considered to be one of the most important Protestant churches in Germany, along with the Dresden Frauenkirche and the St. Michael's Church, Hamburg. Ludwigskirche and the surrounding Ludwigsplatz were designed as a "complete work of art", in the sense of a baroque place royale, by Friedrich Joachim Stengel on the commission of Prince William Henry. Construction was begun in 1762. After the death of William Henry in 1768, work on it was stopped due to lack of funds; the church was completed in 1775 by his son, it was named after him. The consecration of the church took place on August 25, 1775, with a church service and a cantata composed for the occasion. In 1885-1887 and in 1906-1911, the church underwent restoration. During the Second World War, Ludwigskirche was completely destroyed. After a bombing on October 5, 1944, only the surrounding walls remained. Rebuilding began in 1949, however it has still not been completed.
The main reason for this long delay was the fierce dispute, which lasted from the 1950s into the 1970s, about whether the baroque interior, lost, should be reconstructed according to the original plans. At first, it had been agreed to restore the exterior, with a modern interior, but this plan was abandoned. After the reconstruction of the "Fürstenstuhl" in 2009, the interior is more or less complete, but more than half of the balustrade figures on the outside are still lacking as well as the exterior finish; the ground plan is shaped somewhat like a Greek cross. There are niches on the outside; the stone balustrades were decorated with 28 figures by Bingh, depicting the apostles and other Biblical people. The interior of the church is decorated with ornamental stucco; each of the four arms of the cross has a gallery supported by two to four caryatids. The floor is made of sandstone. Special features of the interior are the arrangement of the church by and large along the width of the church, on the one hand, the placement of the altar and organ over each other, on the other hand.
The arrangement with the altar and organ is rather unusual for a Lutheran church, but it had been used by Stengel in some of his earlier buildings. Stengel designed not only the overall plan of the church and the surrounding palaces, from the handles for the doors to the overall grounds, but he fit the church and the square into the two main viewing axes of the city's layout. One of these axes, from the "Alten Kirche" in the city district of St. Johann, through the Wilhelm-Heinrich-Straße of today and the main entrance, up to the altar, is still visible today; the other axis points over the exit, which faces the Saarland state chancellery today, toward the former royal summer residences on Ludwigsberg, the so-called Ludwigspark. The restoration of the original white paint on the exterior is still being disputed. Whether it was lost during the 19th century or during the air raid 1945 is not clear, but it would be important for fitting the church into the surrounding buildings of the square, but it has become quite a strange idea to many local residents in the past decades.
The square surrounding the church, was an integral part of Stengel's concept from the beginning. The original plan provided for a long, rectangular square, with four differently designed types of noble city palaces along the long sides and two large public buildings on the ends. During construction, this concept was changed, so that the building on the east was split in two, in favor of a view toward St. Johann. Only the western building was kept; the remains of the Gymnasium, damaged by the great bombing in 1944, was torn down in 1945. It stood where the upper plateau of the stairs is today. In the lines of palaces planned for the long sides of the square, the four smallest buildings on the corners of the square were never erected – which made it possible to have a street running between the orphanage and the church, which detracts from the impression of the square as much as the trees there. In contrast to, the place that Stengel intentionally left open for the view toward Ludwigsberg, today occupied by the state chancellery.
Until 1944 there has been an organ of the company Stumm with 37 stops. The modern organ case is a reconstruction of the historical case; the current organ was built in 1982 by Rudolf von Beckerath / Hamburg. It has got three keyboards; the tracker action and the couplers are mechanically. The organ has got the following stoplist: Couplers: II/I, III/I, III/II, I/P, II/P, III/P Plenum, Tutti, 10-fache Setzeranlage In 1965, Ludwigskirche was depicted on the series of stamps, Hauptstädte der Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland; as the symbol of the Saarland state capital of Saarbrücken, Ludwigskirche is shown on the German 2 euro commemorative coin in 2009. Foreign language guidebooks describe Ludwigskirche as "église St. Louis" or "St. Louis church". However, it is not dedicated to Saint Louis, but named
Marc Zakharovich Chagall was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin. An early modernist, he was associated with several major artistic styles and created works in every artistic format, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic and fine art prints. Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century". According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists". For decades, he "had been respected as the world's pre-eminent Jewish artist". Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN and the Art Institute of Chicago, the Jerusalem Windows in Israel, he did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra. Before World War I, he travelled between Saint Petersburg and Berlin. During this period he created his own mixture and style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish folk culture.
He spent the wartime years in Soviet Belarus, becoming one of the country's most distinguished artists and a member of the modernist avant-garde, founding the Vitebsk Arts College before leaving again for Paris in 1922. He writes Lewis: as a pioneer of modernism and as a major Jewish artist, he experienced modernism's "golden age" in Paris, where "he synthesized the art forms of Cubism and Fauvism, the influence of Fauvism gave rise to Surrealism". Yet throughout these phases of his style "he remained most emphatically a Jewish artist, whose work was one long dreamy reverie of life in his native village of Vitebsk." "When Matisse dies," Pablo Picasso remarked in the 1950s, "Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour is". Marc Chagall was born Moishe Segal in a Lithuanian Jewish Hassidic family in Liozna, near the city of Vitebsk in 1887. At the time of his birth, Vitebsk's population was about 66,000, with half the population being Jewish. A picturesque city of churches and synagogues, it was called "Russian Toledo", after a cosmopolitan city of the former Spanish Empire.
As the city was built of wood, little of it survived years of occupation and destruction during World War II. Chagall was the eldest of nine children; the family name, Shagal, is a variant of the name Segal, which in a Jewish community was borne by a Levitic family. His father, Khatskl Shagal, was employed by a herring merchant, his mother, Feige-Ite, sold groceries from their home, his father worked hard, earning only 20 roubles each month. Chagall would include fish motifs "out of respect for his father", writes Chagall biographer, Jacob Baal-Teshuva. Chagall wrote of these early years: Day after day and summer, at six o'clock in the morning, my father got up and went off to the synagogue. There he said his usual prayer for other. On his return he drank some tea and went to work. Hellish work, the work of a galley-slave. Why try to hide it? How tell about it? No word will ease my father's lot... There was always plenty of cheese on our table. Buttered bread, like an eternal symbol, was never out of my childish hands.
One of the main sources of income of the Jewish population of the town was from the manufacture of clothing, sold throughout Russia. They made furniture and various agricultural tools. From the late 18th century to the First World War, the Russian government confined Jews to living within the Pale of Settlement, which included modern Ukraine, Poland and Latvia exactly corresponding to the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth taken over by Imperial Russia; this caused the creation of Jewish market-villages throughout today's Eastern Europe, with their own markets, schools and other community institutions. Chagall wrote as a boy. During a pogrom, Chagall wrote that: "The street lamps are out. I feel panicky in front of butchers' windows. There you can see calves that are still alive lying beside the butchers' hatchets and knives"; when asked by some pogromniks "Jew or not?", Chagall remembered thinking: "My pockets are empty, my fingers sensitive, my legs weak and they are out for blood.
My death would be futile. I so wanted to live". Chagall denied being a Jew, leading the pogromniks to shout "All right! Get along!"Most of what is known about Chagall's early life has come from his autobiography, My Life. In it, he described the major influence that the culture of Hasidic Judaism had on his life as an artist. Chagall related how he realised that the Jewish traditions in which he had grown up were fast disappearing and that he needed to document them. Vitebsk itself had been a centre of that culture dating from the 1730s with its teachings derived from the Kabbalah. Chagall scholar Susan Tumarkin Goodman describes the links and sources of his art to his early home: Chagall's art can be understood as the response to a situation that has long marked the history of Russian Jews. Though they were cultural innovators who made important contributions to the broader society, Jews were considered outsiders in a hostile society... Chagall himself was born of a family steeped in religious life.
Nancy is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of 434,565 inhabitants at the 2011 census, making it the 20th largest urban area in France; the population of the city of Nancy proper was 104,321 in 2014. The motto of the city is Non inultus premor, Latin for "I'm not touched with impunity"—a reference to the thistle, a symbol of Lorraine. Place Stanislas, a large square built between March 1752 and November 1755 by Stanislaus I of Poland to link the medieval old town of Nancy and the new town built under Charles III in the 17th century, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first place in France and in the top four in the world; the earliest signs of human settlement in the area date to 800 BC. Early settlers were attracted by mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. A small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine around 1050.
Nancy was burned in 1218 at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child; this turned out to be Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; the exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced growth and a flowering of Baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, a major square and development connecting the old medieval with a newer part of the city.
After Stanislaus' death in 1766, the duchy of Lorraine returned to the status of a regular French province. Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with patronage; as unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French; the flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the Capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces from 1940. During the Lorraine Campaign of World War II, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U. S. Third Army in September 1944, at the Battle of Nancy. In 1988, Pope John Paul II visited Nancy. In 2005, French President Jacques Chirac, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski inaugurated the renovated Place Stanislas.
It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nancy is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe, about 10 km upstream from its confluence with the Moselle; the Marne–Rhine Canal runs through the city, parallel to the Meurthe. Nancy is surrounded by hills that are about 150 m higher than the city center, situated at 200 m above mean sea level; the area of Nancy proper is small: 15 km2. Its built-up area is continuous with those of its adjacent suburbs; the neighboring communes of Nancy are: Jarville-la-Malgrange, Malzéville, Maxéville, Saint-Max, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy and Villers-lès-Nancy. The oldest part of Nancy is the quarter Vieille Ville – Léopold, which contains the 14th century Porte de la Craffe, the Palace of the Dukes of Lorraine, the Porte Désilles and the 19th century St-Epvre basilica. Adjacent to its south is the quarter Charles III – Centre Ville, the 16th–18th century "new town"; this quarter contains the famous Place Stanislas, the Nancy Cathedral, the Opéra national de Lorraine and the main railway station.
The population of the city proper experienced a small decrease in population from 2009 to 2014, placing it behind Metz as the second largest city in the Lorraine. However, the urban area of Metz experienced population decline from 1990 to 2010 while the urban area of Nancy grew over the same period, becoming the largest urban area in Lorraine and second largest in the "Grand Est" region of northeastern France. Within the Nancy metropolitan area in recent years, the city population declined at the same time as a small increase in the population of its urban area. Nancy has an oceanic climate, although a bit more extreme than most of the larger French cities. By the standards of France it is a "continental" climate with a certain degree of maritimy; the temperatures have a distinct variation of the temperate zone, both during the day and between seasons but without being different. Winters are dry in freezing climates. Summers are not warm enough. Mists are frequent in autumn and the winds are light and not too violent.
Precipitation tends to be less abundant than in the west of the country. Sunshine hours are identical to Paris and the snowy days are the same as Stra
History of Europe
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw human inflows from east and southeast and subsequent important cultural and material exchange; the period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. The Roman Empire came to dominate the Mediterranean Basin and Northwest Europe; the fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology; the Protestant Reformation set up Protestant churches in Germany and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Western Europe; the main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, parts of Asia. In the 20th century, World War I and World War II resulted in massive numbers of deaths; the Cold War dominated European geo-politics from 1947 to 1989.
During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw massive migrations from east and southeast which brought agriculture, new technologies, the Indo-European languages through the areas of the Balkan peninsula and the Black sea region. Some of the best-known civilizations of the late prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean, which flourished during the Bronze Age until they collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC; the period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece. After checking the Persian advance in Europe through the Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BC, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia and other parts of Europe; the Thracians and their kingdoms and culture were long present in Southeast Europe. In 500 BC, Rome was a small city-state on the Italian peninsula. By 200 BC, Rome had conquered Italy, over the following two centuries it conquered Greece and Hispania, the North African coast, much of the Middle East and Britannia.
By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Eastern empires. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe, pressed by the Huns, grew in strength, repeated attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples became more powerful in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms and empires of their own. Of all of the Germanic peoples, the Franks would rise to a position of hegemony over Western Europe, the Frankish Empire reaching its peak under Charlemagne around 800; this empire was divided into several parts. The British Isles were the site of several large-scale migrations; the Byzantine Empire – the eastern part of the Roman Empire, with its capital Constantinople, survived for the next 1000 years as the most dominant empire in Southeast Europe. The powerful and long lived. Both empires were major powers in that part of Europe for centuries, both creating important cultural, political and religious legacy through the Middle Ages to this day.
The Viking Age, a period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 8th century to the middle 11th century. The Normans, descendants of the Vikings who settled in Northern France, had a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to Sicily; the Rus' people founded Kievan Rus'. After 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions intended to bring the Levant back under Christian rule; the Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. The Reconquista, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the fall of the Mongol Empire. Led by Genghis Khan, the Mongols were a group of steppe nomads who established a decentralized empire which, at its height, extended from China in the east to the Black and Baltic Seas in Europe; as Mongol power waned towards the Late Middle Ages, the Grand Duchy of Moscow rose to become the strongest of the numerous Russian principalities and republics and would grow into the Tsardom of Russia in 1547.
The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. The epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period. In Scandinavia, the Kalmar Union dominated the political landscape, while England fought with Scotland in the Wars of Scottish Independence and with France in the Hundred Years' War. In Central Europe, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became a large territorial empire, while the Holy Roman Empire, an elective monarchy, came to be dominated for centuries by the House of Habsburg. Russia continued to expand eastward into former Mongol lands. In the Balkans, the Islamic Ottoman Empire overran Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, which historians mark as the end of the Middle Ages. Ottoman armies pressed into Central Europe, besieging
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
The Maginot Line, named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications. Constructed on the French side of its borders with Italy, Switzerland and Luxembourg, the line did not extend to the English Channel due to French strategy that envisioned a move into Belgium to counter a German assault. Based on France's experience with trench warfare during World War I, the massive Maginot Line was built in the run-up to World War II, after the Locarno Conference gave rise to a fanciful and optimistic "Locarno spirit". French military experts extolled the Line as a work of genius that would deter German aggression, because it would slow an invasion force long enough for French forces to mobilise and counterattack; the Maginot Line was impervious to most forms of attack, including aerial bombings and tank fire, had underground railways as a backup.
Instead of attacking directly, the Germans invaded through the Low Countries, bypassing the Line to the north. French and British officers had anticipated this: when Germany invaded the Netherlands and Belgium, they carried out plans to form an aggressive front that cut across Belgium and connected to the Maginot Line. However, the French line was weak near the Ardennes forest. Marshal Gamelin, when drafting the Dyle Plan, believed this region, with its rough terrain, would be an unlikely invasion route of German forces; the German Army, having reformulated their plans from a repeat of the First World War-era plan, became aware of and exploited this weak point in the French defensive front. A rapid advance through the forest and across the River Meuse encircled much of the Allied forces, resulting in a sizeable force being evacuated at Dunkirk leaving the forces to the south unable to mount an effective resistance to the German invasion of France; the line has since become a metaphor for expensive efforts.
The Maginot Line was built to fulfil several purposes: To prevent a surprise German attack To deter a cross-border assault. To protect Alsace and Lorraine and their industrial basin To save manpower To cover the mobilisation of the French Army To push Germany into an effort to circumvent via Switzerland or Belgium, allow France to fight the next war off French soil to avoid a repeat of 1914–1918. To be used as a basis for a counter-offensive The defences were first proposed by Marshal Joseph Joffre, he was opposed by modernists such as Paul Reynaud and Charles de Gaulle, who favoured investment in armour and aircraft. Joffre had support from Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, there were a number of reports and commissions organised by the government, it was André Maginot who convinced the government to invest in the scheme. Maginot was another veteran of World War I. In January 1923, after Germany defaulted on reparations, the French Premier Raymond Poincaré responded by sending French troops to occupy Germany's Ruhr region.
During the ensuing Ruhrkampf between the Germans and the French that lasted until September 1923, Britain condemned the French occupation of the Ruhr, a period of sustained Francophobia broke out in Britain, with Poincaré being vilified in Britain as a cruel bully punishing Germany with unreasonable reparations demands. The British—who championed the German position on reparations—applied intense economic pressure on France to change its policies towards Germany. At a conference in London in 1924 to settle the Franco-German crisis caused by the Ruhrkampf, the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald pressed the French Premier Édouard Herriot to make concessions to Germany; the British diplomat Sir Eric Phipps who attended the conference commented afterwards that: The London Conference was for the French'man in the street' one long Calvary as he saw M. Herriot abandoning one by one the cherished possessions of French preponderance on the Reparations Commission, the right of sanctions in the event of German default, the economic occupation of the Ruhr, the French-Belgian railroad Régie, the military occupation of the Ruhr within a year.
The great conclusion, drawn in Paris after the Ruhrkampf and the 1924 London conference was that France could not make unilateral military moves to uphold Versailles as the resulting British hostility to such moves was too dangerous to the republic. Beyond that, the French were well aware of the contribution of Britain and its Dominions to the victory of 1918, French decision-makers believed that they needed Britain's help to win another war. From 1871 onwards, French elites had concluded that France had no hope of defeating Germany on its own, France would need an alliance with another great power to defeat the Reich. In 1926, The Manchester Guardian ran an exposé showing the Reichswehr had been developing military technology forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles in the Soviet Union, the secret German-Soviet co-operation had started in 1921; the German statement following The Manchester Guardian's article that Germany did not feel bound by the terms of Versailles and would violate them as much as possible gave much of
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban Comte de Vauban referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer, who participated in each of the wars fought by France during the reign of Louis XIV. Considered the expert in his field, rivalled only by his Dutch contemporary, Menno van Coehoorn, his design principles served as the dominant model of fortification for nearly 100 years, while his offensive tactics remained in use until the early twentieth century, he made a number of innovations in the use of siege artillery and founded the Corps royal des ingénieurs militaires, originator of combat engineering units in the French military. He worked on many of France's major ports and harbours, as well as civilian infrastructure projects like the Canal de la Bruche. In addition to publications on engineering design and training, shortly before his death in 1707 he produced an economic tract entitled La Dîme royale destroyed by Royal decree, it contained radical proposals for a more distribution of the tax burden and the use of statistics to support his arguments makes it a precursor of modern economics.
His application of rational and scientific methods to problem-solving, whether engineering or social, anticipated an approach that became common in the Age of Enlightenment. One of the most significant and enduring aspects of Vauban's legacy was his view of France as a geographical and economic entity. Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban was born on 4 May 1633 in the village of Saint-Léger-de-Foucheret, in the modern French province of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté known as the Nièvre, his birthplace was renamed Saint-Léger-Vauban in 1867, through an Imperial decree issued by Napoleon III. His parents, Urbain le Prestre and Edmée de Comignolle, were members of the minor nobility, who took their name from Vauban in Bazoches, his grandfather Jacques acquired Château de Bazoches when he married Françoise de la Perrière in 1570, an illegitimate daughter of the Comte de Bazouches. The Count died intestate and the resulting 30 year legal battle by the Le Pestre family to retain the property proved financially ruinous.
Like previous generations, Urbain became a forestry-worker, a role he combined with the design and maintenance of gardens for the local gentry. One of these was the Château de Ruère in Saint-Léger-de-Foucheret, owned by the Huguenot De Bricquemaut family. In 1660, Vauban married Jeanne d'Aunay d'Epiry, he had a long-term relationship with Marie-Antoinette de Puy-Montbrun, daughter of an exiled Huguenot officer, referred to as la Belle Mademoiselle de Villefranche. He had a large number of relatives. Three of Paul's sons became military engineers, one of whom died at Aire-sur-la-Lys in 1676 and another at Cambrai in 1677; the third, became Vauban's assistant and a Lieutenant-General. Vauban died in Paris on 30 March 1707 and was buried near his home in Bazoches, the grave being destroyed during the French Revolution. In 1808, Napoléon Bonaparte ordered his heart to be reburied in the church of Les Invalides, resting place for many of France's most famous soldiers, including Turenne and Napoléon himself.
The first half of the 17th century in France was a period of intense civil strife. French support for the Protestant Dutch Republic in its rebellion against Catholic Spain led to the 1635–1659 Franco-Spanish War, accompanied by a 1648-1653 civil war known as the Fronde. Like many others, Vauban's family was impacted by these events; when he was 10, Vauban was sent to the Carmelite college in Semur-en-Auxois, where he was taught the basics of mathematics and geometry. His father's work was relevant, since neo-classical garden design and the layout of fortifications were linked and many engineers worked on both, including Vauban. Other examples include Marlborough's Irish engineer John Armstrong, who in the 1720s designed and constructed a lake at his former general's home, Blenheim Palace. In 1650, Vauban enrolled in forces led by the duc d'Enghien the Grand Condé where he met Charles, Comte de Montal. Louis XIV remarked sieges should ideally be conducted by Vauban and defended by de Montal, but could only happen once, since they would kill each other.
Condé was a leader of the 1650–1653 Fronde des nobles, which opposed the Royalist party headed by Louis XIV's mother Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin. When the July 1652 Battle of the Faubourg St Antoine ended the Fronde as a serious military threat, Condé and some of his followers allied with the Spanish, his possessions included Clermont-en-Argonne and in 1652, Vauban's first engineering role was constructing defences at its capital, Sainte-Menehould. Captured by a Royalist patrol in earl