Greater Sudbury referred to as Sudbury, is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the largest city in Northern Ontario by population, with a population of 161,531 at the Canada 2016 Census. By land area, it is the fifth largest in Canada, it is administratively a single-tier municipality, thus not part of any district, county, or regional municipality. The Sudbury region was sparsely inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group for thousands of years prior to the founding of Sudbury following the discovery of nickel ore in 1883 during the construction of the transcontinental railway. Greater Sudbury was formed in 2001 by merging the cities and towns of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury with several unincorporated townships. Being located inland, the local climate is seasonal with average January lows of around −18 °C and average July highs of 25 °C; the population resides in an urban core and many smaller communities scattered around 300 lakes and among hills of rock blackened by historical smelting activity.
Sudbury was once a world leader in nickel mining. Mining and related industries dominated the economy for much of the 20th century; the two major mining companies which shaped the history of Sudbury were Inco, now Vale Limited, which employed more than 25% of the population by the 1970s, Falconbridge, now Glencore. Sudbury has since expanded from its resource-based economy to emerge as the major retail, economic and educational centre for Northeastern Ontario. Sudbury is home to a large Franco-Ontarian population that influences its arts and culture; the Sudbury region was sparsely inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group as early as 9,000 years ago following the retreat of the last continental ice sheet. French Jesuits were the first to establish a European settlement when they set up a mission called Sainte-Anne-des-Pins, just before the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1883; the Sainte-Anne-des-Pins church played a prominent role in the development of Franco-Ontarian culture in the region.
During construction of the railway in 1883, blasting and excavation revealed high concentrations of nickel-copper ore at Murray Mine on the edge of the Sudbury Basin. This discovery brought the first waves of European settlers, who arrived not only to work at the mines, but to build a service station for railway workers. James Worthington, the superintendent of construction on the Northern Ontario segment of the railway, selected the name Sudbury after Sudbury, Suffolk, in England, the hometown of his wife Caroline. Sudbury was incorporated as a town in 1893, its first mayor was Stephen Fournier; the American inventor Thomas Edison visited the Sudbury area as a prospector in 1901. He is credited with the original discovery of the ore body at Falconbridge. Rich deposits of nickel sulphide ore were discovered in the Sudbury Basin geological formation; the construction of the railway allowed exploitation of these mineral resources and shipment of the commodities to markets and ports, as well as large-scale lumber extraction.
Mining began to replace lumber as the primary industry as the area's transportation network was improved to include trams. These enabled workers to work in another. Sudbury’s economy was dominated by the mining industry for much of the 20th century. Two major mining companies were created: Inco in 1902 and Falconbridge in 1928, they became two of the world's leading producers of nickel. Through the decades that followed, Sudbury's economy went through boom and bust cycles as world demand for nickel fluctuated. Demand was high during the First World War, when Sudbury-mined nickel was used extensively in the manufacturing of artillery in Sheffield, England, it bottomed out when the war ended and rose again in the mid-1920s as peacetime uses for nickel began to develop. The town was reincorporated as a city in 1930; the city recovered from the Great Depression much more than any other city in North America due to increased demand for nickel in the 1930s. Sudbury was the fastest-growing city and one of the wealthiest cities in Canada for most of the decade.
Many of the city's social problems in the Great Depression era were not caused by unemployment or poverty, but due to the difficulty in keeping up with all of the new infrastructure demands created by rapid growth — for example, employed mineworkers sometimes ended up living in boarding houses or makeshift shanty towns, because demand for new housing was rising faster than supply. Between 1936 and 1941, the city was ordered into receivership by the Ontario Municipal Board. Another economic slowdown affected the city in 1937, but the city's fortunes rose again with wartime demands during the Second World War; the Frood Mine alone accounted for 40 percent of all the nickel used in Allied artillery production during the war. After the end of the war, Sudbury was in a good position to supply nickel to the United States government when it decided to stockpile non-Soviet supplies during the Cold War; the open coke beds used in the early to mid 20th century and logging for fuel resulted in a near-total loss of native vegetation in the area.
The terrain was made up of exposed rocky outcrops permanently stained charcoal black by the air pollution from the roasting yards. Acid rain added more staining, in a layer that penetrates up to three inches into the once pink-grey granite; the construction of the Inco Superstack in 1972 dispersed sulphuric acid through the air over a much wider area, reducing the acidity of local precipitation. This enabled the city to begin an environmental recovery program. In the late 1970s, private and public interests combined to establis
Walden was a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, existing from 1973 to 2000. Created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury when regional government was introduced, the town was dissolved when the city of Greater Sudbury was incorporated on January 1, 2001; the name Walden continues to be informally used to designate the area. Walden now constitutes most of Ward 2 on Greater Sudbury City Council, is represented by councillor Michael Vagnini. Walden is part of the federal Sudbury electoral district, represented in the House of Commons of Canada by Paul Lefebvre of the Liberal Party of Canada, the provincial constituency of Nickel Belt, represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario by France Gélinas of the Ontario New Democratic Party. In the Canada 2011 Census, the areas of Lively, Waters and Naughton were grouped for the first time as the population centre of Lively, with a population of 6,922 and a population density of 350.9/km2. No separate population statistics were published for the more rural western portion of Walden, counted only as part of the city's overall census data.
For the Canada 2016 Census, the boundaries of the Lively population centre were revised to exclude Naughton, for a new population of 5,608 and an adjusted 2011 population of 5,584. The town was created by amalgamating the township municipalities of Waters and Drury, Dennison & Graham with the unincorporated geographic townships of Lorne and Dieppe and parts of the unincorporated townships of Hyman, Fairbank, Creighton and Eden; the name "Walden" was chosen as an acronym of Waters and Denison. Other names were suggested, but the final selection process had narrowed the naming options to Walden or Makada, an Ojibwe name for the town's Black Lake. Tom Davies, who became chair of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury, was the first mayor of Walden as a town. Mayors included Charles White, Terry Kett, Alex Fex and Dick Johnstone. Following Davies' retirement as chair of the regional municipality in 1997, Sudbury's city hall was renamed Tom Davies Square in his honour. Prior to the municipal amalgamation, Walden was the largest town by land area in Canada.
The administrative and commercial centre of Walden, Lively was established in the 1950s as a company townsite for employees of INCO's Creighton Mine facilities. It was named for Charles Lively. Prior to the community's establishment, a few family farms were located in the area; the most notable of these, the Anderson Farm, is now a community museum. Lively's postal delivery and telephone exchange include the Mikkola subdivision, located at the eastern terminus of Highway 17's freeway segment, the Waters area. From the intersection of Municipal Roads 24 and 55, Lively refers to the area extending north along MR 24, Mikkola refers to the area extending eastward along MR 55 toward the Highway 17 interchange, Waters refers to the area extending westward along MR 55 toward Naughton. Lively was the first area hit by the Sudbury tornado on August 20, 1970. Lively is home to the Walden area's branch of the Greater Sudbury Public Library. A small residential subdivision just north of Lively, long known as "Dogpatch" rebranded itself as Little Creighton in 2015.
Established as McNaughtonville, Naughton is the birthplace of Boston Bruins legend Art Ross. In 1947, Ross donated the NHL trophy bearing his name awarded to the player scoring the most points during the season. Ross was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945. Naughton is home to historical plaques commemorating Salter's Meridian, a survey line which resulted in the first known evidence of the Sudbury area's massive mineral deposits, the Hudson's Bay Company's historic Whitefish Lake Trading Post. Naughton is home to the Walden Cross Country Ski Club, of which sports the ParaNordic program It was home to the now-defunct Sparks AC, an affiliate of the Finnish-Canadian Amateur Sports Federation. Whitefish is located 14 km west of Lively, near the western terminus of the Highway 17 freeway route. Whitefish's postal delivery and telephone exchange include the community of Den-Lou, named for its location straddling the boundaries of the geographic townships of Dennison and Louise, the Lake Panache area.
The Ontario Ministry of Transportation is undergoing discussion in regards to extending the freeway through Den-Lou. The community was home to the Whitefish Kipinä AC, a youth sports club, an affiliate of the Finnish-Canadian Amateur Sports Federation; the name "Beaver Lake" refers to the westernmost end of the former Town of Walden, along Highway 17 in the geographic township of Lorne, west of Whitefish. Like many communities in Northern Ontario, the modern history of Beaver Lake started with the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the area in the late 1880s. With the discovery of nickel deposits bringing jobs and settlers to the Sudbury area, Finnish immigrants in particular settled in the Beaver Lake area, south of the CPR line between Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie, establishing farming homesteads centred around the lake and producing milk as an export; the milk was shipped by rail to Co-optas and the Sudbury Producers and Consumers Co-Operative Dairy, both local dairy co-operatives started and operated by Finns and supported by the Finnish dairy farm
Capreol is a community in the Ontario city of Greater Sudbury. Situated on the Vermilion River, Capreol is the city's northernmost populated area. From 1918 to 2000, Capreol existed as an independent town. However, on January 1, 2001, the towns and cities of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury were amalgamated into the single-tier city of Greater Sudbury. Capreol formed around the Capreol railway station, a major divisional point on the Canadian National Railway line, its name comes from Frederick Chase Capreol, the original promoter of the Northern Railway of Canada. The first family to move into Capreol was Adolph and Margaret Sawyer, both of whom pioneered in farming. Although the town was an independent community with its own thriving economy, it became a satellite community to the more growing city of Sudbury 40 kilometres to the south. In 1916, there were thirty families in town, by 1919, sixty houses had been built, it was decided that Capreol would build its own YMCA. In 1920, the construction of the YMCA was in progress, but was damaged by fire, to the extent of $40,000.
The YMCA was rebuilt at double the cost and opened in 1921. In 1973, the boundaries of the town of Capreol were expanded to include the nearby villages of Sellwood and Milnet, the town was incorporated into the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. However, despite its status as part of the regional municipality, during this era Statistics Canada did not include the town in Sudbury's Census Metropolitan Area. On January 1, 2001, Capreol and the other cities and towns of the regional municipality were amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury. In the Canada 2011 Census, Capreol was listed for the first time as one of six distinct population centres within the city, with a population of 3,276 and a population density of 537.7 km2. The community is part of Ward 7 on Greater Sudbury City Council, is represented by councillor Mike Jakubo. Capreol is the location of the Northern Ontario Railroad Museum, a heritage attraction located in the former CN and CNoR superintendent's home and Prescott Park, taking up a large portion of the town's downtown core parallel to the railroad tracks.
From 1978 to 1986, Capreol had a Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League team called the Capreol Hawks, who won the league title in 1980-81. The former villages of Milnet and Sellwood, located within the area annexed by Capreol in 1973, are both now ghost towns. Milnet began as a stop along the Canadian Northern Railway. In 1917, after the railway was laid down, the Marshay Lumber Company built a mill and began a 22-year process of cutting trees from the area. Men from logging camps upstream would let the Vermilion River carry the logs to the mill in Milnet. From there the men at the mill would cut the wood on the blade and move it along to the planar mill. An open pit mine now stands. P. Kilgour - 1927-1928 B. M. Robinson - 1931 Willam Gibson - 1932-1935 James E. Coyne - 1936-1943 Willam Gibson - 1944-1946 Alistair MacLean - 1947-1952 William Gibson - 1953-1954 Harold Prescott - 1955-1969 Norman Fawcett - 1969-1973 Harold Prescott - 1973-1975 Frank Mazzuca Sr. - 1975-1997 Dave Kilgour - 1997-2000 Julian T.
Howe - 2000-2003 Jean Robert Beaulé, politician Fred Boimistruck, NHL hockey player Joffre Desilets, NHL hockey player Norman Fawcett, politician Pete Horeck, NHL hockey player Elie Martel, politician Rob MacDonald, mixed martial artist Shelley Martel, politician Frank Mazzuca Sr. politician Mike Miron, lacrosse player Doug Mohns, NHL hockey player Allan Patterson, politician Donald Bartlett Reid, politician Barbara Tyson, actress Capreol Online Capreol's Information Pages Ontario Abandoned Places: Milnet History of Capreol at Greater Sudbury Heritage Museums
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, newspapers, films, prints, microform, CDs, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē: derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque; the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries provide quiet areas for studying, they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources, they are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.
Libraries are becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. As community centers, libraries are becoming important in helping communities mobilize and organize for their rights; the relationship between librarianship and human rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, the homeless, the disabled, LGBTQ community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC; these archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt; the earliest discovered. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet; the colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. The clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. According to legend, mythical philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty.
Evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e.g. medical science, histor
Rayside-Balfour was a town in Ontario, which existed from 1973 to 2000. It was created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury; the town took its name from the townships of Rayside and Balfour, which fell within the boundaries of the new town. Although the Regional Municipality of Sudbury was a important centre of Franco-Ontarian population and culture, Rayside-Balfour was the only town in the regional municipality which had a majority francophone population, it remains as such still today. On January 1, 2001, the town and the Regional Municipality were dissolved and amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury; the Rayside-Balfour area is now divided between Wards 3 and 4 on Greater Sudbury City Council, is represented by councillors Gerry Montpellier and Geoff McCausland. In 2006, there was interest in the deamalgamation of the former town of Rayside-Balfour from the City of Greater Sudbury. However, as any referendum on the matter would require the consent of the provincial government, any such move is not to take place.
In the Canada 2011 Census, the entire main populated core of Rayside-Balfour was counted as part of the population centre of Sudbury, with no separate population statistics published for the Rayside-Balfour area alone. However, the four census tracts corresponding to the former Rayside-Balfour had a total population of 14,557. For the Canada 2016 Census and Azilda were removed from the Sudbury population centre and each aggregated as their own new population centres, with Azilda having a population of 4,663 and Chelmsford having a population of 6,215; the latest population trend is increasing in Azilda, but stable in Chelmsford. Azilda gets its name from Azilda Bélanger, the first female pioneer of the area and wife of Joseph Bélanger, she was well-known in the town for her healing abilities. The town had applied for the name Ste-Azilda until it was realized that there was no saint with that name; the community borders the shores of Whitewater Lake, except for its most western portion. Municipal Road 35, linking Azilda to downtown Sudbury, has been increased from two lanes to four lanes, which has improved the commute for Azilda's workers, who are employed in the city's urban core.
In addition, it shortens the travel time for tourists hoping to visit Sudbury Downs, located in the outskirts of Azilda. There are future plans to complete the widening of Municipal Road 35 between Azilda and Chelmsford, although the start date of the construction has not yet been determined. On September 12, 1906, Azilda was the site of a train wreck. While the population is still growing, there are no industries other than basic agriculture and horticulture. Much of the workforce travels to Sudbury to make their living, oftentimes in the primary industries such as mining. Azilda's telephone and postal service includes the smaller local neighbourhood of Bélangerville. Founded in 1868, Chelmsford started out as an outpost on the Canadian Pacific Railway; some say Chelmsford was named by one the Canadian Pacific Railway engineers, from the United Kingdom. As with many communities in Northern Ontario and fur trapping were the first industries. Having depleted the lumber in the early 1900s, Chelmsford turned to mining and agriculture to support the town's economy.
Errington Mine and Nickel Offset mine were two of the largest mines in Chelmsford and both closed in the 1930s. In 1909, Chelmsford was separately incorporated as a town, it retained this status until 1968. Today, Chelmsford has no major industries and is a residential community. Although there are still some farms producing potatoes, small fruits and corn, it is supported by the mining activities in the nearby communities of Onaping Falls and Copper Cliff. Postal delivery and telephone service in Chelmsford includes the smaller neighbourhoods of Boninville and Larchwood. Chelmsford is host to Fiddle Works, in May. Boninville is located on the border with Valley-East in the Rayside Township; the name was created from two prominent farming families in the area: Rainville. The main intersection is at Rue St-Laurent; the area is known for potato farming. The families are French-Canadian and worship at the Roman Catholic Church Notre-Dame-du-Très-Saint-Rosaire in Blezard Valley. Rayside-Balfour had two mayors prior to the amalgamation of Greater Sudbury: Gilles Pelland and Lionel Lalonde.
As part of the city, it is divided between Ward 3 and Ward 4 on Greater Sudbury City Council, represented by city councillors Gerry Montpellier and Geoff McCausland since October 2018 respectively. The Rayside-Balfour area is in the federal riding of Nickel Belt, represented in the Canadian House of Commons by Marc Serré of the Liberal Party of Canada, in the provincial riding of Nickel Belt, represented by France Gélinas of the Ontario New Democratic Party; as tradition goes, the area itself votes NDP both provincially and federally. There are two francophone elementary schools in Azilda. All anglophone students must attend a school in Sudbury. Chelmsford is home to an English language secondary school: Chelmsford Valley District Composite School, which offers French immersion and English high school, specializing in technology and the trades with the STAR (S
Valley East is a district of the city of Greater Sudbury, Canada. First incorporated in 1973 as a separate town within the Regional Municipality of Sudbury, Valley East was so named because it comprised the eastern half of the Sudbury Basin; the largest of the six towns in the Regional Municipality, it was reincorporated as a city in 1997 due to continued population growth. On January 1, 2001, the city and the Regional Municipality were dissolved and amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury. Before the amalgamation, Valley East was Northern Ontario's sixth largest city, ranking after Timmins and before Kenora. According to the Canadian census of 2001, the last one that recorded Valley East as a separate entity, the city had a population of 22,374. In the Canada 2011 Census, Valley East's main neighbourhoods were grouped as the population centre of Valley East, with a population of 20,676 and a population density of 368.9/km2, although the boundaries of the urban area do not correspond to those of the former municipality.
Valley East is now divided between Wards 5, 6 and 7 on Greater Sudbury City Council, is represented by councillors Robert Kirwan, René Lapierre and Mike Jakubo. Blezard Valley is located in the geographic township of Blezard, was named in the 1880s for Thomas Blezard; the catholic parish is Notre-Dame-du-très-Saint-Rosaire. The township of Hanmer has been in existence since the early 1900s. Notable residents of Val-Caron include NDP MP for Algoma—Manitoulin—Kapuskasing Carol Hughes and former NHL players Ron Duguay and Andrew Brunette. Address and telephone service in Val-Caron includes the smaller neighbourhoods of Flake, Laurentian and McCrea Heights; the community is named for Jesuit priest, Hormidas Caron, the first resident pastor of Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire in Blezard Valley. Address and telephone service in Val-Thérèse includes Elmview; the Valley Meteor is a full colour community newspaper serving Valley East, a portion of Rayside-Balfour. It was founded by John "Jack" Kretzschmar, in October, 2010.
It mails out to all addresses in its service area, with a total circulation of 13,000. The Valley East community facebook group is a public facebook group administered by Councillor Robert Kirwan and his wife Valerie Kirwan; the group provides a forum for people to post about matters of local interest in the Valley Community and throughout the City of Greater Sudbury and it is used by Councillor Kirwan to provide residents with information related to municipal policies and initiatives. Members must be vetted by the administrators before being allowed to post or comment on the group and Councillor Kirwan has attracted criticism for banning individuals who question or criticize his political decisions and activity on the group. Local business are permitted to promote their services through Councillor Kirwan's "Education-Based Marketing Program", where business owners can provide a number of pre-written advertisement posts, or pay Councillor Kirwan to write the posts for them. Councillor Kirwan has relied on the Valley East Group to campaign for election campaigns in 2014 and 2018.
Valley East does not have any television stations of its own. The area is otherwise served by citywide media; the Valley East Community Theatre was founded in 1998 by Ron Babin. The theatre group has staged over 15 productions; the former city has an important francophone community. It houses two francophone secondary schools, as well as two anglophone secondary schools, the second of which opened after the amalgamation into Greater Sudbury. École secondaire catholique l'Horizon École secondaire Hanmer Confederation Secondary School Bishop Alexander Carter Catholic Secondary School Valley East Days is the largest Free Family Festival in Northern Ontario, celebrates it's 43rd year in 2018. This three-day long festival has included big musical acts, such as Trooper & Chilliwack in 2017; the festival attracts over 25,000 patrons. Valley East today History of Valley East at Greater Sudbury Heritage Museums
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h