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Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, between May 1919 and October 1922. The Greek campaign was launched because the western Allies British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire defeated in World War I, as Anatolia had been part of Ancient Greece and the Byzantine Empire before the Ottomans captured the area; the armed conflict started when the Greek forces landed in Smyrna, on 15 May 1919. They advanced inland and took control of the western and northwestern part of Anatolia, including the cities of Manisa, Balıkesir, Aydın, Kütahya and Eskişehir, their advance was checked by Turkish forces at the Battle of Sakarya in 1921. The Greek front collapsed with the Turkish counter-attack in August 1922, the war ended with the recapture of Smyrna by Turkish forces and the great fire of Smyrna; as a result, the Greek government accepted the demands of the Turkish National Movement and returned to its pre-war borders, thus leaving East Thrace and Western Anatolia to Turkey.

The Allies abandoned the Treaty of Sèvres to negotiate a new treaty at Lausanne with the Turkish National Movement. The Treaty of Lausanne recognized the independence of the Republic of Turkey and its sovereignty over Asia Minor and Eastern Thrace; the Greek and Turkish governments agreed to engage in a population exchange. The geopolitical context of this conflict is linked to the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, a direct consequence of World War I and involvement of the Ottomans in the Middle Eastern theatre; the Greeks received an order to land in Smyrna by the Triple Entente as part of the partition. During this war, the Ottoman government collapsed and the Ottoman Empire was divided amongst the victorious Entente powers with the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920. There were a number of secret agreements regarding the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I; the Triple Entente had made contradictory promises about post-war arrangements concerning Greek hopes in Asia Minor.

The western Allies British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire if Greece entered the war on the Allied side. These included Eastern Thrace, the islands of Imbros and Tenedos, parts of western Anatolia around the city of Smyrna, which contained sizable ethnic Greek populations; the Italian and Anglo-French repudiation of the Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne signed on April 26, 1917, which settled the "Middle Eastern interest" of Italy, was overridden with the Greek occupation, as Smyrna was part of the territory promised to Italy. Before the occupation the Italian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, angry about the possibility of the Greek occupation of Western Anatolia, left the conference and did not return to Paris until May 5; the absence of the Italian delegation from the Conference ended up facilitating Lloyd George's efforts to persuade France and the United States to support Greece and prevent Italian operations in Western Anatolia.

According to some historians, it was the Greek occupation of Smyrna that created the Turkish National movement. Arnold J. Toynbee argues: "The war between Turkey and Greece which burst out at this time was a defensive war for safeguarding of the Turkish homelands in Anatolia, it was a result of the Allied policy of imperialism operating in a foreign state, the military resources and powers of which were under-estimated. According to others, the landing of the Greek troops in Smyrna was part of Eleftherios Venizelos's plan, inspired by the Megali Idea, to liberate the large Greek populations in the Asia Minor. Prior to the Great Fire of Smyrna, Smyrna had a bigger Greek population than the Greek capital, Athens. Athens, before the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, had a population of 473,000, while Smyrna, according to Ottoman sources, in 1910, had a Greek population exceeding 629,000. One of the reasons proposed by the Greek government for launching the Asia Minor expedition was that there was a sizeable Greek-speaking Orthodox Christian population inhabiting Anatolia that needed protection.

Greeks had lived in Asia Minor since antiquity, before the outbreak of World War I, up to 2.5 million Greeks lived in the Ottoman Empire. The suggestion that the Greeks constituted the majority of the population in the lands claimed by Greece has been contested by a number of historians. Cedric James Lowe and Michael L. Dockrill argued that Greek claims about Smyrna were at best debatable, since Greeks constituted a bare majority, more a large minority in the Smyrna Vilayet, "which lay in an overwhelmingly Turkish Anatolia." Precise demographics are further obscured by the Ottoman policy of dividing the population according to religion rather than descent, language, or self-identification. On the other hand, contemporaneous British and American statistics support the point that the Greek element was the most numerous in the region of Smyrna, counting 375,000, while Muslims were 325,000. Greek Prime Minister Venizelos stated to a British newspaper that "Greece is not making war against Islam, but against the anachronistic Ottoman Government, its corrupt and bloody administration, with a view to expelling it from those territories where the majority of the population consists of

Worrorran languages

The Worrorran languages are a small family of Australian Aboriginal languages spoken in northern Western Australia. The Worrorran languages fall into three dialect clusters: Wunambal Ungarinyin WorrorraIn addition, Gulunggulu is unattested but a Worrorran lect. There has been debate over whether the Worrorran languages are demonstrably related to one another, or constitute a geographical language group. Dixon considers them to be language isolates with no demonstrable relationship other than that of a Sprachbund. However, more recent literature differs from Dixon: Rumsey and McGregor demonstrate the cohesiveness of the family and its reconstructibility, and. Dixon, R. M. W.. Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McGregor and Rumsey. Worrorran Revisited: The Case for Genetic Relations Among Languages of the Northern Kimberley Region of Western Australia. Pacific Linguistics

Julia Dalavia

Julia Dalavia is a Brazilian actress. Dalavia was born in Rio de Janeiro on February 9, 1998, daughter of Márcia Dalavia, she studied at O Tablado and took Video and Film courses with Cybele Santa Cruz, Theatre at Humaita Culture House, with Daniela Pessoa and supervision of Pedro Vasconcelos. She debuted in the play A Fuga das Galinhas. In the same year, made her first film, O Cavaleiro Didi e a Princesa Lili, of Marcus Figueiredo. On television, she made her first role in Xuxa e as Noviças of Rede Globo in 2008. In 2012, debuted in national cinemas interpreting Stephane, the Tété in Até que a Sorte nos Separe. However, she became known in 2014 when interpreting Helena, character in the first phase of the novel Em Família of Manoel Carlos. In 2014, she participated in the cast of the soap opera Boogie Oogie