Prokopios Pavlopoulos, GColIH shortened to Prokopis, is the current President of Greece, in office since 2015. A lawyer, university professor and politician, he was Minister for the Interior from 2004 to 2009. On 18 February 2015, Pavlopoulos was elected by the Hellenic Parliament as President of Greece, with 233 votes in favour. Prokopis Pavlopoulos was born in Kalamata to high school principal and classics teacher Vasilios Pavlopoulos and grew up in the same city. After finishing school in his home town, he entered the Law School of the University of Athens in 1968. In 1975, on a government scholarship, he received his DEA from the Paris Panthéon-Assas University, followed by his PhD in 1977 on Public Law, he returned to Greece to serve his military service in the Hellenic Army. He was elected Lecturer at the University of Athens in 1980, he was promoted to Reader in 1981. In 1983 he became Assistant Professor and he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1986. In 1989, he was elected Professor of Administrative Law.
In 1986, Pavlopoulos was an adjunct faculty member at the Panthéon-Assas University. Pavlopoulos was secretary to the first President of the metapolitefsi, Michail Stasinopoulos, in 1974. From November 1989 to April 1990, he served as alternate Minister for the Presidency and government spokesman in the ecumenical government headed by Xenophon Zolotas, he served as head of the legal office to President Konstantinos Karamanlis from 1990 to 1995, political advisor to Miltiadis Evert chairman of New Democracy, from September 1995. He was elected as a State MP for the New Democracy party in the 1996 parliamentary election, in the 2000 parliamentary election he was elected as an MP for the Athens A constituency, he was appointed as New Democracy's Press and Information Spokesman by Evert on 20 April 1996. Pavlopoulos was successively re-elected for Athens A in the 2000, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 elections. Following the March 2004 legislative election, won by New Democracy, Pavlopoulos became Minister for the Interior, Public Administration and Decentralisation in the new government of the Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis on 10 March 2004.
In the government appointed following New Democracy's victory in the September 2007 parliamentary election, the Interior Ministry was merged with the Ministry of Public Order, Pavlopoulous became Minister of the Interior and Public Order. He is a member of the Central Committee of New Democracy, on 29 July 2004 he was designated as a member of the party's Political Council as one of seven MP candidates. On 17 February, Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras nominated Pavlopoulos as the ruling SYRIZA–ANEL coalition's candidate for the post of President of Greece in the presidential election that had begun in December 2014. On 18 February 2015, backed by SYRIZA, ANEL and his own New Democracy party, Pavlopoulos was elected by the Greek Parliament as the new President of Greece with 233 votes in favour, he succeeded Karolos Papoulias after the end of the latter's term on 13 March 2015. Pavlopoulos is married to Vlassia Pavlopoulou-Peltsemi and together they have two daughters and Zoe, one son, Vasilis.
David Davis, son of the Katherine, Crown Princess of Yugoslavia, are Godchildren of President Prokopis Pavlopoulos. Grand Master and Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer - 13 March 2015 Grand Master of the Order of Honour Grand Master of the Order of the Phoenix Grand Master of the Order of BeneficencePavlopoulos was awarded the following foreign order: Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honour - 22 October 2015 Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic - 23 November 2015 Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry - 27 January 2017 Knight of the Order of the White Eagle - 18 November 2017 Media related to Prokopis Pavlopoulos at Wikimedia Commons Terms of office of Prokopis Pavlopoulos at the Hellenic Parliament
Second Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras
The Second Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras was sworn in on 23 September 2015, following the Greek legislative election in September 2015. Alexis Tsipras, leader of Syriza, was sworn in as Prime Minister of Greece on 21 September, having agreed to re-form the coalition with Panos Kammenos and the Independent Greeks. On 16 June 2018 the Hellenic Parliament rejected motion of no confidence against the government with a 127-153 vote; the First Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras was formed following the legislative election in January 2015, was a coalition of Syriza and the Independent Greeks. Most notably, the government had to deal with the Greek government-debt crisis, but was responsible for the early July bailout referendum. Throughout the duration of their term, their main responsibility was re-negotiating the terms of the third bailout package. During the vote on the third bailout package in the Hellenic Parliament, a number of Syriza MPs voted against the package resulting in the government losing its majority.
For this reason and the government resigned on 20 August and called for a snap election to take place on 20 September. Prokopis Pavlopoulos, the President of Greece had to allow for all the opposition parties to attempt to form a government of their own, but none of them had sufficient numbers of MPs. Subsequently, a caretaker cabinet led by Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou was formed on 27 August to lead the country into the election. During the election campaign period, opinion polls had suggested that Syriza and New Democracy, led by Vangelis Meimarakis, were neck and neck, with some polls showing New Democracy ahead and others showing Syriza ahead; the exit polls showed that Syriza was on 30-34%, New Democracy was on 28.5-32.5%. At 12:00 GMT on 21 September, Tsipras met with Panos Kammenos, his former coalition partner, at the Syriza party HQ in Athens. At the meeting, they discussed the make-up of the new cabinet. Alternate Ministers are directly assigned special responsibilities and powers by the prime minister, including: full parliamentary powers and, in conjunction with the minister, the legislative initiative the right to issue individual and normative acts, to propose individual and normative decreesFull ministers however retain: the identification of ministerial policy in the cabinet the representation in bodies of the European Union the appointment of administrative agencies, public services and personnelDeputy ministers are assigned with responsibilities and powers by the prime minister and the full minister they report to.
Bold denotes full ministers attending the weekly cabinet council.a Deputy ministers are not members of the cabinet but may attend cabinet meetings. References
Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament
The Speaker, properly the President of the Hellenic Parliament. The president's term coincides with the term of the assembly, he or she is chosen by a vote during the opening session, after each legislative election. Following is a list of Speakers of the Hellenic Parliament or other national legislative bodies such as the Greek Senate, from the time of the Greek War of Independence till present; the official order of precedence ranks the Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament in the 3rd position, after the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The current Speaker is Nikos Voutsis of Syriza. According to the Constitution of Greece, in the event of a temporary absence of the President of the Hellenic Republic on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the speaker of the parliament serves as acting president, exercises the powers of the state president until the president resumes his functions, in the event that the presidency falls vacant as a result of death or resignation or for any other reason, until the election of a new president.
This includes the presidents of the various Greek National Assemblies and the Legislative Corps during the Greek War of Independence. Note: all dates are Old Style This includes the presidents of the National Assemblies and the various legislative bodies under Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias and his successors. Note: all dates are Old StylePresidents of the National Assemblies and the Parliament Presidents of the Senate When King Otto arrived in Greece, he was still a minor, until 1835 the country was governed by a Regency Council; the regents ignored the so-called "Hegemonic Constitution" voted by the Fifth National Assembly, when Otto assumed full powers, he ruled as an absolute monarch. The only "parliamentary" body was the 20-member Council of State, but its role was purely consultative and it was controlled by the King; the 3 September 1843 Revolution forced Otto to grant a constitution, promulgated by the "3rd of September" National Assembly. The new constitution provided for a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament composed of the Senate and the Parliament.
The Parliament was to have no less than 80 members with a three-year tenure. Note: all dates are Old Style The Senate had a minimum of 27 members and could reach 39. Senators were named by the King and served for life; as a monarchical instrument, it was abolished after 1862. Note: all dates are Old Style After the ousting of King Otto, elections were held to form the Second National Assembly, which ran the country until the arrival of King George I in October 1863; the Assembly thereafter promulgated the Constitution of 1864 and dissolved itself on 16 November 1864. The new constitution was liberal, established the principle of popular sovereignty and defined the country's new form of government as a Constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy, but retained considerable executive powers for the king; the Senate was abolished, a unicameral parliament of 181 members with a four-year term was proclaiemd as the country's sole legislative body. The first decade was marked by frequent changes of government due to the king's interference.
A landmark was the adoption of the "dedilomeni principle", championed by Charilaos Trikoupis, in 1875, which forced the king to appoint only governments that commanded a parliamentary majority and had the "declared confidence of the parliament". The 1880s and 1890s were marked by political instability; the Goudi coup of 1909 resulted in the arrival of Eleftherios Venizelos and the August 1910 elections for a Revisoniary Parliament. New elections for a new Revisoniary Parliament were held in November, the Constitution of 1911 was promulgated in June 1911. Political upheaval in the form of the National Schism dominated Greek politics from 1915 on, resulting in the Asia Minor Disaster and the abolition of the monarchy in 1924. Note: all dates are Old Style The Fourth National Assembly, resulting from the December 1923 elections, declared the abolition of the monarchy and constituted itself as the Fourth Constitutional Assembly on 25 March 1924, it was abolished on 30 September 1925 after the coup d'état led by Theodoros Pangalos on 26 June 1925, the first regular parliament of the Second Hellenic Republic came about only after Pangalos' fall, with the 1926 elections.
The new parliament voted the Constitution of 1927, which re-established the Senate, for which the first elections were held in 1929. This includes the post-World War II period up to the establishment of the Greek military junta of 1967–1974; the fall of the junta brought about a major regime change, which included the abolition of the monarchy by referendum. The strong two-party system of PASOK and New Democracy made the parliamentary life of the Third Hellenic Republic the most regular in Greek political history, with the exception of the 1989–90 political crisis. After 2011, the prevailing political system was shattered through the effects of the prolonged Greek debt crisis, leading to the marginalization of PASOK and the election, for the first time, of a left-wing party, the Coalition of the Radical Left, to power in the January 2015 elections. History of modern Greece Politics of Greece Πρόεδροι της Βουλής και των Εθνοσυνελεύσεων, 1821–2008. Hellenic Parliament Foundation for Parliamentarism and Democracy.
2009. ISBN 978-960-6757-16-7
The Hellenic Parliament is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens. The Parliament is the supreme democratic institution that represents the citizens through an elected body of Members of Parliament, it is a unicameral legislature of 300 members, elected for a four-year term. During 1844–63 and 1927–35 the parliament was bicameral with an upper house, the Senate, a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, which retained the name Vouli. Several important Greek statesmen have served as Speakers of the Hellenic Parliament; the first national parliament of the independent Greek state was established in 1843, after the September 3rd Revolution, which forced King Otto to grant a constitution. The Constitution of 1844 established a constitutional monarchy under the decisive power of the monarch, who exercised legislative power jointly with the elected House of Representatives and the appointed Senate, it established the Ministers' accountability vis-à-vis the acts of the monarch, appointing and suspending them.
In October 1862 a rising wave of discontent led the people and the military to rebel again against King Otto and oust him along with the Wittelsbach dynasty. The revolt marked the end of constitutional monarchy and the beginning of a crowned democracy with George Christian Wilhelm of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Glücksburg dynasty as monarch; the Constitution of 1864 created a single-chamber Parliament, elected for a four-year term, abolished the Senate. Moreover, the King preserved the right to convoke ordinary and extraordinary parliamentary sessions, dissolve Parliament at his discretion, as long as the Cabinet signed and endorsed the dissolution decree. With the revisions of 1911 and 1952 it lasted more than a century, with one of its most important elements being the restoration of the principle of popular sovereignty. In 1911, a revision of the constitution resulted in stronger human rights, the reinforcement of the Rule of Law and the modernization of institutions, among them the Parliament.
With regard to the protection of individual rights the most noteworthy amendments to the Constitution of 1864 were a more effective protection of individual security, equality in taxation, the right to assemble and the inviolability of the domicile. Furthermore, the Constitution facilitated expropriation so that land be allocated to poor farmers, while at the same time guaranteeing judicial protection of property rights, it was the first time that the Constitution made provision for mandatory and free education for all, while the process of Constitutional revision was simplified. The Constitution of 1927 made provisions for a head of state that the Parliament and the Senate would elect to serve a five-year term; this "President of the Republic" would be held unaccountable from a political point of view. It recognized the status of political parties as organic elements of the polity and established their proportional representation in the composition of parliamentary committees; this reform of the Constitution is a part of the Second Hellenic Republic, in reference to the Greek State using a republican democracy as a form of governance.
This constitutional change was initiated in January 1924 and initiated on April 13th, 1924 by the Fourth National Assembly. Following World War II, the development of parliamentary institutions resumed in 1948 and in the beginning of the 1950s; the Constitution of 1952 consisted of 114 articles and to a large extent was attached to the Constitutions of 1864 and 1911. Its central innovations were the explicit institutionalization of parliamentarianism and the consolidation for the first time of the voting rights of women, as well as of their right to stand as candidates for parliamentary office. In February 1963 the government of Konstantinos Karamanlis submitted a proposal for an extensive revision of the Constitution, yet the proposal was never put into practice because only a few months after its submission, the government resigned and Parliament dissolved. After seven years of military dictatorship, on 8 December 1974, a referendum was conducted to decide the nature of the form of government.
By a majority of 69.18%, the Greeks decided against a constitutional monarchy and for a parliamentary republic. The Constitution of 1975 was drafted using those of 1952 and 1927, as well as the draft Constitutional revision proposals of 1963, while numerous clauses were based on the West German Constitution of 1949 and the French Constitution of 1958, it included various clauses on individual and social rights, in line with developments at that time, introduced a presidential/parliamentary democracy, wherein the head of state maintained the right to interfere in politics. Greece's current Constitution has been revised three times, with the first one taking place in 1986, when the responsibilities of the President of the Republic were curtailed. In 2001, a extensive revision took place as a total of 79 articles were amended; the new, revised Constitution introduced new individual rights, such as the protection of genetic data and identity or the protection of personal data from electronic processing, new rules of transparency in politics.
It modernized parliamentary functions, propped up decentralization, elevated the status of fundamental Independent Authorities into Constitutional institutions, adopted its provisions on MPs' disqualifications and incompatibilities to current reality a
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Nikolaos Kotzias, GCM is a Greek diplomat and politician who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece from 23 September 2015 until his resignation on 17 October 2018. Nominated by SYRIZA, he was sworn in as a member of the Cabinet of Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras in January 2015. Kotzias studied Economics and Political Science and Philosophy in Athens and Law and Politics of European Integration at the University of Giessen in Germany. According to his online biography worked as a researcher and taught at the Universities of Marburg and Cambridge and he holds from 2008 on the position of Professor of Political Theories and International and European Studies at the University of Piraeus, he has specialized in issues of policy and political systems and foreign policy of Brazil and Russia. He has been a member of many globally recognized international research teams on contemporary issues. In addition to numerous other publications, he wrote 24 scientific books, published the German philosopher in the tradition of critical theory Jürgen Habermas in Greece and released a collection of poems.
Kotzias was active as a student in the Lambrakis Democratic Youth and during the right-wing military dictatorship in Greece was a member of the Communist Youth of Greece. He was a secretary of the Federation of Greek Fraternities in Germany as well as the coordination point of the anti-dictatorship student organizations, he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Greece and was condemned by military courts. During his years in the Greek Communist Party, he became the party's ideological instructor, he was praised for his masterful rhetoric and his profound knowledge of Marxist philosophy. During the 1980s, he praised the Polish government's crackdown on the Solidarity movement. Kotzias broke with the Communist Party after the majority's decision to co-ally with the conservatives in order to bring Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou to trial for corruption. Along with other party members, he characterized that decision as an "unholy alliance" and declared their resignation which subsequently led to the creation of a new leftist group.
He is a founding member of Nikos Poulantzas leftist think tank, named after a Franco-Greek, Marxist oriented sociologist and political philosopher. From 1993 to 2008, he was in the diplomatic service in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the rank of ambassador beginning in 2005; as a chief diplomat, he was involved in negotiations on the Amsterdam Treaty, Agenda 2000, the Greek-Turkish relations and the European Constitution. Kotzias played an important role during the "spring" of the Greek-Turkish relations in 1999, implementing the "earthquake diplomacy" at the time when the two countries were struck by catastrophic earthquakes, he has supported the Greek-Turkish rapprochement as a new policy doctrine and introduced the confidence-building measures. He was the Greek representative in the 2002 Helsinki agreement which regulated Turkey's candidacy status for EU membership and paved the way for Cyprus' accession in 2004. In September 2012, Kotzias founded the progressive and democratic political movement named Pratto, whose purpose is "to form a radical, patriotic and social movement, advocating the interests of the country, the Greek people, the workers and the Greek natural environment".
Current Minister of Public Order and Citizen Protection and MP Nikos Toskas is a founding member of Pratto. In one of his interviews in Spiegel Online on 9 February 2015 he noted, he speaks Greek, German as native and fluent English. Since January 2015 Kotzias is Foreign Minister in a cabinet in coalition with Independent Greeks, a right wing conservative party that opposes austerity. Nikos Kotzias is an advocate of a multidimensional and democratic attitude towards foreign policy, he supports the view that a small state, in terms of economic power, can take advantage of the changes that occur in a global context and increase its capacities to allow it to exercise an autonomous foreign policy according to the national interest. Supporting the view that the world has begun to move towards multipolarity, Kotzias believes that states that wish to increase their influence and capacities should seek to forge concrete relations with the emerging powers. In one of his latest books "The Colony of Debt", Nikos Kotzias claims that the European Union is developing empire characteristics, as it perceives markets, the bureaucracy in Brussels and Germany as focal elements of its structure.
In this way, he argues, the EU is rendering in a two-tier region of a rich poor South. On 27 January 2015, Nikos Kotzias was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs, despite not being a member of parliament. During the ceremony of the handing of the ministry, Kotzias gave a notion of his political approach stating: "We look forward to bridges with the new emerging world. We do not see our membership in European institutions as conflictual to our relations with emerging powers."In the same night of Kotzias's appointment, the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs released a statement, issuing Greece's unwillingness to agree to key passage of statement, delaying agreement for further EU sanctions against Russia-backed separatists in Ukraine, before the extraordinary meeting of the EU Council of Foreign Ministers, scheduled on 29 January 2015 in Brussels. The new minister argued that "certain of our partners attempted to present us with a fait accomplis before the new government had been sworn", he underlined that Greece "would not relinquish its sovereignty a
2010 Greek local elections
The 2010 Greek local elections were held on 7 November 2010 and 14 November 2010 to elect representatives to Greece's restructured local authorities, comprising 13 regions and 325 municipalities. Traditionally, candidates at local elections do not run under the official name of any party as the constitution only foresees the participation of electoral lists and not parties. Despite this theoretical independence and distinction, for all practical purposes most candidates run as local front organisations for political parties; the election comes at a time of increasing unrest in Greece following numerous bombs being sent to foreign embassies, as well protests against austerity measures forced by the EU and IMF in order for Greece to receive external financial support. With the economy being touted as the mandate sought in the election Prime Minister George Papandreou said he would dissolve the national parliament should the candidates of his Panhellenic Socialist Movement fail to win an unspecified threshold.
"Citizens will decide in today's election if we will hold steady on the path of salvation... or if we will go back to decay and to the Greece of bankruptcy." In the municipalities, as well as the regions, any candidate can participate in the 1st round. If the leading candidate doesn't have the required 50%+1 of the votes a second round is held between the two leading candidates of the 1st round. Source: Hellenic Ministry of the Interior Notes: † Ioannis Dimaras was elected a parliament member with Panhellenic Socialist Movement in the National Elections of 2009. § Alexios Mitropoulos is a member of the National Council of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. ‡ Alekos Alavanos is a prominent member of the Coalition of Radical Left, although his party didn't support him some fractions such as KOE, DEA and KEDA did. Notes: † Dimitrios Giannoulakis was independent at the time of the elections, but was supported by Dora Bakoyannis and is related to her newly founded Democratic Alliance party The government saw its share of vote drop by 9% but it remained the largest party.
Prime Minister George Papandreou said that he would continue with tough austerity measures to alleviate Greece's debt burden following a narrow victory in the election