The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
In human anatomy, the third trochanter is a bony projection present on the proximal femur near the superior border of the gluteal tuberosity. When present, it is oblong, rounded, or conical in shape and sometimes continuous with the gluteal ridge, it occurs bilaterally without significant side to side dimorphism. A structure of minor importance in humans, the incidence of the third trochanter varies from 17–72% between ethnic groups and it is reported as more common in females than in males. Structures analogous to the third trochanter are present in other mammals, including some primates, it is called the third trochanter in reference to the greater and lesser trochanters that are always present on the femur. Its function is to provide an attachment for the ascending tendon of the gluteus maximus muscle, it may function as a reinforcement mechanism for the proximal femoral diaphysis in response to increased ground reaction force and to increase the attachment surface area for the gluteal musculature and thereby providing greater efficiency of contracture.
Mechanical load from the gluteus maximus may, on the other hand, affect the morphology of the proximal femur, similar to how quadriceps determines the size and shape of the tibial tuberosity, thereby the shape of the third trochanter. The third trochanter is associated with short, robust femora, is present and well developed in Neanderthals but absent in higher primates. Studying fossils of Ardipithecus ramidus, Lovejoy et al. 2009 noted that in this species — as well as in Proconsul and Dryopithecus — homologs to the third trochanter and the hypotrochanteric fossa are present while both traits are absent in extant apes. They concluded that the hominid morphotype is primitive and the femoral shape of apes is derived contrary to what was thought. Fourth trochanter
Internal obturator muscle
The internal obturator muscle or obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, the rim of the pubis. It exits the pelvic cavity through the lesser sciatic foramen; the internal obturator is situated within the lesser pelvis, at the back of the hip-joint. It functions to help laterally rotate femur with hip extension and abduct femur with hip flexion, as well as to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum, it arises from the inner surface of the antero-lateral wall of the pelvis, where it surrounds the greater part of the obturator foramen, being attached to the inferior pubic ramus and ischium, at the side to the inner surface of the hip bone below and behind the pelvic brim, reaching from the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen above and behind to the obturator foramen below and in front. It arises from the pelvic surface of the obturator membrane except in the posterior part, from the tendinous arch which completes the canal for the passage of the obturator vessels and nerve, to a slight extent from the obturator fascia, which covers the muscle.
The fibers converge toward the lesser sciatic foramen, end in four or five tendinous bands, which are found on the deep surface of the muscle. The tendon inserts on the greater trochanter of the proximal femur; the internal obturator muscle is innervated by the nerve to internal obturator. This bony surface is covered by smooth cartilage, separated from the tendon by a bursa, presents one or more ridges corresponding with the furrows between the tendinous bands; these bands leave the pelvis through the lesser sciatic foramen and unite into a single flattened tendon, which passes horizontally across the capsule of the hip-joint, after receiving the attachments of the superior and inferior gemellus muscles, is inserted into the forepart of the medial surface of the greater trochanter above the trochanteric fossa. A bursa and elongated in form, is found between the tendon and the capsule of the hip-joint; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0407 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Gluteal Region: Muscles" Anatomy photo:43:st-0603 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: Muscles" Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman perineum at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Int.
J. Morphol. 25:95-98, 2007
Adductor tubercle of femur
The adductor tubercle is a tubercle on the Lower extremity of the femur. The medial lips of the linea aspera ends below at the summit of the medial condyle, in a small tubercle, the adductor tubercle, which affords insertion to the tendon of the vertical fibers of adductor magnus; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 246 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:12:os-0206 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Diagram at gla.ac.uk
The lesser trochanter of the femur is a conical eminence, which varies in size in different subjects. It projects from the lower and back part of the base of the femur neck. From its apex three well-marked borders extend: two of these are above a medial continuous with the lower border of the femur neck a lateral with the intertrochanteric crest the inferior border is continuous with the middle division of the linea asperaThe summit of the trochanter is rough, gives insertion to the tendon of the Psoas major and the Iliacus, it can be involved in an avulsion fracture. Greater trochanter Third trochanter This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 245 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 13:01-11 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Inferior gemellus muscle
The inferior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body. The Gemelli are two small muscular fasciculi, accessories to the tendon of the Obturator internus, received into a groove between them; the Gemellus inferior arises from the upper part of the tuberosity of the ischium below the groove for the Obturator internus tendon. It blends with the lower part of the tendon of the Obturator internus, is inserted with it into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Absent. Like the obturator internus muscle, the gemellus superior and gemellus inferior help to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum. Both muscles help to laterally rotate the extended thigh and abduct the flexed thigh at the hip Superior gemellus muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0401 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The linea aspera is a ridge of roughened surface on the posterior surface of the shaft of the femur, to which are attached muscles and intermuscular septum. Its margins diverge below; the linea aspera is a prominent longitudinal ridge or crest, on the middle third of the bone, presenting a medial and a lateral lip, a narrow rough, intermediate line. It is an important insertion point for the adductors and the lateral and medial intermuscular septa that divides the thigh into three compartments; the tension generated by muscle attached to the bones is responsible for the formation of the ridges. Above, the linea aspera is prolonged by three ridges; the lateral ridge is rough, runs vertically upward to the base of the greater trochanter. It is termed the gluteal tuberosity, gives attachment to part of the gluteus maximus: its upper part is elongated into a roughened crest, on which a more or less well-marked, rounded tubercle, the third trochanter, is developed; the intermediate ridge or pectineal line is continued to the base of the lesser trochanter and gives attachment to the pectineus.
Below, the linea aspera is prolonged into two ridges, enclosing between them a triangular area, the popliteal surface, upon which the popliteal artery rests. Of these two ridges, the lateral is the more prominent, descends to the summit of the lateral condyle; the medial is less marked at its upper part, where it is crossed by the femoral artery. It ends below at the summit of the medial condyle, in a small tubercle, the adductor tubercle, which affords insertion to the tendon of the adductor magnus; the tension generated by muscle attached to the bones is responsible for the formation of the ridges. A number of muscles attach to the linea aspera: From the medial lip of the linea aspera and its prolongations above and below, the vastus medialis originates. From the lateral lip and its upward prolongation, the vastus lateralis takes origin; the adductor magnus is inserted into the linea aspera, to its lateral prolongation above, its medial prolongation below. Between the vastus lateralis and the adductor magnus two muscles are attached: the gluteus maximus inserted above, the short head of the biceps femoris originating below.
Between the adductor magnus and the vastus medialis four muscles are inserted: the iliacus and pectineus above. The linea aspera is perforated a little below its center by the nutrient canal, directed obliquely upward; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 246 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy University of Washington DartmouthAnatomy