A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Faith (George Michael song)
"Faith" is a song written and performed by George Michael, from his 1987 debut solo album of the same name. It held the number one position on Billboard Hot 100 chart for four weeks and, according to Billboard magazine, it was the number one single of the year in the United States in 1988; the song reached number one in Australia and Canada and number two on the UK Singles Chart. In 2001 it placed at number 322 on the Songs of the Century list. Having disbanded Wham! the previous year, there was a keen expectation for Michael's solo career and "Faith" would go on to become one of his most popular and enduring songs, as well as being the most simplistic in its production. It was the second of six singles released from the well-received album; as with the rest of the album, the track was written and produced by Michael. It is claimed that the idea came from producer Dick Leahy's suggestion that Michael write a rock and roll pastiche; the song incorporates a classic rock and roll rhythm. It begins with organ played by Chris Cameron, referencing Wham's song "Freedom", followed by guitar strumming, finger clicking, hand-claps, tambourine and hi-hat.
The song was featured in the film Bitter Moon, directed by Roman Polanski. The official music video for the song was directed by Andy Morahan, it features Michael, with noticeable stubble on his face, wearing a black leather jacket with ‘Rockers Revenge’ and BSA logo, Ray-Ban Aviator sunglasses and a pair of Levi's blue jeans with cowboy boots, playing a guitar near a classic-design Wurlitzer jukebox. Writers Bob Batchelor and Scott Stoddart say the music video positions him as a "masculine sex object", breaking him up into individual body parts such as "stubbled" chin and butt; the music video features parts of two other songs by Michael. The jukebox starts by playing "I Want Your Sex", is interrupted by a pipe organ version of Wham!'s "Freedom" before starting into the song. The song reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and number two on the UK Singles Chart for two weeks in late October and early November 1987, it entered the UK chart at number 10 but was kept off the top spot by "You Win Again" from the Bee Gees.
On the Hot 100 chart, "Faith" rocketed from number 54 to number 37, the week of 31 October 1987, reaching number one on 12 December 1987 and remaining there for four consecutive weeks. Altogether, "Faith" lingered in the top 10 for nine weeks, the top 20 for 11 weeks and the top 40 for 15 weeks. 7": UK / Epic EMU 2 "Faith" – 3:16 "Hand To Mouth" – 4:3612": UK / Epic EMU T2 "Faith" – 3:16 "Faith" – 3:07 "Hand to Mouth" – 4:36 Album version – 3:16 Instrumental – 3:07 Vocals, percussion – George Michael Bass – Deon Estus Guitars – Hugh Burns Cathedral organ – Chris Cameron American rap rock group Limp Bizkit covered the song "Faith" in their live performances, using the cover to attract attention to the band. Word of mouth attendance and energetic live performances in which guitarist Wes Borland appeared in bizarre costumes increased the band's cult following. Audiences, in particular, were attracted to Borland's guitar appearance. Despite the success of the song in Limp Bizkit's live performances, producer Ross Robinson was opposed to recording the cover for their debut album, Three Dollar Bill, Yall$, tried to persuade the band not to play it on the album.
However, the final recording, which incorporated heavier guitar playing and drumming, as well as DJ scratching, impressed Robinson. "I decided to cover ` Faith' for fun. We like to do aggressive versions of cheesy pop hits," lead singer Fred Durst told Billboard. "I didn't expect him to get busted in that bathroom but his misfortune helped us. We couldn't ask for more of a buzz."Peter Berg directed a music video featuring a bizarre wedding monologue for the song in promotion for its appearance in his film Very Bad Things, but Fred Durst was unsatisfied with it and directed a second video which paid tribute to tourmates like Primus, Deftones and Mötley Crüe, who appeared in the video. Borland stated in an interview that George Michael, the writer of the song, hated the cover and "hates us for doing it". Alvin and the Chipmunks covered this song as the opening track to their 1988 album The Chipmunks and The Chipettes: Born to Rock. In this version, they changed the lyric "If I could touch your body" to "If you could be my baby".
The Russian pop duo Smash!! produced a cover of this song on its 2004 album 2Nite and was released as a single. Joel McHale's character Jeff Winger sang a different version of this song on the episode "Intro to Political Science" on the NBC sitcom Community. John Mayer and Keith Urban sang this song on CMT Crossroads; the Tamil language song "Mundhinam Paarthene" from the Indian film Vaaranam Aayiram uses the same background music as "Faith". The British musical comedy film Walking on Sunshine covered the song. Hugh Laurie's character Gregory House sang a brief cover of this song at the beginning of the episode "Wilson" on the Fox medical drama House. Rak-Su arranged their song in The X Factor season 14. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Bitter Sweet Symphony
"Bitter Sweet Symphony" is a song by English alternative rock band the Verve. It is the lead track on Urban Hymns, it is based on a sample it uses from the Andrew Loog Oldham orchestral cover of the Rolling Stones' song "The Last Time", involved some legal controversy surrounding a plagiarism charge instigated by controversial Stones manager Allen Klein. As a result, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards were added to the songwriting credits, the Stones and Klein received 100% royalties. Released in June 1997 by Hut Recordings as the first single from the album, "Bitter Sweet Symphony" reached number two on the UK Singles Chart and stayed in the chart for three months; the song was released in the US as a CD single on 3 March 1998 by Virgin Records America, reaching No. 12 on the Billboard Hot 100,The accompanying music video features lead vocalist Richard Ashcroft walking down a busy London pavement – in Hoxton Street, Hoxton – oblivious to what is going on around and refusing to change his stride or direction throughout.
Considered one of the defining songs of the Britpop era, at the 1998 Brit Awards, "Bitter Sweet Symphony" was nominated for Best British Single. The music video was nominated for Video of the Year, Best Group Video, Best Alternative Video at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards. Acclaimed in music publications, it was named Rolling Stone and NME Single of the Year for 1997. In 1999, the song was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Rock Song. Although the song's lyrics were written by Verve vocalist Richard Ashcroft, its distinctive passage for strings was sampled from the 1965 Andrew Oldham Orchestra symphonic recording of "The Last Time", arranged and written by David Whitaker, inspired by the 1965 Rolling Stones' song of the same title; the Rolling Stones' song was itself inspired by "This May Be the Last Time" from the Staple Singers. The Verve had negotiated a licence to use a six-note sample from the Oldham recording, but former Stones manager Allen Klein claimed that the Verve broke the agreement and used a larger portion.
Despite its original lyrics and string intro on the album version, the music of "Bitter Sweet Symphony" was sampled from the Oldham track, which led to a lawsuit with ABKCO Records, Klein's holding company, settled out of court. The Verve relinquished all of their royalties to Klein, owner of ABKCO Records, whilst songwriting credits were changed to Jagger/Richards/Ashcroft; the Verve bassist Simon Jones said, "We were told it was going to be a 50/50 split, they saw how well the record was doing. They rung up and said we want 100 percent or take it out of the shops, you don't have much choice." After losing the composer credits to the song, Ashcroft commented, "This is the best song Jagger and Richards have written in 20 years", noting it was their biggest UK hit since "Brown Sugar". On Ashcroft's return to touring, the song traditionally ended the set list. Ashcroft reworked the single for VH2 Live for the music channel VH1, stripping the song of its strings. Ashcroft is quoted as saying during the show: "It's interesting stripping that song down and taking away all the strings, just taking it down to the chords and my lyrics and my melody, doing that kinda version it becomes much more bluesy.
Shows that take away the dressing, take away the strings, take away the sample, there's an actual song there."In a 1999 interview with Q magazine, when asked whether he believed the result was fair, Keith Richards replied, "I'm out of whack here, this is serious lawyer shit. If the Verve can write a better song, they can keep the money."In 1999, Andrew Oldham sued for royalties after failing to receive the mechanical royalties he claimed he was owed. After receiving his royalties, Oldham joked that he bought "a pretty presentable watch strap" compared to the watch Jagger and Richards would get with the money. In an interview with Uncut magazine, Oldham stated, "As for Richard Ashcroft, well, I don't know how an artist can be damaged by that experience. Songwriters have learned to call songs their children, he thinks he wrote something, he didn't. I hope, it takes a while." "This was the most successful track I've done," noted producer Youth. "I think Richard had cut a version with John Leckie but, by the time I came on board, he didn't want to do the song.
I persuaded him to have a go at cutting a version but at first he wasn't into it. It was. Towards the end, Richard wanted to chuck all the album away and start again. What was my reaction? Horror. Sheer horror. All I could say was, I think you should reconsider." The music video is a homage to the single continuous shot docu-fiction music video for Massive Attack's "Unfinished Sympathy" and focuses on Ashcroft singing while walking down a busy London pavement, without changing his stride or direction throughout, except for one instance where he is forced to stop for a moving car and a reflection is seen of him standing stationary in the car's tinted window. He narrowly avoids being hit by a car as he starts his walk bumping into passers-by, he jumps on top of the bonnet of another vehicle stopped in his path. At the end of the video, the rest of the Verve join Ashcroft, the final shot sees them walking down the street into the distance; this leads into the beginning of the video for "
Home Sweet Home (Mötley Crüe song)
"Home Sweet Home" is a song by American heavy metal band Mötley Crüe. It was released in 1985 on the album Theatre of Pain, again in 1991 for the Decade of Decadence 81-91 compilation album, it has been recorded as a cover version by several artists, most notably country singer Carrie Underwood, who released her version as a single in 2009. Along with "Wild Side", "Home Sweet Home" is one of the rare Mötley Crüe hits to have Vince Neil credited with the songwriting, though he did play a part in writing many of their non-hit songs. Released on the band's 1985 album, Theatre of Pain, the song was accompanied by a music video which documented the band's undertakings over the course of one or several concerts; some of the original video was shot in Houston, Texas live at The Summit during the 1985 Theatre of Pain tour. They performed the song twice that night to get more video footage. "Home Sweet Home" was released & remixed twice: once for the original promotion for the single in 1985. A radio only promo 12" with the remix was sent to stations, but not released commercially until the 1988 Japan-only EP Raw Tracks.
The song had some instruments overdubbed. Now called "Home Sweet Home'91", it was released as a single with a new video and included on the Decade of Decadence compilation; the song is referred to as a power ballad, its success was a prelude to similar marketing formula for other hair bands in the late 1980s. The song ranks number 12 on VH1's chart of the greatest power ballads of all time. Drummer Tommy Lee re-recorded the song for Season 4 of the TV series Californication, has a cameo in "Lights, Asshole" performing the song on piano in a bar at the end of the episode; the third episode in the show's fourth season was named after this song. The original release of "Home Sweet Home" charted at number 89 on the Billboard Hot 100, "Home Sweet Home'91" peaked at number 37 on the same chart in 1992. To date, "Home Sweet Home'91" is the last Mötley Crüe song to chart in the American Billboard Top 40; the video depicts each band member receiving a phone call home, replying "I'm on my way!", Vince Neil on a beach, Mick Mars on a throne in a haunted house, Nikki Sixx at a bar, Tommy Lee at a wild party.
The piano intro begins. The rest of the video shows the band pre-concert and performing on stage, shot at The Summit in Houston and Reunion Arena in Dallas, Texas; the video is notable for its long stay on top of the MTV daily request chart, lasting over three months until MTV invoked the unwritten "Crue Rule", dropping videos from eligibility on their request line after 30 days. The end of the video shows the same tour bus from the beginning with the words "Rockin'N' Rollin". A parody of this video was used for the end credits of the 2010 film Hot Tub Time Machine, with Rob Corddry's character Lou "Violator" Dorchen disguised as Vince Neil and the band's name known as "Mötley Lüe", it reuses the same clips from the original video. "Home Sweet Home" "Red Hot" The song was re-recorded by Linkin Park vocalist Chester Bennington on co-lead vocals along with Mötley Crüe in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. The music video for the song shows videos of Katrina rescues, along with a performance from the band.
30 Foot Fall included a cover version of the song as a bonus track on their album Ever Revolving, Never Evolving. It was recorded by Limp Bizkit for their Greatest Hitz album, is joined by a remake of "Bitter Sweet Symphony" by The Verve, it is referred to as "Bittersweet Home." The band Radio Cult released a cover of the song on their album "Retroactive" in 2007. Rob Corddry did a cover version for Hot Tub Time Machine. Tommy Lee performed the song on piano when he guest starred as a singer on the TV series Californication at the end of the episode of "Lights, Asshole"; this version appears on the show's Season 4 soundtrack. In 2013, former American Idol contestant Todrick Hall made a version of the song in a medley video in tribute to The Wizard of Oz. Vince Neil – lead vocals Mick Mars – guitar Nikki Sixx – bass and backing vocals. Tommy Lee – drums & piano Country singer Carrie Underwood recorded a cover version in 2009 as the contestant farewell song for the eighth season of American Idol.
Underwood performed. The song was included on the deluxe edition of her third studio album Play On, released in Australia and New Zealand. United States: 288,000 Justin Moore covered the song as a duet with Vince Neil on the 2014 album Nashville Outlaws: A Tribute to Mötley Crüe, it was sent to country radio on July 8, 2014. On the Country Airplay chart dated for July 19, 2014, Moore's version was the highest-debuting song of the week, entering at number 39; the song has sold 112,000 copies in the U. S. as of September 2014. Mötley Crüe make a cameo appearance on the song's music video
Significant Other is the second studio album by American rap rock band Limp Bizkit, released on June 22, 1999 by Flip and Interscope Records. It saw the band expanding their sound from that of their 1997 debut Three Dollar Bill, Yall to incorporate further metal and hip hop influences. During the band's live performance at Woodstock 1999, violence erupted during the song "Break Stuff". Despite this, Significant Other received high commercial sales, peaking at number one on the US Billboard 200. Critical reception was favorable, with many responding well to its unique sound and the band's performance, considered to be an improvement over the band's debut; the album has sold at least 16 million copies worldwide. Following the radio success of the band's cover of George Michael's "Faith", the band was determined to record the follow-up to their first album in order to show that they weren't a "Korn ripoff" or a cover band. Producer Terry Date, known for working with Pantera, White Zombie and Deftones, was chosen by Limp Bizkit to produce Significant Other.
Guitarist Wes Borland stated of Date's production, "he doesn't get overly involved at the'music' end of things. He's a producer who fools with sonically makes everything perfect, he gets sounds that translate well on tape and pretty much captures what we do, perfectly." The band began recording after the conclusion of the Family Values Tour, despite the insistence of Interscope Records that the band take a break after it. An early version of "I'm Broke" was recorded for Three Dollar Bill, Yall$, but was left off the album because of how different the song sounded from the rest of that album's material; the melody for "Trust?" Originated from a melody played in rough form in early 1998, during the Ladies Night in Cambodia tour. In response to claims that the lyrics of Three Dollar Bill, Yall$ were misogynistic, Durst toned down his lyrical content on this album, which he described as being more lyrically mature. Fred Durst's breakup with his girlfriend inspired the songs "Nookie" and "Re-Arranged".
The band allowed Durst and DJ Lethal to explore their hip hop influences by recording with Method Man. DJ Premier of Gang Starr was brought in to produce the collaboration; the band wanted to record "a track, straight hip-hop", according to Borland. The song was titled "Shut the Fuck Up", but was retitled "N 2 Gether Now" for marketing purposes. Durst recorded a song with Eminem, "Turn Me Loose", left off the album. Durst recorded a song with System of a Down's vocalist Serj Tankian named "Don't Go Off Wandering". Serj's vocals only appeared on the Demo version of the song where he sang the Bridge and Ending Chorus but his vocals don't appear on the album version of the song; the band collaborated with Korn vocalist Jonathan Davis and Scott Weiland of Stone Temple Pilots on "Nobody Like You". Weiland would visit NRG studios and help with the recording, vocally coaching Durst. Staind singer Aaron Lewis provided backup vocals on the song "No Sex", while Scott Borland, Wes' brother, played keyboards on "Just Like This", "Nookie", "Re-Arranged", "I'm Broke", "9 Teen 90 Nine" and "A Lesson Learned".
Describing the album's music, Allmusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine said that it contains "flourishes of neo-psychedelia on pummeling metal numbers and there are swirls of strings crooning, at the most unexpected background." While the band was opposed to solos, they allowed John Otto to perform an extended drum solo in the middle of "Nobody Like You". Scott Borland wrote string melodies for "Don't Go Off Wandering"; the band recorded interludes with Primus bass player and singer Les Claypool and MTV VJ Matt Pinfield. Claypool stated, "they wanted me to write some sort of intro for the record. I got stoned and got in front of the mic and started babbling and they ended up not using the intro and using that instead." Significant Other received favorable reviews from critics. Entertainment Weekly reviewer David Browne wrote, "Significant Other isn't modern rock. Robert Christgau gave the album an honorable mention and noted the songs "Just Like This" and "N 2 Gether Now" as highlights of the album, writing, "Give their image credit for having a sound."
AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine called the album "considerably more ambitious and multi-dimensional" than the band's previous album, Three Dollar Bill, Yall$. In reviews of the album, About.com's Tim Grierson gave the album 4 out of 5 stars, calling it "A buzz saw of bad attitude, metal guitar and white-boy rapping, Limp Bizkit's breakthrough album, Significant Other, is unapologetically rude and immature. But more it rocks very hard." Rolling Stone and its album guide awarded the album three and a half out of five stars. A less favorable notice came from author Martin Charles Strong, who gave the album 5 out of 10 stars in his book The Essential Rock Discography. In 2014, Revolver magazine said Significant Other was "one of the great guilty-pleasure hard-rock albums of all time", listed it as one of ten essential nu metal albums "you need to own." Significant Other climbed to No. 1 on the Billboard 200, selling 643,874 copies in its first week of release. In its second week of release, the album sold an additional 335,000 copies.
The band promoted the album by appearing at Woodstock 1999 and headlining the year's Family Values Tour. Fred Durst directed music videos for the songs "Re-Arranged" and "N 2 Gether Now". Violent action sprang up during and after Limp Bizkit's performance at Woodstock'99, including fans tearing plywood from the walls during a performance of the song "Break Stuff". Several sexual assault
The seven-string guitar adds one additional string to the more common six-string guitar used to extend the bass range or to extend the treble range. The additional string is added in one of two different ways: by increasing the width of the fingerboard such that the additional string may be fretted by the left hand. In the latter case, the extra bass string lies next to the existing bass strings, but free of the fingerboard in similar fashion as the archlute and theorbo; such unfrettable bass strings were known as diapasons or bourdons. Some types of seven-string guitars are specific to certain cultures such as the Russian and Brazilian guitars; the history of the seven-string guitar stretches back more than 230 years. During the Renaissance period, the European guitar had four courses, each strung with two gut strings, the pair of strings within each course tuned in unison. By the mid-Baroque period it more had five courses and used a variety of tunings, some of them re-entrant. By the early eighteenth century six double-strung courses had become common.
Up to this point most stringed instruments were strung with gut strings. Around 1800 quality metal-wire strings became available; these new strings were more durable, remained in tune better, and—most importantly—produced a louder sound than the traditional gut strings. As use of metal strings became more adopted, their greater volume output impelled luthiers to experiment more with single-strung courses on their instruments, in a short time the modern practice of using six single strings became first common, standard; the changing number of courses in these early guitars may illustrate an ongoing desire on behalf of players to increase the range of the instrument, a development similar to that gone through by the lute in earlier days. It is that all of these factors contributed to the development of the seven-string guitar, around since; the seven-string guitar never became as accepted in Europe as the six-string instrument, but a number of composers did produce a significant body of work for the seven string.
French guitarist Napoleon Coste composed works with a seven-string guitar in mind. The Italian guitarist Mario Maccaferri was a celebrated advocate of bass strings and composed for the instrument. By contrast, in Russia the seven-string guitar became popular, entire schools of playing were developed around its use. Despite some brief setbacks in the mid-20th century, during which six-string instruments rose in prominence, the seven-string Russian guitar has remained popular in Russia to this day. In the New World, a guitarra séptima or guitarra sétima—with fourteen strings, strung in seven double courses—has been known in Mexico since at least 1776; these instruments may still be found in use in Mexico, although the modern six-string instrument has become far more common. Seven-string instruments retain current popularity in parts of South America, notably Brazil, where they became an important instrument in the choro music of the 19th century, experiencing a revival; the Russian guitar or gypsy guitar is a seven-string acoustic guitar tuned to the open G tuning, which arrived or was developed early in the 19th century in Russia as a development of the cittern, the kobza and the torban.
It is known in Russia as the semistrunnaya affectionately as the semistrunka. Its invention was popularized by Andrei Sychra, who wrote a method for the guitar, as well as over one thousand compositions, seventy-five of which were republished in the 1840s by Stellovsky, again in the 1880s by Gutheil; some of these were published again in the Soviet Union in 1926. Andrei Sychra in his notation, marks with a number between 1 and 4 where to fret the 7th string with the thumb. Another way that Andrei Sychra took advantage of this guitar's innovation was through natural harmonics; because of the three strings tuned to D, harmonics could be played in synchronization. Early instruments used gut, silk strings. In the 20th century these instruments used nylon strings, like western classical guitars, though by the last third of the century both nylon-strung "classical" and metal-strung "gypsy" versions of the instrument were both plentiful. Whatever material was used for stringing, the Russian guitar is traditionally played without a pick, using fingers for either strumming or picking.
The origins of the 7 string most came from the English "guittar" popular in the late 18th century. The added string created an extra dimension for bass notes as well as opening up chord possibilities; the seventh string is likely to have been influenced by the harp as it is meant to played arpeggiated. It happens that the open D tuning was a perfect fourth lower than the six string tuning; the open D string tuning of this guitar was convenient for many Russian folk songs and dances that were within the major key. Along with the added interval possibilities came new techniques not seen with 6th string guitars; the Russian version of the seven-string guitar has been used by professionals, because of its great flexibility and its sound, but has been popular with amateurs for accompaniment due to the relative simplicity of some basic chords and the ease of playing alternating bass lines. While popular in Russia and Ukraine, this type of guitar has only been generating some interest outside
Results May Vary
Results May Vary is the fourth studio album by American rap rock band Limp Bizkit, released on September 23, 2003 by Flip and Interscope Records. It was the band's only release under the sole-leadership of vocalist Fred Durst after the temporary departure of guitarist Wes Borland, who left in 2001. Snot guitarist Mike Smith was brought in to replace Borland, although the band's falling-out with Smith led to his departure, with much of the material recorded with him being discarded from the final release. Durst and a number of guests ended up handling the majority of the album's guitar work; the album differed from Limp Bizkit's established sound up until that point. It featured less rapping and more introspective lyrics related to heartbreak and self-pity. An alleged affair with Britney Spears by Durst during collaborating sessions for her 2003 album In the Zone and resulting rejection by Spears was cited as an inspiration for some of the album's material as well. To promote the album, music videos featuring high-profile actors were created for "Eat You Alive" and a cover of The Who's "Behind Blue Eyes".
Upon its release, Results May Vary peaked at number 3 on the US Billboard 200, selling at least 325,000 copies in its first week of sales. While the album still went platinum, both the debut and lifetime sales were still well below prior albums Significant Other and Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water. Results May Vary sold at least 1.3 million copies in the United States, received negative critical reception as well. Results May Vary was Limp Bizkit's last studio album released before they went on hiatus for three years, starting from 2006 to 2009. In October 2001, Fred Durst posted on the band's website: "Limp Bizkit and Wes Borland have amicably decided to part ways. Both Limp Bizkit and Borland will continue to pursue their respective musical careers. Both wish each other the best of luck in all future endeavors." Borland explained. If I was to continue, it would have been about the money and not about the true music, I don't want to lie to myself, or to them or to fans of Limp Bizkit."According to Durst, Limp Bizkit would "comb the world for the illest guitar player known to man" to replace Borland.
After holding a nationwide audition for a new guitarist, "Put Your Guitar Where Your Mouth Is", the band recorded with Snot guitarist Mike Smith. "Mike brought in a breath of fresh air," Durst said. "Creatively, it fit like a glove. It made life more positive, it made. The positive effect he had on me just made the whole experience of Limp Bizkit feel like a brand-new entity." Before Smith replaced Borland, Durst played a great deal of guitar. Jon Wiederhorn of MTV wrote, "Limp Bizkit jammed with four finalists after their much-publicized guitarist audition tour, but now it looks like Fred Durst might be taking a cue from his Puddle of Mudd pal Wes Scantlin and handling both vocal and guitar duties himself."After a falling-out with Smith, Durst told a fansite: "We are the type of people that stay true to our family and our instincts and at any moment will act on intuition as a whole. Mike wasn't the guy. We had fun playing with him but always knew, in the back of our minds, that he wasn't where we needed him to be mentally."
Limp Bizkit scrapped many of Smith's sessions, recording another album, scrapped. Before the introduction of Results May Vary's track listing, Page Hamilton of Helmet and Rivers Cuomo of Weezer recorded songs with Limp Bizkit for the album; the contributions of all three were omitted from the finished album. Bubba Sparxxx joined Durst in a Los Angeles studio, but his contributions did not make the album. Durst wrote over the band's bassist, Sam Rivers. During production of Results May Vary, Durst listened to the Cure, Patsy Cline, Mazzy Star and classical music. During production, the album's title changed from Bipolar to Panty Sniffer, to Results May Vary. Other working titles were Less Is More, Fetus More and The Search for Teddy Swoes; the finished product assembled songs from a number of sessions. On August 20, 2003, Fred Durst posted on the Limp Bizkit website: "The album title is Results May Vary. Like a prescription drug, each persons reaction to the ingredients will be different." Results May Vary was recorded under the leadership of Durst, who influenced a direction differing from Limp Bizkit's established sound.
Although the album features elements of nu metal, rap metal and rap rock, it is noted for music experimenting with other genres: psychedelia, alternative rock, hard rock, jazz and funk. Results May Vary, more melodic than previous Limp Bizkit albums, has been compared to John Mayer, Bon Jovi, Linkin Park and Jane's Addiction. With a change in the band's sound, Results May Vary has less rapping, more singing and more melody than previous Limp Bizkit albums; the Observer called the album Limp Bizkit's "safest, most pedestrian-sounding record yet", Joe D'Angelo of MTV described the album as the band's "most personal album by far". According to D'Angelo, a third of the album's content shows Durst "